Isolated macronuclei from the hypotrichous ciliated protozoan Euplotes eurystomus incorporate biotinylated dUTP specifically into the replication band (RB) as detected with immunofluorescence, using rabbit anti-biotin antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. When gold-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG was used in a preembedded reaction, subsequent immunoelectron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the biotinylated nucleotide appeared more concentrated in the rear zone of the RB, with almost no labeling in the forward zone. It was possible to use the immunofluorescent assay to establish that incorporation of biotinylated dUTP is inhibited by simultaneous addition of N-ethyl maleimide or aphidicolin, and by omission of any one of the other unlabeled dNTPs. In addition, prolonged heat shock of the intact cells, before lysis and in vitro assay, yielded markedly reduced incorporation. Comparison with published data on the in vivo incorporation of [3H]thymidine into ...
Bekijk Stockfoto van Conjugation In Blepharisma Protozoans Blepharisma Are Large Rose Colored Ciliated Protozoans In The Same Family As The Paramecium They Often Feed On Bacteria From Decomposing Vegetable Matter Sem. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
View Stock Photo of Predation Among Protozoans A Dileptus Consuming A Tetrahymena Dileptus Is A Predatory Protozoan Sem. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
Background The hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalisshow how mitochondria can evolve into hydrogenosomes because they possess a mitochondrial genome and parts of an...
The ciliate Diploplastron affine is known as a common species of the rumen fauna in cattle and sheep. This protozoon is able to digest cellulose, whereas its amylolytic activity is not well known. The objective of the reported studies was to examine
Stentor. Light microscope footage of ciliate protozoan Stentor sp. foraging. Stentor species are filter-feeding freshwater protozoa which can reach lengths up to 2 millimetres, and are among the largest known unicellular organisms. A ring of prominent cilia surrounds the anterior part of the cell to sweep in food and aid in swimming. Some species live symbiotically with certain species of green algae. After being ingested, the algae live on and continue to photosynthesize, while their host absorbs nutrients they produce, and the algae receive protection and feed on the Stentors metabolic wastes. - Stock Video Clip K005/3564
Stentor. Light microscope footage of ciliate protozoan Stentor sp. foraging. Stentor species are filter-feeding freshwater protozoa which can reach lengths up to 2 millimetres, and are among the largest known unicellular organisms. A ring of prominent cilia surrounds the anterior part of the cell to sweep in food and aid in swimming. Some species live symbiotically with certain species of green algae. After being ingested, the algae live on and continue to photosynthesize, while their host absorbs nutrients they produce, and the algae receive protection and feed on the Stentors metabolic wastes. - Stock Video Clip K005/3562
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1. A method is presented for identifying and estimating the aminoethylphosphonate (ciliatine)-containing phospholipids in a complex mixture. 2. Evidence was obtained that the phospholipids of a pure culture of Entodinium caudatum and a mixed rumen protozoa sample contain diglyceride ciliatine, and a plasmalogen ciliatine was detected in the latter. 3. A ninhydrin-positive sphingolipid was isolated from rumen protozoa. Although chromatographically homogeneous on silica gel it contains two components, which were provisionally identified as ceramide ciliatine and ceramide phosphorylethanolamine. 4. A detailed phospholipid analysis of E. caudatum and rumen protozoa is presented. They contain no phosphatidylserine or cardiolipin, but an unidentified phosphoglyceride containing a zwitterionic amino acid is present.. ...
Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolically quite different, just like mitochondria where large differences also exist. These differences have led to a continuing debate about the evolutionary origin of hydrogenosomes. Here we show that the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis, which thrives in the hindgut of cockroaches, have retained a rudimentary genome encoding components of a mitochondrial electron transport chain. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that those proteins cluster with their homologues from aerobic ciliates. In addition, several nucleus-encoded components of the mitochondrial proteome, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase and complex II, were identified. The N. ovalis hydrogenosome is sensitive to inhibitors of
Suspensions of Blepharisma intermedium were fed latex particles for 5 min and then were separated from the particles by filtration. Samples were fixed at intervals after separation and incubated to demonstrate acid phosphatase activity. They were subsequently embedded and sectioned for electron microscopy. During formation of the food vacuole, the vacuolar membrane is acid phosphatase-negative. Within 5 min, dumbbell-shaped acid phosphatase-positive bodies, possibly derived from the the acid phosphatase-positive Golgi apparatus, apparently fuse with the food vacuole and render it acid phosphatase-positive. A larger type of acid phosphatase-positive, vacuolated body may also fuse with the food vacuole at later stages. At about 20 min after formation, acid phosphatase-positive secondary pinocytotic vesicles pinch off from the food vacuoles and approach a separate system of membrane-bounded spaces. By 1 hr after formation, the food vacuole becomes acid phosphatase-negative, and the undigested latex ...
