There has been an expansion of circumcision services in Africa as part of a long-term HIV prevention strategy. However, the effect of infant male circumcision on morbidity and mortality still remains unclear. Acute morbidities associated with circumcision include pain, bleeding, swelling, infection, tetanus or inadequate skin removal. Scale-up of circumcision services could lead to a rise in these associated morbidities that could have significant impact on health service delivery and the safety of infants. Multidisciplinary training programmes have been developed to improve skills of health service providers, but very little is known about the effectiveness of health service provider education and/or training for infant male circumcision on short- and long-term morbidity outcomes. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of health service provider education and/or training for infant male circumcision on short- and long-term morbidity outcomes. The review will include studies comparing health
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and …
Introduction Definition of the Prevention Area Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is the complete removal of the foreskin of the penis by surgical means. Though VMMC may be conducted for a number of reasons, evidence from three clinical trials has shown that medical male circumcision can significantly reduce (but not eliminate) mens risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual vaginal sex. The U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports provision of VMMC by qualified, well-equipped professionals, and with the clients informed consent. To ensure that VMMC is provided as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a minimum package of services should be available in all facilities providing male circumcision. This package includes HIV testing and counseling, screening and syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) where required; provision and promotion of male and female condoms; and counseling on
The Collection comprises four reviews and five research articles, and highlights how scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in eastern and southern Africa can help prevent HIV, not only at the individual level but also at the community and population level, as well as leading to substantial cost savings for countries due to averted treatment and care costs. Two of the research articles are published in PLoS ONE; the remaining seven articles are published in PLoS Medicine on 29th November 2011. They can be accessed from the PLoS Medicine VMMC Collection page; the table of contents is also included below.. The first article by Catherine Hankins of UNAIDS, Steven Forsythe of The Futures Institute, and Emmanuel Njeuhmeli of PEPFAR/USAID, offers an introduction to the cost, impact and challenges of accelerated scaling up and lays out the rationale for the Collection. The remaining eight papers focus on the various factors that have important roles in effective ...
BACKGROUND: follow-up visits are recommended to all voluntary medical male circumcision clients (VMMC), however, adherence is variable. High lost-to-follow-up cases limit knowledge about clinical status of clients and adverse events. This study sought to establish Motivators and Barriers to the Uptake of VMMC post-operative follow-up services in Siaya County, Kenya. METHODS: 277 clients from five VMMC sites in Yala were recruited immediately post-operation to participate in a telephone interview between the 21st and 31st day post-surgery during which a semi-structured questionnaire was administered. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse quantitative information using SPSS while responses from open ended questions were grouped into themes, sieved out, coded and analyzed. RESULTS: 137(49.5%) of the 277 participants utilized the follow-up services. Health education (31.4%) and emergency reviews/adverse events (24.1%) were the main motivation for returning for follow-up while
Published in the journal PLoS One, this article reports on the frequency, type, and severity of adverse events after voluntary medical male circumcision in Botswana.. ...
Health, ...New York 13 December 2010A new report from the Womens HIV Prevention...Making Medical Male Circumcision Work for Women is the first report fr...The report highlights community-level support as well as concerns and ... Women are excited for medical male circumcision because theyre despe...,New,report,provides,womens,perspectives,on,medical,male,circumcision,for,HIV,prevention,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Emmanuel Njeuhmeli and colleagues estimate the impact and cost of scaling up adult medical male circumcision in 13 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, finding that reaching 80% coverage and maintaining it until 2025 would avert 3.36 million new HIV infections.
Asiphile was created to encourage increased uptake of male circumcision in the catchment area and its mission is two-pronged: to train and mentor clinic staff in male circumcision and to create a high-volume, high quality male circumcision facility to serve KwaZulu-Natal consistent with WHO guidelines and recommendations [17]. Experts from Operation Abraham Consortium and St Marys Hospital initiated a clinical training program called SHESHA (is Quick, Be Fast in isiZulu). The training model was endorsed by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Medical Faculty for continuing medical education for physicians. The international team was composed of surgeons who have conducted thousands of adult circumcisions and who provided on the spot training and mentoring.. Surgeons, nurses and health clinic staff from St. Marys Hospital were recruited, trained, and utilized at the Asiphile facility. The new staff were trained to manage daily program operations, perform forceps-guided male circumcisions, educate ...
Blog posts from Dr. Reed of the Reed Centre in Miami Beach Florida about adult male circumcision and other urological procedures.
Care guide for Adult Male Circumcision (Ambulatory Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
This study is a randomized controlled intervention trial. This multi-centre study will take place in 3 centers located around Johannesburg, in the areas of Orange Farm, Sebokeng and Evaton. The intervention group patients (circumcised at the beginning of the trial) and the control group (uncircumcised men) will be followed during 21 months (from M.0 to M. 21). Randomization and medicalized circumcision will be performed at M.0 in the intervention group and might be optional in the control group at end of study. The medicalized circumcision effectiveness will be evaluated on and after M.3 (3 months after medicalized circumcision). Incidences (of HIV, HSV-2 infections and genital ulcer disease) will be compared from M.3 to M.21 between the intervention group and the control group. An intermediate analysis will take place at M. 12 ...
South Africa has one of the most severe and fast-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Adult male circumcision may be an effective preventive measure to slow the spread of HIV and other STIs. This study will assess the efficacy of circumcision in HIV uninfected men in preventing HIV and STI acquisition.. This study will have two stages. In the first stage, 200 men will be enrolled into a study of the acceptability, feasibility, and safety of circumcision. Frequent postoperative follow-up will occur to determine rates of healing and complications. After assessment of those enrolled in Stage 1, Stage 2 enrollment will begin. Stage 2 will determine the efficacy of circumcision in preventing HIV acquisition. In both stages, HIV uninfected men will be randomly assigned to have either immediate circumcision or possible circumcision 2 years following Stage 2 study entry. The participants not receiving immediate circumcision will be offered circumcision after completion of 2 years of follow-up study, ...
Mukono District Health authorities, in collaboration with the Makerere University Walter Reed Project (MUWRP), officially launched a Safe Male Circumcision Program at the Mukono Health Center IV on August 8. MUWRP recently completed renovations of the minor surgical theatre at the Health Center, which will serve as the long-standing circumcision clinic for Mukono Town.
Routine infant circumcision has been practiced on infant males and females in America for many years. The reasons for circumcision, also called amputation and genital reduction, have varied over the years and include eliminating masturbation, training women, curing epilepsy and recently, even preventing HIV. In 1996, a federal law upheld the illegality of all female circumcision for all reasons, including for religious practice. Infant male circumcision is still widely practiced in America, with rates reaching as high as 50% in some regions. Based on the current laws and constitution, it appears that infant male circumcision is already illegal, despite being widely accepted culturally. The ban enacted in 1996 should be amended to be a law of equality by including both females and males ...
BackgroundRecent experimental evidence has demonstrated the benefits of male circumcision for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies have also shown that male circumcision is cost-effective and reduces the risk for certain ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The epidemiology of male circumcision in the United States is poorly studied and most prior reports were limited by self-reported measures. The study objective was to describe male circumcision trends among men attending the San Francisco municipal STD clinic, and to correlate the findings with HIV, syphilis and sexual orientation.Methods and FindingsA cross sectional study was performed by reviewing all electronic records of males attending the San Francisco municipal STD clinic between 1996 and 2005. The prevalence of circumcision over time and by subpopulation such as race/ethnicity and sexual orientation were measured. The findings were further correlated with the presence of syphilis and HIV
ISSUES IN PUBLIC HEALTH. Key facts on male circumcision. Bertran Auvert; Pascale Lissouba; Dirk Taljaard; Nathan Geffen; Agnes Fiamma; Mark Heywood. In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS convened an international consultation of experts who represent a wide range of stakeholders, including government representatives, researchers, civil society representatives, gender experts, human rights and womenâ s health advocates, young people, funding agencies and implementing partners, to investigate the potential role of male circumcision in the prevention of HIV transmission. As a result, male circumcision is now recognised and recommended by WHO/UNAIDS as an additional and important strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in countries with a high prevalence of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection and low levels of male circumcision.1. Following the results of rigorous scientific research and the WHO/UNAIDS recommendations, sub-Saharan countries ...
1. Jake admits it is tehnically true that No national medical association in the world recommends infant male circumcision, but then he changes the subject with a play of words by saying: but routine infant circumcision means, literally, circumcision of all newborn boys. Consider what would justify such a recommendation: there would have to be an enormous net benefit to warrant taking such a decision out of the hands of parents. Of course this is a red herring. Obviously, routine in this instance isnt meant to mean without parental consent, but without a specific medical reason. No national medical association recommends circumcising baby males absent such a condition. The British medical association clarified the term routine by saying: routine infant male circumcision, i.e. routine removal of normal tissue in a healthy infant, is not recommended. The context was not about parental consent. It was about whether it is medically justified. Specifically, the report said: Infant ...
1. Jake admits it is tehnically true that No national medical association in the world recommends infant male circumcision, but then he changes the subject with a play of words by saying: but routine infant circumcision means, literally, circumcision of all newborn boys. Consider what would justify such a recommendation: there would have to be an enormous net benefit to warrant taking such a decision out of the hands of parents. Of course this is a red herring. Obviously, routine in this instance isnt meant to mean without parental consent, but without a specific medical reason. No national medical association recommends circumcising baby males absent such a condition. The British medical association clarified the term routine by saying: routine infant male circumcision, i.e. routine removal of normal tissue in a healthy infant, is not recommended. The context was not about parental consent. It was about whether it is medically justified. Specifically, the report said: Infant ...
Male circumcision is by far the most prevalent surgical procedure worldwide, with about 10 million performed each year, mostly in non-medical settings. Although circumcision is considered to be a minor and safe procedure, the incidence of postoperative complications can be high.1-3 Traditional circumcisions throughout sub-Saharan Africa are usually performed with cutting tools that are used without intermediate cleaning on several patients in turn, leading to complications and, in particular, infections.4-8 Complication rates associated with ritual circumcision performed in non-medical settings have not been widely reported, but most authors agree that such unsafe practices should be discouraged.6,9,10. A comprehensive safety assessment of current male circumcision procedures is necessary to identify appropriate methods for each setting and to issue proper clinical guidelines, as positive results on the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV transmission are likely to boost ...
Umhlobo Wenene FM. . Brothers for Life promote positive male norms and encourage the uptake of Medical Male Circumcision, Men taking up HIV Testing, Consistent condom use by Men and reduction of sexual partners. The campaign mobilises men to actively engage in activities to address Gender-Based Violence in their communities.
Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy consent for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision ...