Target analysis is performed on previously published transient absorption spectra of the 200-kDa oxyblepharismin-binding protein (OBIP) thought to trigger the photophobic response of the ciliate Blepharisma japonicum. The OBIP sample is considered as heterogeneous and made of two distinct classes of chromophoreprotein complexes. A so-called nonreactive class is seen to be comparable to free oxyblepharismin in organic solution. Another, reactive, class is shown to undergo a fast picosecond photocycle involving the formation in 4 ps of an intermediate state noted Y1. The spectrum associated to Y1 bears striking similarities with that of the oxyblepharismin radical cation. This element favors the hypothesis that an excited-state intermolecular electron-transfer could be the primary step of the sensory transduction chain of B. japonicum. Proton release is also considered as a possible secondary step. These possibilities support the idea that reactive OBIP functions like an electron or proton pump. ...
Background:. Characterizing genome-scale data from diverse eukaryotes is essential for gene discovery and for inferring major transitions across the eukaryotic tree of life. Yet, the bulk of eukaryotic diversity remains undersampled, particularly for free-living microbial lineages. Analysis of transcriptome data generated from high throughput (e.g. 454) sequencing of mRNAs provides an efficient way to characterize genes from diverse eukaryotes.. Results:. Here we report analyses of RNA-Seq data from the rhizarian net-like amoeba Corallomyxa tenera, the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata and a recently-described genus representing a novel major clade of eukaryotes, Subulatomonas tetraspora. We generated 16,983, 11,529 and 10,630 contigs plus single reads for these taxa respectively. Given that these organisms cannot be cultured axenically, we developed custom scripts to remove bacterial contaminants through an iterative BLAST based protocol and we then identified expressed genes using BLAST2GO [1;2]. ...
Chilodonella - Killer Don as referred originally by Dr. Jack Gratzek - this is the one that kills so many fish so fast in the Springtime. Treats easily with, salt. I have never seen an exception. Clears almost overnight, so salting save the lot of fish. Salt levels of 0.3% tend to be quickly curative. Id recommend looking at the salt article in order to do it right.. Chilodinella is one of the hottest fish killers there is. ...
All rumen ciliates whether grown in vivo or in vitro contain bacteria in vesicles in their endoplasm and attached to the outside of the pellicle. However studies in the electron microscope show that...
In animals, sex pheromones indicate the availability of the female for breeding. Male animals may also emit pheromones that convey information about their species and genotype.. At the microscopic level, a number of bacterial species (e.g. Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus) release specific chemicals into the surrounding media to induce the competent state in neighboring bacteria.[18] Competence is a physiological state that allows bacterial cells to take up DNA from other cells and incorporate this DNA into their own genome, a sexual process called transformation.. Among eukaryotic microorganisms, pheromones promote sexual interaction in numerous species.[19] These species include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa and Mucor mucedo, the water mold Achlya ambisexualis, the aquatic fungus Allomyces macrogynus, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, the ciliate protozoan Blepharisma japonicum and the multicellular green algae ...
View Stock Photo of The Ciliate Protozoan Oxytrichia Reproducing By Fission Sem. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
Euplotes sp. (eurystomus ?) is a hypotrich. This ciliate has a few rows of dorsal cilia as well as specialized clumps of cilia called cirri on its ventral side and a complex of membranelles involved in feeding called the adoral zone of membranelles. The cell is flattened dorso-ventrally. This electron micrograph is a longitudinal section dividing dorsal from ventral parts of the cell and exposing the oral cavity, the thread-like macronucleus, the extended contractile vacuole, contractile vacuole pore, and a large assortment of food vacuoles many of which contained material that was lost during sectioning leaving holes in the section. The cytopharynx and nascent food vacuole along with the discoidal (pharyngeal) vesicles are also seen. TEM taken on 8/3/67 by R. Allen with Philips 200 operating at 60kV. Neg. 1,370X. Bar = 5ݏ. Standard glutaraldehyde fixation followed by osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in alcohol, and embedded in an epoxy resin. Microtome sections prepared at approximately 75nm ...
Koprowski P., Grajkowski W., Kubalski A. (2007) The MscS cytoplasmic domain and its conformational changes on the channel gating. Curr. Topics in Membranes, vol. 58. Mechanosensitive ion channels. Part A. Owen P. Hamill, ed., 295-309.. Pomorski P., Krzemiński. P., Wasik A., Wierzbicka K., Barańska J., Kłopocka W. (2007) Actin dynamics in Amoeba proteus motility. Protoplasma 231: 31-41. Fabczak H., Fabczak S. (2006) Photosensory transduction in unicellular eukaryotes. A comparison between ciliate protists and photoreceptor cells of higher organisms (Invited review). J.Photochem. Photobiol. 83: 163-171 Sobierajska K., Fabczak H., Fabczak S. (2005) Alterations of ciliate phosducin phosphorylation in Blepharisma japonicum cells. J. Phorochem. Photobiol. B. 79: 135-143. Grajkowski W., Kubalski A., Koprowski P. (2005) Surface changes of the mechanosensitive channel MscS upon its activation, inactivation and closing. Biophys. J. 88: 3050-3059 ...
Protists are a large group of diverse eukaryotic microorganisms, mainly unicellular animals and plants, that do not form tissues. Eukaryotes emerged in evolution more than 1.5 billion years ago.[6] The earliest eukaryotes were likely protists. Mating and sexual reproduction are widespread among extant eukaryotes including protists such as Paramecium and Chlamydomonas. In many eukaryotic species, mating is promoted by sex pheromones including the protist Blepharisma japonicum. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, Dacks and Roger[7] proposed that facultative sex was present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. However, to many biologists it seemed unlikely until recently, that mating and sex could be a primordial and fundamental characteristic of eukaryotes. A principal reason for this view was that mating and sex appeared to be lacking in certain pathogenic protists whose ancestors branched off early from the eukaryotic family tree. However, several of these protists are now known to be capable ...
The morphology and morphogenesis of the hypotrich ciliate Urosoma macrostyla (Wrześniowski, 1866) Berger, 1999, collected from a puddle in Harbin, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. Based on previous and present studies, an improved diagnosis of U. macrostyla is supplied. It differs from its congeners mainly by the body shape, no cortical granules and number of macronuclear nodules. The ontogenesis of U. macrostyla is typical for species with such a somatic ciliary pattern: the oral primordium develops hypoapokinetally and FVT-anlagen develop in 5-streaks and primary mode. However, a unique characteristic in morphogenetic process is reported: anlagen for both the left and right marginal cirri occur de novo to the right of the parental structure which has never been seen in other oxytrichids. This characteristic was considered an apomorphy (Berger 1999). This indicates that U. macrostyla possibly has a high phylogenetic position within the genus Urosoma, ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Zhang, Xiumei, Ji, Daode, Zhang, Qianqian, Li, Chenghua (2015): Description and phylogeny of a new prostomatid, Metacystis similis nov. spec. (Protista, Ciliophora) from the East China Sea. Zootaxa 4033 (4): 584-592, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4033.4.8 ...
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A large pink colored ciliate. This culture contains sufficient material for a class of 30 students. 2 oz. jar. To simplify ordering we provide our protozoan and algae cultures, and …
The clinical signs are the same as all other parasite infestations. Heavy and laboured breathing (judged by watching operculum movements), flashing and rubbing, skin cloudiness caused by excess mucus, loss of appetite and lethargy. At a later advanced stage (which may be too late for treatment) fish often isolate themselves, sometimes near the water surface or water return. They can also exhibit extreme lethargy with long spells laying on the bottom with clamped fins.. It can be easily recognized in skin scrapes and gill biopsies from its characteristic slow gliding movements, often turning in circles.. It has a flattened shape, heart-shaped with a notched end. There are bands of cilia on the ventral (bottom) surface, just faintly visible in the photomicrograph. They measure around 30 - 80 µm in length x 20 -60 µm width. - slightly smaller than skin-dwelling Trichodina.. ...
Small organisms or particles are tossed about by the currents created by the beating cilia of a feeding Stentor; under phase contrast illumination at a magnification of 100x.
Beating cilia create currents that draw food into this Stentors mouth; under phase contrast illumination at a magnification of 100x.