December 1 is World AIDS Day, providing an opportunity for people and organizations worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV/AIDS. URC has been supporting many Governments efforts to combat the epidemic for over 30 years. Most recently, through the USAID Strengthening Ugandas Systems for Treating AIDS Nationally (SUSTAIN) and USAID Applying Science to Strengthen and Improve Systems (ASSIST) projects, we have been working in Uganda to expand coverage and uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), also known as safe male circumcision (SMC).
As is clear, section 12(8)(b) allows for circumcisions to be conducted on male children below the age of 16 if such circumcision is performed for medical reasons on the recommendation of a medical practitioner.. Neither the Childrens Act nor the General Regulations Regarding Children6 (General Regulations) under the Childrens Act provide a definition of medical reasons. In the absence of a definition, and based on the evidence that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection by up to 64%,7 reduces the risk of HSV-2 and HPV infection,8 and that neo-natal circumcision carries a lower risk of complications than childhood or adult circumcisions, any reasonable interpretation of medical reasons will be sufficiently broad for a medical practitioner to recommend elective neo-natal medical male circumcision to the parents of infant boys and remain within the ambit of the Childrens Act. In addition - while not inherently necessary for obtaining the protective benefits of medical male ...
With all the posturing in the recently released Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (2012) about mass male circumcision, whether performed in completely unsterile conditions found in traditional settings or the (hopefully) more sterile settings of health facilities, nothing was mentioned about hepatitis B or C. But an article in the East African describes a piece of…
In an editorial to be published in the Journal of the American Medical Association online Oct. 5, Johns Hopkins health epidemiologist and pathologist Aaron Tobian, M.D., Ph.D., and health epidemiologist Ronald Gray, M.D., highlight the most recent medical research showing the considerable life-long health benefits of circumcision performed during infancy and the potential disadvantages associated with waiting until adulthood before undergoing the procedure. The experts point out that there are medical benefits during childhood, as many young men are already sexually active before age 18, and at greater risk of infection from sexually transmitted infections. Circumcision at older ages is also associated with more complications and cost than having the minimal surgery in infancy ...
26 July 2005 , Rio de Janeiro - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS notes with considerable interest the results of a trial examining the potential link between male circumcision and a lower risk of HIV acquisition that were presented today at the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The trial was carried out in Gauteng province in South Africa among men aged 18-24 years and was funded by the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS).. Although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in reducing HIV acquisition, UNAIDS emphasizes that more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. In particular the findings from two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya, funded by the US National Institutes of Health, will be important to clarify the relationship between male ...
There have been several studies published in the medical literature over the past 15 years that address the association between circumcision status and UTI.62-68 Because the majority of UTI in males occur during the first year of life, almost all the studies that examine the relationship between UTI and circumcision status focus on this period. All studies have shown an increased risk of UTI in uncircumcised males, with the greatest risk in infants younger than 1 year of age.. Initial retrospective studies suggested that uncircumcised male infants were 10 to 20 times more likely to develop UTI than were circumcised male infants.62 A review published in 1993 summarized the data from nine studies and reported that uncircumcised male infants had a 12.0-fold increased risk of UTI compared with circumcised infant males.69 More recent studies using cohort and case-control design also support an association, although reduced in magnitude.63,,64,6770-72 These studies have found a three to seven times ...
There have been several studies published in the medical literature over the past 15 years that address the association between circumcision status and UTI.62-68 Because the majority of UTI in males occur during the first year of life, almost all the studies that examine the relationship between UTI and circumcision status focus on this period. All studies have shown an increased risk of UTI in uncircumcised males, with the greatest risk in infants younger than 1 year of age.. Initial retrospective studies suggested that uncircumcised male infants were 10 to 20 times more likely to develop UTI than were circumcised male infants.62 A review published in 1993 summarized the data from nine studies and reported that uncircumcised male infants had a 12.0-fold increased risk of UTI compared with circumcised infant males.69 More recent studies using cohort and case-control design also support an association, although reduced in magnitude.63,,64,6770-72 These studies have found a three to seven times ...
Adult male circumcision in our practice is performed under local anesthesia. General anesthesia is available but seldom given. Typical scenario: Dr. Reed will meet with the patient, examine the patient and review circumcision styles. The patient then is transferred to the operating suite. Local anesthesia cream is applied for about 15 minutes. Afterwards a local anesthetic is injected mostly at the base of the penis (a ring block). After another 15 minutes elapses, effective penile anesthesia is confirmed. The patient is cleansed with an antiseptic solution and draped. Surgery takes about 40 minutes or so.. The patient is given a handheld mirror to observe and approval is sought before steri-strips and a 2 layered dressing is applied. Please visit adult-male-circumcision.com/photographic-examples for before and after pictures of adult circumcision.. Harold M. Reed, M.D ...
In the first installment, John Donnelly interviews Caroline A. Ryan, MD, MPH, director of technical leadership. at the Office of U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator. She has been a long-time key architect of the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Reliefs (PEPFAR) implementation. Could you give an overview on PEPFARs activities to date regarding the scale up of male circumcision?. We have 14 countries now receiving PEPFAR funding for male circumcision. They are mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Some money is in Guyana, but not a lot. We are beginning to see that countries are embracing this as part of a prevention portfolio, and they are investing a higher percentage each year into male circumcision, which is good.. We also see a change from countries at first integrating it into existing services to what would be a larger service delivery model that also takes advantage of mobile sites for particular campaigns. Weve seen a number of countries, such as Kenya, Zambia and Swaziland, use campaigns during ...
Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness. We performed an as-treated analysis of plasma samples collected under a randomized controlled trial of male circumcision for HIV prevention, comparing men based on
There are many other pros and cons when it comes to the circumcision argument which I dont have room to address here, however, I urge you to speak with your pediatrician at length before making this choice for your own child. However, as a sex therapist, I will say that if you do feel traumatized by your circumcision, you are not alone. There is a group called Intact America which is working to end routine circumcision, and you can go to their web site to find resources and like-minded support from other men (and women) who are against circumcision. Last, before I end, I want to address the issue of consent around circumcision. One man on my Facebook post compared circumcision to rape, and while I appreciate his right to anger about his circumcision, we must be very, very careful when we use the word rape to describe anything other than rape. Words matter. They are powerful. They shape our beliefs and they inform the way we live in this world. So when we use the word rape to talk about a ...
A proposed bill to ban non-medically required male circumcision on babies and children in Iceland is receiving backlash from religious communities.
Male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from women to men. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) stated that male circumcision is an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention if carried out by medical professionals under safe conditions. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that circumcision reduces the risk that a man will acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from an infected female partner. A meta-analysis of data from fifteen observational studies of men who have sex with men found insufficient evidence that male circumcision protects against HIV infection or other STIs. The CDC concludes There are as yet no convincing data to help determine whether male circumcision will have any effect on HIV risk for men who engage in anal sex with either a female or male partner, as either the insertive or receptive partner. In 2007, the WHO reviewed the ...
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to assess the impact among young men of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) status on the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and on the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV acquisition. METHODS: We used data collected during a male circumcision trial conducted in Orange Farm, South Africa. We estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for HIV acquisition, using survival analysis and background characteristics, HSV-2 status, male circumcision status, and sexual behavior as covariates. RESULTS: Compared with subjects who remained HSV-2 negative throughout the study, subjects who were HSV-2 positive at enrollment had an adjusted IRR of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-7.4; P=.004), and those who became HSV-2 positive during follow-up had an adjusted IRR of 7.0 (95% CI, 3.9-12.4; P|.001). The population fraction of incident HIV infection attributable to HSV-2 was 27.8% (95% CI, 17.7%-37.2%). Intention-to-treat analysis of
The majority of men who are HIV positive have been infected through the penis. There is conclusive epidemiological evidence to show that uncircumcised men are at a much greater risk of becoming infected with HIV than circumcised men. The inner surface of the foreskin contains Langerhans cells with HIV receptors; these cells are likely to be the primary point of viral entry into the penis of an uncircumcised man. Male circumcision should be seriously considered as an additional means of preventing HIV in all countries with a high prevalence of infection. The development of HIV receptor blockers, which could be applied to the penis or vagina before intercourse, might provide a new form of HIV prevention. In his otherwise excellent review of the AIDS epidemic in the 21st century, Fauci presented no new strategies for preventing the spread of the disease. He made no mention of male circumcision, yet there is now compelling epidemiological evidence from over 40 studies which shows that male ...
In males who have been circumcised, the circumcision scar refers to the scar after a circumcision has healed. In some cases, the scar can be darker-colored, and, in all cases, it will encircle the shaft of the penis. The scar, which completely encircles the shaft of the penis, is located at the boundary of the shaft skin and the inner foreskin remnant, which is the portion of the foreskin that was not removed during circumcision. This foreskin remnant is mucosa that lies between the glans and the circumcision scar, which results in dissimilar tissue healing together. In adult circumcision part of the frenulum may remain intact. The foreskin remnant is dried mucosa and can often have a different color and texture than the rest of the penile skin. It can be pinkish or light-colored, and it typically becomes covered with keratin to protect it from a dry environment. Some circumcision scars result in a marked color difference on the shaft. The characteristics of the circumcision scar depend on the ...
Mathematical modelling was used to compare the impact of combined interventions-extended antiretroviral therapy coverage, voluntary medical male circumcision, and pre-exposure prophylaxis among women-on HIV incidence in South Africa. The results are published in this article in BMC Infectious Diseases.. ...
A novel, hybrid segmentation technique reveals human heterogeneity in barriers towards a behavior, and is applied to characterize distinct segments in voluntary medical male circumcision.
It is simple to present male circumcision as the scientific and sensible thing to do. Indeed, the foreskin is one of those parts of the body, like wisdom teeth and the appendix, that seem to be ripe for the plucking. However, those who argue both for and against circumcision are likely to overstate their case. Guy Cox pointed out that some people have religious and philosophical objections to circumcision. However, characterising this opposition as anti-Semitic or anti-Islamic makes as much sense as calling someone who opposes slavery as anti-Christian, anti-Islamic and anti- Semitic because the Bible and the Koran allow it. The human foreskin is a natural part of a mans penis. It is therefore not surprising that many people question the idea of removing it. Far from being as simple as an inoculation, circumcision is far from risk-free. Unless the operator is competent, and can control or eliminate infection and bleeding, the procedure is dangerous and even life-threatening. The basic ...
Of the 264 studies identified through the database search, 15 were determined to be eligible, and of these five were included.(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) All included studies were published between 2006 and 2009 and were conducted in Uganda, South Africa, Mozambique, and Botswana. One study analyzed data from 16 countires within sub-Saharan Africa (those already included as well as Burundi, Central African Republic, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. All studies were cost-effectiveness analyses, and the primary outcomes were cost per case of HIV infection averted and compared adult male circumcision to no circumcision. The studies were epidemiologic, stochiastic, and costing models. Four studies included a 3% discount rate and one study did not report discounting. The time frames ranged from 10 to 20 years. ...