Zoological Science publishes articles, reviews and editorials that cover the broad and increasingly interdisciplinary field of zoology.
IV. Publications. Tintinnids. Bachy, C., Gomez, F., Lopez-Garcia, P., Dolan, J.R., Moreira, D. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of Tintinnid Ciliates (Tintinnida, Ciliophora). Protist, 6:873-887. PDF. Bachy, C., Dolan, J.R., López-García, P., Deschamps, P., Moreira, D. 2013. Accuracy of protist diversity assessments: morphology compared to cloning and direct pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA genes and ITS regions using the conspicuous tintinnid ciliates as a case study. ISME Journal 7:244-255 . PDF Bachy, C., Morira, D., Dolan, J.R., Lopez-Garcia, P. 2014. Seasonal dynamics of free-living tintinnid ciliate communities revealezs by environmental sequences from the North-West Mediterranean Sea. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 87:330-342. PDF Dolan, J.R. 2010. Morphology and ecology in tintinnid ciliates of the marine plankton: correlates of lorica dimensions. Acta Protozoologica, 49: 235-244. PDF. Dolan, J.R. 2012. Tintinntinid Ciliates: an Introduction and Overview. in Biology and Ecology of Tintinnid Ciliates: ...
High resolution image of longitudinal section of somatic cilia showing the axoneme, basal body, and attached fibrous and microtubular elements. Adjace...
A single culture containing the following three organisms: Stentor (blue), Blepharisma (pink), Paramecium bursaria (green). This culture contains sufficient material for a class of …
Formalin & Malachite Green (such as Rid-Ich, Quick Cure) Effective in the control of many diseases of freshwater fish caused by external parasites such as white spot disease, Ichthyophthirius, Costia, Trichodina, Chilodonella and saltwater external parasites such as Cryptocaryon and Amyloodinium. The medication can also treat fungal infections in fishes. It can affect the filter bed and be easily removed with activated carbon. Tank lights should be turned off during treatment.
Rapid Relief of Ich and Parasitic Diseases MICROBE-LIFT/Ich-Out is the safest and most effective treatment for ich and many other protozoan-caused diseases in pond fish e g the diseases caused by Ichthyophthirius Cryptocaryon Costia Chilodonella Oodinium and Amyloodinium
article{cf7cf32f-d684-467a-8881-52c1eb20b3ba, abstract = {The relationships among cellular nutrient status, environmental conditions (temperature and nutrient availability), and cyst production were studied in batch cultures of three cold-water dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella hangoei, Gymnodinium corollarium, and Woloszynskia halophila) isolated from the Baltic Sea. We tested the effect of increasing temperature while providing nutrient-replete conditions as well as the effect of ambient nutrient (N, P) deficiency. The results revealed different encystment cues and patterns in the three species. While depletion of ambient nitrogen and subsequent internal N stress were the primary factors behind cyst production of G. corollarium, higher temperature led to substantial encystment of S. hangoei and W. halophila without a direct link to cellular nutrient physiology. In W. halophila, N limitation induced a transition of the population to small cells presumably representing gametes, but this process was ...
The ciliate protozoa, Stentor and Paramecium, have been reported to escape from the bottom end of narrow capillary tubes into a larger volume of medium with increasing rapidity over the course of trials. This change in behavior has been considered an apparent example of associative learning. This decrease in escape time is not due to a change in the protozoas environment, their swimming speed, frequency of ciliary reversals, or the proportion of time spent forward or backward swimming. Instead, most of the decrease results from a decrease in the proportion of time spent in upward swimming. However, a similar decrease in upward swimming occurs when the task is altered to require escape from the upper end of the capillary tubes. Because the protozoa exhibit the same change in behavior regardless of the reinforcing stimulus, tube-escape learning is not associative learning ...
The Infusoria or Ciliophora, as they are now called have long been recognized as a monophyletic assemblages. The composition of the group has remained largely unchanged since Faure-Fremiet (1950) included among holotrich ciliates, the suctorians, which had often not been included with the other ciliates by the specialists of the day (Corliss 1979). The classification of the group remained largely unchanged in the 20th century after Corliss (1961) formalized Faure-Fremiets conceptual vision, based primarily on the morphostatic morphology of the cells, derived from observation of the silver-stained ciliate cortex, and coupled with ontogenetic characters revealed through observation of division morphogenesis, and particularly stomatogenesis. Electron microscopy was just beginning as Corliss (1961) went to press. In the ensuing decades exploration of this new level of organization revealed a wealth of new characters for both cell biologists and systematists. These new data, accompanied by new ...
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Morphological changes in the macronucleus and micronuclei of the ciliated protozoon Heliophrya chapmani were investigated using the nucleic acid-specific stain propidium iodide. The fluorescence patterns of nuclei observed in propidium iodide prepara
Oral Development and Histology - An updated classic text for all dental students and practitioners br Praise for the Previous Edition br The authors are (EAN:9783131001931)
Summarises the morphology, fauna and ecology of Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae Includes material on 68 species distributed in 21 genera and revised
During macronuclear development in hypotrichous ciliated protozoans, several thousand macronuclear DNA molecules are amplified several-hundred fold. We investigated the regulation of this amplification by determining the copy numbers of three different macronuclear DNA molecules in the hypotrichous ciliate Euplotes crassus. Two of the macronuclear DNA molecules were present in approximately 1,000 copies per cell, while the third was present in approximately 6,500 copies per cell. These reiteration levels were achieved either during macronuclear development, or shortly thereafter, and were maintained during vegetative growth. The most abundant macronuclear DNA molecule is present as a single-copy sequence in the micronuclear genome. Thus, its high copy number results from differential amplification. These results indicate that DNA amplification during macronuclear development is regulated individually for each macronuclear DNA molecule.
Telomeric guanine-quadruplex DNA has been shown to form in vitro under physiological conditions (6-8). It has been suggested that this structure plays an important role in vivo in the protection of telomeric ends, and attempts have been made to use the guanine-quadruplex structure as a target for cancer therapy (12). However, until now, to the best of our knowledge, no experimental data exist that this structure actually occurs in the eukaryotic cell. We therefore decided to generate in vitro specific antibodies against the Oxytricha/Stylonychia telomeric guanine-quadruplex structure in the parallel conformation, using a synthetic antibody library and a cell-free selection and evolution system. The selected antibodies were applied for in situ localization of quadruplex DNA in the nuclei of the ciliated protozoan S. lemnae.. We selected our scFvs in vitro from a large synthetic library by ribosome display in six selection cycles. In RIA control experiments with a variety of competitors, we ...
I cannot answer these questions for you, but it is my opinion that it is inappropriate to do nothing. I would hope for acquired or innate natural immunity to kick in when used with other less aggressive but pro-active treatments, such as using biological cleaners, medicated foods, UV, ozone, and garlic. Although I clearly dont believe this shotgun approach of unproven treatments is the most effective option available. For me, if you gamble with un-quarantined items and infect your tank, it is best to bite the bullet, remove all the fishes to a separate quarantine aquarium, fallow the tank, and use a proven treatment.. Treatment Option 6: Freshwater Dips. Freshwater dips are a highly effective form of treatment against a wide variety of parasites, although their use against Cryptocaryon irritans has been questioned (Colorni, 1985). I am including them here because I still choose to employ them, as I believe they have at least some effect against Ich and because they have been proven effective ...
TELOMERASE RNA LOCALIZED IN THE REPLICATION BAND AND SPHERICAL SUBNUCLEAR ORGANELLES IN HYPOTRICHOUS CILIATES Journal Article ...
Protozoa-associated methanogens (PAM) are considered one of the most active communities in the rumen methanogenesis. This experiment investigated whether methanogens are sequestrated within rumen protozoa, and structural differences between rumen free-living methanogens and PAM. Rumen protozoa were harvested from totally faunated sheep, and six protozoal fractions (plus free-living microorganisms) were generated by sequential filtration. Holotrich-monofaunated sheep were also used to investigate the holotrich-associated methanogens. Protozoal size determined the number of PAM as big protozoa had 1.7,br,3.3 times more methanogen DNA than smaller protozoa, but also more endosymbiotic bacteria (2.2- to 3.5-fold times). Thus, similar abundance of methanogens with respect to total bacteria were observed across all protozoal fractions and free-living microorganisms, suggesting that methanogens are not accumulated within rumen protozoa in a greater proportion to that observed in the rumen as a whole. ...
Freeze fracture of Vorticella microstoma. This cell had been placed in a relaxing medium of saturated sodium pyrophosphate plus 0.01M EDTA (Stain Tech...