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, (London) Vol. 312 no 7033 (March 23, 1996): pp. 779-780 NEONATAL CIRCUMCISION DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST CANCER Editor, - Although Morten Frisch and colleagues have made a valuable contribution to the study of penile cancer, they mistakenly repeat the myth that neonatal circumcision renders the subject immune to penile cancer.[1] The reference given for this statement is not an epidemiological study but an opinion article by the American circumcisionist Abraham L. Wolbarst in 1932.[2] Wolbarst invented this myth and was directly responsible for its proliferation; he based it on unverifiable anecdotes, ethnocentric stereotypes, a faulty understanding of human anatomy and physiology, a misunderstanding of the distinction between association and cause, and a unbridled missionary zeal. It was not based on valid scientific and epidemiological research. All subsequent repetions of this myth are traceable to Wolbarsts article, though Wolbarst himself advocated universal neonatal ...
Circumcision Removes the Most Sensitive Parts of the PenisA sensitivity study of the adult penis in circumcised and uncircumcised men shows that the uncircumcised penis is significantly more sensitive. The most sensitive location on the circumcised penis is the circumcision scar on the ventral surface. Five locations on the uncircumcised penis that are routinely removed at circumcision are significantly more sensitive than the most sensitive location on the circumcised penis.In addition, the glans (head) of the circumcised penis is less sensitive to fine touch than the glans of the uncircumcised penis. The tip of the foreskin is the most sensitive region of the uncircumcised penis, and it is significantly more sensitive than the most sensitive area of the circumcised penis. Circumcision removes the most sensitive parts of the penis. This study presents the first extensive testing of fine touch pressure thresholds of the adult penis. The monofiliment testing instruments are calibrated and have ...
Looking for online definition of Partial circumcision in the Medical Dictionary? Partial circumcision explanation free. What is Partial circumcision? Meaning of Partial circumcision medical term. What does Partial circumcision mean?
wow joshua, think whatever u want to, but calling someone else a disgusting human being for not believing the same thing as you is fd up. i am highly opposed to FMG, i think it is unnecessary and not done in a surgically correct manner. however, Joshua, there is a reason for removing the foreskin in males. you have no right to call people who disprove of FMG but not male circumcision an uneducated hypocrite. Im sorry Joshua, but i think your the one who speaks without knowing. before you point fingers, make sure your hands are clean. If you want HIV, go ahead and tell people your mad that doctors removed your foreskin when you were a baby, something you dont even remember.If you believe male circumcision has no purpose, maybe you should do some research on the subject before you start mouthing off to people when u really dont know what your talking about. Also, male circumcision does not mutilate male genitals. it removes an unnecessary part of the body. you dont get all butt hurt when ...
Disposable Circumcision Suture Market, Disposable Circumcision Suture Market Size, Disposable Circumcision Suture Market key players, Disposable Circumcision Suture market Applications,Disposable Circumcision Suture market Type & by Geography
In the following article, a skeptic lays down the controversy. We begin the fair-use article before the jump ... Circumcision Fight: Profit, Pleasure, or Population Control? If the experiment fails, Africans are likely to feel abused and exploited by scientists who recommended the circumcision policy
OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of male circumcision in the spread of HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population based study was conducted in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa with different levels of HIV infection. HIV prevalence among adults was relatively low in Cotonou (Benin) and in Yaoundé (Cameroon), and exceeded 25% in Kisumu (Kenya) and in Ndola (Zambia). In each city, a random sample was taken of men and women aged 15-49 years from the general population. Consenting study participants were interviewed about their sociodemographic characteristics and their sexual behaviour, and were tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection. Men underwent a genital examination. RESULTS: In Cotonou and in Yaoundé, the two low HIV prevalence cities, 99% of men were circumcised. In Kisumu 27.5% of men were circumcised, and in Ndola this proportion was 9%. In Kisumu, the prevalence of HIV ...
Circumcision performed for health reasons in phimosis has obvious benefits - it significantly improves the quality of sexual life and prevents the occurrence of dangerous paraphimosis. In addition, it improves local hygiene and lower incidence of penile cancer is reported in circumcised men. It is also assumed that circumcised men have increased sexual stamina, but this it is rather individual.. The question of circumcision without any medical reason is controversial. It is certainly advantageous for better hygiene, but on the other hand, every surgery has its complications, including the circumcision. Personally, I would consider any circumcision without medical indications as rather unnecessary surgery.. ...
Because Tikkun has always sought to create a community in which issues that are taboo elsewhere can be explored with intellectual honesty and tolerance, particularly when those positions differ from our own or from the accepted worldviews of our readers, we are printing in this issue an article that fiercely critiques the Jewish practice of circumcision. I have invited others to write a response to it, which I hope to print in addition to your letters to the editor on this topic.. Circumcision does not have a higher status in Torah law than other commandments that have been ignored or transformed in the course of the evolution of Judaism. The entire system of animal sacrifice has been abandoned. The author of the article on circumcision in this Summer 2011 issue of Tikkun contends that it has been a key element in patriarchal practice. Perhaps. But even the most cursory look at other societies that did not practice circumcision, e.g., feudal Europe, Chinese dynasties, Nazi Germany, or Soviet ...
Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, Dr Mulindi Mwanahamuntu says long term protection from cervical cancer for women whose husbands are circumcised exceeds 30%, reports Zambian Eyes Limbikani Msamba. Dr. Mwanahamuntu revealed that there was a move within the HIV strategic plan to offer circumcision services to new born babies.. Speaking when he featured on Zambian Eyes interactive live interview dubbed Hot Seat, Dr. Mwanahamuntu, who has worked in the UTH Obstetrics and Gynaecology department for 23 years, also outlined the various reasons for conducting the procedure and addressed the controversies regarding the quality of life after.. Circumcision is simply the removal of excess foreskin, all of it or part of it. This is done for a variety of reasons. It could be done to treat conditions that create problems with the penis, such as failure of the foreskin to retract or failure of the retracted foreskin to return, respectively called phimosis and para phimosis, He said. Other reasons include ...
Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, Dr Mulindi Mwanahamuntu says long term protection from cervical cancer for women whose husbands are circumcised exceeds 30%, reports Zambian Eyes Limbikani Msamba. Dr. Mwanahamuntu revealed that there was a move within the HIV strategic plan to offer circumcision services to new born babies.. Speaking when he featured on Zambian Eyes interactive live interview dubbed Hot Seat, Dr. Mwanahamuntu, who has worked in the UTH Obstetrics and Gynaecology department for 23 years, also outlined the various reasons for conducting the procedure and addressed the controversies regarding the quality of life after.. Circumcision is simply the removal of excess foreskin, all of it or part of it. This is done for a variety of reasons. It could be done to treat conditions that create problems with the penis, such as failure of the foreskin to retract or failure of the retracted foreskin to return, respectively called phimosis and para phimosis, He said. Other reasons include ...
Faster healing after circumcision (circumcision) through the phimosis surgery. The pants protection against external influences such as pushing, bedspread, textiles. The adhesion of the wound at the dressing is omitted. The Protector basket is perforated with small holes, so that a natural air circulation is ensured. This phimosis pants is suitable for adults with size 7
Anyone else notice how the younger a man is, or the more recent his circumcision was done, the more skin is being removed past the penis head and cut off way down his penis shaft ? I notice circumcisions in the USA seem to be cutting off the penis skin way beyond just exposing the glans head of the penis. Now more circumcisions are cutting off skin far below the rim of the penis head and up to half way down the penis shaft toward the scrotum. That s a lot more skin now being taken off
You have the choice to accept or decline surgery to remove the foreskin from your sons penis (known as circumcision).. Male infants are born with foreskin fused to the head of their penis. By the time intact (uncircumcised) males reach an early adolescent age, the foreskin will naturally detach itself from the head of the penis, and the foreskin can then be retracted to expose the head of the penis (parents and caretakers of intact babies/children should be advised that retraction of the foreskin should not be done before this natural separation happens on an intact penis because it can be very painful and can cause bleeding, infection, scarring, and other complications). In circumcised infants, the foreskin is pulled away from the head of the penis and surgically removed.. Below are links and information on the various reasons for keeping infants intact or circumcising, statements of position on circumcision from various agencies, and ethical considerations. There also links for information on ...
Praise be to Allah.. It is better for circumcision to be done when the child is small, because that is kinder to the child, and so that the child may grow up in a perfect form. Al-Nawawi said: It is mustahabb for the childs guardian to have him circumcised when he is small, because that is kinder to him. Al-Majmoo, 1/351. Al-Bayhaqi (8/324) narrated that Jaabir said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did aqeeqah for al-Hasan and al-Husayn, and he circumcised them when they were seven days old. The isnaad of this hadeeth is daeef (weak). See Irwa al-Ghaleel, 4/383 Hence Imam Ahmad was asked about the time of circumcision, and he said, We have not heard anything about that. Ibn al-Mundhir said: There is no report that may be referred to concerning the time of circumcision, and no Sunnah to be followed. With regard to the time when it becomes obligatory: Some of the scholars were of the view that it is not obligatory until after puberty, because the duties of ...
9.^ Fetus and Newborn Committee (March 1996). Neonatal circumcision revisited. Canadian Medical Association Journal 154 (6): 769-780. PMID 8634956. PMC 1487803. http://www.cps.ca/english/statements/FN/fn96-01.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-02. We undertook this literature review to consider whether the CPS should change its position on routine neonatal circumcision from that stated in 1982. The review led us to conclude the following. There is evidence that circumcision results in an approximately 12-fold reduction in the incidence of UTI during infancy. The overall incidence of UTI in male infants appears to be 1% to 2%. The incidence rate of the complications of circumcision reported in published articles varies, but it is generally in the order of 0.2% to 2%. Most complications are minor, but occasionally serious complications occur. There is a need for good epidemiological data on the incidence of the surgical complications of circumcision, of the later complications of circumcision and of ...
An article in The Conversation (UK) claims that there may be a correlation between neonatal circumcision (i.e. within the first month) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS or cot death is a poorly understood problem in which an apparently healthy baby suddenly stops breathing and dies in his sleep; it has been the subject of several awareness campaigns in Australia, notably the famous Red Noses. Surveying statistics in 15 countries, the author found that SIDS was more common in boys than girls, and less common among Hispanics (with a lower circumcision incidence) in the United States than in the general population. In previous research author suggested that the cause could be chronic stress, leading to increased blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. The author, Eran Elhaik, a lecturer in medical genomics at the University of Sheffield (UK), emphasises that at this stage the evidence is inconclusive and that no firm link has been shown; nonetheless, he suggests that there is sufficient ...
To those of us in the sex-education field, there is not a whole lot of mystery about the relationship between circumcision and sexual pleasure. The foreskin has thousands of nerve endings and is an important part of the male sexual system. Removal of the foreskin also leaves the head of the penis - the most sensitive part of the male genitals - constantly exposed. Constant rubbing on clothing and exposure to temperature changes reduces the sensitivity and responsiveness of the nerve endings, creating the demand for more stimulation to trigger a pleasure response.. The head of the penis is the anatomical homologue (match) to the head of the clitoris. So for all the ladies reading this, imagine the very tip of your clitoris constantly exposed and rubbing against your clothes, and you can begin to imagine the desensitization that would occur over time. The clitoris is protected not only by the clitoral hood (the match to the foreskin), but also the fleshy labia. The foreskin is natures protective ...
Nyanza Province Tourism: TripAdvisor has 3,664 reviews of Nyanza Province Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Nyanza Province resource.
Plank, Rebeca M; Wirth, Kathleen E; Ndubuka, Nnamdi O et al. (2014) Single-arm evaluation of the AccuCirc device for early infant male circumcision in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 66:1-6 ...
This makes sense to me, but what I had heard before also made sense, so Im not sure which is correct, or if it even matters.. Anyways, when I was in elementary school, we had sex-ed classes that said that basically circumcision = more sensitivity because the most sensitive area are the glands on the underside of the head, and removing the extra tissue covering this area directly exposes it to stimulus.. Like I said, not sure if it matters, but we were actually taught that in school when we were young. Then again, with all the other garbage weve been taught, who really knows... ...
CHALLENGE. Producing technical parts in ultra restrictive environments. Plastibell, which was created in 1986, is a plastic parts injection molding specialist that belongs to the Healthcare & Industry business unit of PSB Industries Group.. Every year, Plastibell produces 160 to 600 million parts for products such as medical devices, diagnostic devices and dialysis bag connectors.. These parts are manufactured by injection molding using granules of polypropylene, polycarbonate and polystyrene.. Plastibell operates in stringently regulated and quality-controlled environments for its customers in the healthcare sector, a key strategic growth market for the company.. SOLUTION. Guaranteeing hygiene, traceability and safety throughout the production process. Plastibell turned to robots for its industrial process. When material arrives at the molding machine, it is heated and injected into molds to form the parts. And thats where the robots come in. They extract the parts from the mold and transfer ...
MODEL RELEASED. Penis circumcision to treat phimosis. Close-up of the foreskin being surgically removed (circumcised) to treat phimosis. The patient has diabetes, a condition that can lead to inflammation and swelling of the foreskin if blood sugar levels are too high. This can lead to, or worsen, phimosis, an overly tight foreskin that is difficult to retract. In chronic cases, the foreskin can be removed to avoid a recurrence of these symptoms. - Stock Image C004/4299
Fewer boys are being circumcised these days, and that could add to health costs down the road. Over the past two decades, circumcision rates in the U.S.
The arguments on both sides go something like this. If female circumcision is worse than male circumcision, then male circumcision must be OK. If baby girls are
I went to see my pediatricglans is sticking out, only a very small circle around the urethra. And I am unable to pull it back over. The doc said it is phimosis and should resolve around when he hits ...
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Fowler on what are the benefits of circumcision: In the middle east and africa where it is actively practiced it is seen by many as important. It increases social status, makes a female marriageable, ensures virginity & fidelity & removes what is often viewed as filthy & ugly - female genitalia. It is also practices in a number of other countries. There are absolutely no medical benefits to female circumcision - it can lead to death, recurrent.
This circumcision of Christ is not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God (1 Peter 3:21). This public declaration (not a private ceremony for Jewish families) demonstrates that there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus (Galatians 3:28). The sign of the new relationship is for all who believe in the completed work of the Messiah. This circumcision dramatizes the creation of the new man (Romans 6:4) and tells the story of salvation in a way that anyone can both participate in and remember. HMM III ...
Professor of Immunology & Chair and Head, Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town; Director, Laboratory of Tissue Immunology, National Health Laboratory Services and Groote Schuur Hospital; Adjunct Professor, Department of Immunology, Duke University, North Carolina, USA; Secretary-General, Federation of African Immunology Societies; Vice-Chair, Education Committee of the IUIS.. Clive Gray currently has six active grants from the NIH; one from the National Institute of Health Research, UK; one from the EDCTP, and a competitive rated NRF grant. His research interests revolve around investigating immune regulation and dysregulation and biological risk for HIV infection in two scenarios: a) HIV exposed uninfected pre-term and term newborn children (born to HIV infected mothers) and b) epithelial immune regulation in foreskin tissue of adolescent and young males who elect to undergo medical male circumcision ...
Thanks for writing a great blog. I look forward to reading your reply.. Sincerely,. J.F.. Dear J.F.. Thanks for writing! Before I launched into my personal opinion, I decided to do some quick research on the internet about circumcision.. Circumcision removes a substantial part of the penis, which is not just a piece of skin. The foreskin is a specialized, retractable sleeve of erogenous tissue that protects the head of the penis, can be manipulated during sex and masturbation, and amounts to about 50 square centimeters in the adult male.. To read the entire Huffington Post article by a Danish doctor in favor of leaving penises intact, click here.. …circumcision rate in newborns has declined from 83 percent in the 1960s to 77 percent in 2010. (The overall rate among U.S. males age 14 to 59 is 81 percent, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.). Additionally, the data suggests there is a racial disparity driven primarily by access to procedure and cultural and ...