TY - GEN. T1 - Treatment of the skin parasite Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) in eel in Danish aquaculture : Alternatives to formaldehyde. AU - Lyholt, H.C.K.. AU - Mellergaard, Stig. AU - Buchmann, K.. N1 - Conference code: 3. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article in proceedings. BT - Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health. Building Partnerships for the 21st Century, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. T2 - 3rd International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health. Y2 - 30 August 1998 through 3 September 1998. ER - ...
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Chilodonella cyprini and Ch. hexasticha were described in the first decade of twentieth century. Ch. hexasticha has been reported from Former USSR, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the USA (Kiernik 1909; Prost 1952; Kazubski and Migala 1974; Lom et al. 1976; Wierzbicka 1997). However, descriptions of Ch. cyprini and Ch. hexasticha were not precise due to imperfect methods of study used at that time, so the distinctness of both species was questioned, before Kazubski and Migala (1974) described Ch. cyprini and Ch. hexasticha in detail and expounded the differences between them. There are differences between Ch. cyprini and Ch. hex- asticha by Kazubski and Migala: (1) These species differ mainly by the number of kineties, which is larger in Ch. cyprini and smaller in Ch. hexasticha. (2) The differences concern the arrangement of kineties. In Ch. cyprini, the kineties are close one to the other, lying in nearly equal distances, while in Ch. hexasticha the kineties are loosely arranged and the ...
ID J9IB24_9SPIT Unreviewed; 1230 AA. AC J9IB24; DT 31-OCT-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 31-OCT-2012, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Serine/Threonine protein kinase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; GN ORFNames=OXYTRI_07921 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; OS Oxytricha trifallax. OC Eukaryota; Alveolata; Ciliophora; Intramacronucleata; Spirotrichea; OC Stichotrichia; Sporadotrichida; Oxytrichidae; Oxytrichinae; Oxytricha. OX NCBI_TaxID=1172189 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=SB310 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RX PubMed=23382650; DOI=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473; RA Swart E.C., Bracht J.R., Magrini V., Minx P., Chen X., Zhou Y., RA Khurana J.S., Goldman A.D., Nowacki M., Schotanus K., Jung S., RA Fulton R.S., Ly A., McGrath S., Haub K., Wiggins J.L., Storton D., RA Matese J.C., ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Lasos LGK 7812 ML3 Argon Laser 500mW Output 450-530nm Wave Length - Here is a Lasos LGK 7812 ML3 Argon Laser 500mW Output 450-530nm Wave LengthMade in 2007New pricePredecessor to:N/ACondition:This Lasos Carl Zeiss 10 D-07745 JENA Argon Laser is in good ov
The crystal structure of the Tl+ form of the G-quadruplex formed from the Oxytricha nova telomere sequence, d(G4T4G4), has been solved to 1.55 A. This G-quadruplex contains five Tl+ ions, three of which are interspersed between adjacent G-quartet planes and one in each of the two thymine loops. The …
Phytoplankton have adapted to survive in the variable and heterogeneous environment that is characteristic of lakes in temperate regions. One strategy for survival during periods unfavorable for growth is to form resting propagules. Dinoflagellates are bloom-forming phytoplankton which have the ability to form resistant and long-lived resting cysts. The role of cysts in the ecology and life history of dinoflagellates was investigated in this thesis. First, it was tested whether cysts have the ability to assimilate phosphorus (P) during dormancy, which could improve the survival of newly germinated cells when returning to the water column. Secondly, the role of resting cysts in regulating the seasonal succession of dinoflagellates in Lake Erken was examined. Also. biotic and abiotic factorscontrolling the timing of germination were tested.. Cysts of the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea which were incubated in P enriched medium attained a P content twice that of cysts incubated in P ...
Trichostomatida (subphylum Ciliophora, class Ciliatea) An order of ciliate protozoa that are characterized by the structure of the cytostome region, where there is a ciliated depression leading into a
Protein sequence set(s) filename and optional format (output USA) Additional (Optional) qualifiers: -table menu [0] Code to use (Values: 0 (Standard); 1 (Standard (with alternative initiation codons)); 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial); 3 (Yeast Mitochondrial); 4 (Mold, Protozoan, Coelenterate Mitochondrial and Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma); 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial); 6 (Ciliate Macronuclear and Dasycladacean); 9 (Echinoderm Mitochondrial); 10 (Euplotid Nuclear); 11 (Bacterial); 12 (Alternative Yeast Nuclear); 13 (Ascidian Mitochondrial); 14 (Flatworm Mitochondrial); 15 (Blepharisma Macronuclear); 16 (Chlorophycean Mitochondrial); 21 (Trematode Mitochondrial); 22 (Scenedesmus obliquus); 23 (Thraustochytrium Mitochondrial)) -minsize integer [30] Minimum nucleotide size of ORF to report (Any integer value) -maxsize integer [1000000] Maximum nucleotide size of ORF to report (Any integer value) -find menu [0] This is a small menu of possible output options. The first four options are to select either the ...