Nothing I have said has been with the intention to hurt you or make you feel bad. I didnt even know about Braydens tragic last days until he had already passed. Even so, when a baby boy is circumcised, I assure you that I never hope for his death. I sit on the sideline and wait and hope for good news. Generally, no news is good news. I feel relieved and move on. The reason you may think of us as vultures is because the deaths go viral, but this happens because people, like myself, are furious when babies die from this. Had it been an organ transplant or something else required to live a long, healthy life, people would understand fully that it was a necessity. Coming from two intact countries, I know that routine infant circumcision is not medically necessary. I believe it is as popular as it is in America because parents arent being told that it can (and does sometimes) result in death. The medical establishment needs to be held accountable for ignoring the deaths. These arent just ...
A steep drop in the local incidence of new HIV infections accompanied the rollout of a U.S.-funded anti-HIV program in a large East African population, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.. The study, published Nov. 29 in the New England Journal of Medicine, is the first to track a large group of people before, during and after the start of an HIV prevention program and show that the program is likely working on a large scale. The researchers found that as the program began and matured from the early 2000s until 2016, there was a 42 percent decline in the rate of new HIV infections.. The ongoing HIV prevention program - in Ugandas rural Rakai District on the shore of Lake Victoria - has been funded by the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), set up in 2004 by the George W. Bush administration. The program provides multiple free services, including anti-HIV drugs for infected people, ...
[Ask InSite is a feature of the University of California San Franciscos HIV InSite. The site touts itself as providing Comprehensive, up-to-date information on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and policy from the University of California San Francisco. And in nearly every sense, it does just that. I have a lot of respect for HIV InSites tireless work…
Treatment of phimosis in children with circumcision (costs for program #38811) ✔ University Hospital Giessen UKGM ✔ Department of Urology, Pediatric Urology and Andrology ✔ BookingHealth.com
With intravaginal containment of the normal penis, the males mobile sheath is placed within the womans vaginal sheath. It is impossible to imagine a better mechanical arrangement for non-abrasive stimulation of the male and female genitalia than this slick sheath within a sheath. Circumcision destroys this one sheath within a sheath . . . I would hazard a guess, that dyspareunia [painful intercourse] is more common in the women whose husband is circumcised . . . one would be foolish to discount the circumcised males immobile penile skin sheath as an ancillary item contributing to vaginal, abrasive discomfort . . . The male with a penis already moderately obtunded by circumcision may be less apt to use a condom, which he feels may further decrease his genital sensitivity . . . because most American males lack a facile prepuce, the period of foreplay and dalliance may be abbreviated in the rush to the intra-vaginal method of penile stimulation. Both these factors conceivably could be of ...
Health department issues alert after ultra-Orthodox parents did not sign required city consent form for oral suction practice. City says 13 cases have been reported, including two deaths, since 2000.
National Aids Council (Nac) public health officer, Dr. Blessing Mutede, said authorities were concerned about the high rate of infection among the circumcised. He said it was largely a result of risk compensation behaviors. Most men, after circumcision, harbour the false impression that they have been equipped with an invisible condom, he added. It is a worrying development that at a time when we are promoting male circumcision as a preventive measure to combat HIV, we are recording a high prevalence rate amongst the group that has been circumcised largely due to uninformed risky compensation behaviors. He continued, Most people forget that being circumcised will only safeguard a person from contracting HIV up to a certain percentage and they are still at a 40 percent risk of contracting the virus. What we encourage everyone, circumcised or [intact], is to practise safe sex all the time ...
Circumcision is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. Circumcision is a religious or cultural ritual for many Jewish and Islamic families. Circumcision can also be a matter of family tradition, personal hygiene and preventive health care. Review Date: Thursday, October 30, 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research ...
This will be my first biological son and I am considering circumcision for him (due August). My step son is not circumcised and neither is my partner. However, my partner is suffering from adult phimosis, which is part of where my decision
Is male foreskin circumcision required to enter heaven or the fullness of the kingdom of God Christians Jews uncircumcised gentiles Paul Moses new covenant
Jennifer Medina reports in the New York Times: When a group of activists proposed banning circumcision in San Francisco last fall, many people simply brushed them aside. Even in that liberal seaside city, it seemed implausible that thousands of people would support an effort to outlaw an ancient ritual that Jews and Muslims believe fulfills a commandment issued by God.. But last month, the group collected the more than 7,100 signatures needed to get a measure on the fall ballot that would make it illegal to snip the foreskin of a minor within city limits. Now a similar effort is under way in Santa Monica to get such a measure on the ballot for November 2012.. If the anticircumcision activists (they prefer the term intactivists) have their way, cities across the country may be voting on whether to criminalize a practice that is common in many American hospitals. Activists say the measures would protect children from an unnecessary medical procedure, calling it male genital mutilation.. This ...
The most common surgical procedure in America, circumcision, is unnecessary, yet millions of newborn boys are still circumcised each year.
http://i.imgur.com/HwGFC.jpg?1http://i.imgur.com/AFXmB.jpg?1http://i.imgur.com/RB71l.jpg?1 Pictured: Despite religious opposition, courts in various countries around the world have found circumcision to be an infringement upon an individuals right to self determination. A key issue relating to mens rights currently being discussed is the genital mutilation young boys undergo without their consent. Before a child is able to give consent, their foreskin is removed. Many mens rights