Protein sequence set(s) filename and optional format (output USA) Additional (Optional) qualifiers: -frame menu [1] Frame(s) to translate (Values: 1 (1); 2 (2); 3 (3); F (Forward three frames); -1 (-1); -2 (-2); -3 (-3); R (Reverse three frames); 6 (All six frames)) -table menu [0] Code to use (Values: 0 (Standard); 1 (Standard (with alternative initiation codons)); 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial); 3 (Yeast Mitochondrial); 4 (Mold, Protozoan, Coelenterate Mitochondrial and Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma); 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial); 6 (Ciliate Macronuclear and Dasycladacean); 9 (Echinoderm Mitochondrial); 10 (Euplotid Nuclear); 11 (Bacterial); 12 (Alternative Yeast Nuclear); 13 (Ascidian Mitochondrial); 14 (Flatworm Mitochondrial); 15 (Blepharisma Macronuclear); 16 (Chlorophycean Mitochondrial); 21 (Trematode Mitochondrial); 22 (Scenedesmus obliquus); 23 (Thraustochytrium Mitochondrial)) -regions range [Whole sequence] Regions to translate. If this is left blank, then the complete sequence is ...
Vorticella are members of the Protista kingdom. They are often found in stagnant pools, attached to the stems of aquatic plants.. ...
MICROBE-LIFT/Broad Spectrum Disease Treatment - 16 Oz. Use for diseases caused by Ichthyophthirius (Ich), Chilodonella, Costia, Oodinium, Trichodina and fungal infections Formulated with Malachite Green & Formalin MICROBE-LIFT/Broad Spectrum Disease Treatment is the pre-eminent broad spectrum malachite green and fo
TY - JOUR. T1 - Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan photodynamically active pigment. AU - Watanabe, Yoshiya. AU - E-ige, Keisuke. AU - Kobuchi, Hirotsugu. AU - Kato, Yoji. AU - Matsuoka, Tatsuomi. AU - Utsumi, Toshihiko. AU - Yoshioka, Tamotsu. AU - Horton, Alan A.. AU - Utsumi, Kozo. PY - 1995/2/14. Y1 - 1995/2/14. N2 - Blepharismin is an endogenous photosensitizing pigment found in the protozoan Blepharisma. This pigment inhibited the generation of Superoxide anion (O2-) in neutrophils not only via a diacylglycerol-induced protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent reaction but also by an arachidonate-induced PKC-independent reaction. The inhibition was light and concentration dependent for both reactions. Light-activated inhibition was strong at wavelengths between 520 and 570nm but not above 610nm. PKC activity in neutrophils and from rat brain was inhibited by blepharismin in a light- and concentration dependent ...
Cloverleaf Malachite Answer for use when troubled by persistent problems of fungus also for protozoan parasites such as white spot, tricodina, chilodonella and
This disinfecting agent contains acridine dye which eliminates parasitic infections such as Costia Sp. or Chilodonella Sp., and infections caused by mould fungi. It also impedes the growth of algae and has an antibacterial effect. As it is born very well by a clear majority of aquarium fish, it is very popular among aquarists.. In small concentrations it is suitable for the treatment of spawn during its growth. We remind professional aquarists that the use of this agent must be well coordinated with the pH of the growth water and with the light intensity (brood tanks are usually shaded in order to reduce it).. It is highly effective at treating skin and bacterial infections, especially if the treated fish can tolerate a substantial (but individual) addition of salt.. It may be used in decorative tanks (for example of the Dutch type), but only in the case of long-term treatment which usually suspends the growth of plants but does not kill them. Plants could be killed in case of intensive ...
The contractile vacuole, an organelle used by many protists for osmoregulation of water and some ions, such as calcium, is connected to the cell surfa...
The infraciliary lattice in this quick-freeze deep-etched image consists of a meshwork of branching fibers composed of many subfibers. Basal bodies an...
Secondary lysosomes in quick-freeze deep-etch images lie against the smooth E-face of a phagoacidosome (DV-II) membrane. The P-fracture face of one fa...
Euplotes crassus transfection using FuGene HD Transfection Reagent as vehicle (provisional) protocol (method) by Rachele Cesaroni
Large numbers elicit no obvious host-response and attachment to the gills, mantle cavity or esophageal pouch epithelium appears to be superficial. Some populations of Mantoscyphidia sp. in abalone had attached ectosymbiotic ellobiophryid ciliates with no apparent adverse affects to the host ciliate or abalone (H. midae and H. spadicea) (Botes et al. 1998). Ciliates similar in morphology to Mantoscyphidia sp. were observed in the esophageal pouches of cultured juvenile H. kamtschatkana held in tanks for several months with an inadequate supply of food in British Columbia, Canada. Caceres-Martinez and Tinoco-Orta (2001) suggested that the ciliates in the esophageal pouches of cultured H. rufescens in Baja California may be commensal symbionts because prevalence and total numbers were similar in healthy and moribund abalone but indicated that further studies are required to determine the nature of the symbiosis.. ...
There are mainly three types of skin cancer namely: 1.BASAL-CELL CARINOMA 2.SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA 3.MELANOMA The malignancies of the skin remain restricted in the epidermis, mostly due to invisible ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun. The ozone gas present in the air absorb most of the suns radiation, so that only a small percentage of ultraviolet radiation of longest wave length (UVA) and ultraviolet radiation of shortest wave length (DYB) reaches the earths surface. The UVB rays are known to burn the skin more easily and have cancer-causing potential. The disease usually occurs as a small, pearly bump on the face, neck, hands or the nose. If left untreated, the basel-cell carcinomas can crust, bleed or ulcerate. These tumors take months or years to grow_ to half an inch in diameter. They root under the skin, causing disfigurement and damage underlying bone, cartilage and muscle. It has a cure rate of better than ninety-nine per cent if detected early. A dermatologist (a physician ...
It is a technology that produces the hydrogen gases by using only the microorganism and sunlight from the wastewater to be at a loss because of processing. And, the produced hydrogen uses the fuel cell and is used to generate electricity. Because this technology doesnt use the organic matter that becomes food, and use the organic matter included in waste, clean power generation is possible. We researched the improvement of the hydrogen gas production efficiency. The purple non-sulfur photosynthesis bacillus was purely cultured, the substrate dependency was clarified, and the best substrate dosage was decided. Moreover, it was shown that the light wave length conversion net was effective for the hydrogen gas production efficiency improvement. On the other hand, a too strong light intensity showed becoming the growth obstruction of phototropic bacteria. When the light intensity for the photosynthesis is insufficient, the light wave length conversion net can support this. On the other hand,
Todays solar cells capture about 15 percent of the suns light. The reason why more is not absorbed is that only visible sun light is captured, says Senior Research Scientist Arne Røyset. The conventional way of thinking is that the solar cells shall adapt themselves to the light. We have chosen to reverse the problem and also work on the sun light adapting itself to the solar cells.. Humans can see light in the spectrum from 400 to 700 nanometres. Ordinary solar cells capture light right up to 1000 nanometres but, in spite of this, much of the light escapes. Sunlight has a specific wave length and quantity of energy. By combining two and two particles, the quantity of energy doubles, while the wave length halves. The thin film is placed on the outside of the solar cells and it is the optical properties that make this possible, says Røyset. By halving the wavelength, invisible light becomes visible and, as a result, it is captured by sun cells. We call this frequency conversion or light ...
This laser ranks up there with the invention of the automobile, the discovery of penicillin and the polio vaccine. It is truly capable of change that seems unbelievable unless you have felt the change or seen the change! There are several reasons we use this specific laser: (1) its power output is only 1/200th of a WATT where in biological terms, the lower the power the greater the benefit; (2) it is one of the only TRUE lasers around with a wave length of 635 nanometers (a nanometer is a billionth of a meter) which has been proven in all of the scientific studies to be the wave length that is most effective and least harmful to the cell, and (3) the massive research and FDA Clearance has demonstrated the safety of this laser in that there has never been a recorded negative side effect of any kind in hundreds of studies. This laser has had a profound effect on the ideas we held about Rolfing. It has totally changed the landscape of this profession because it has now been demonstrated that what ...
These bell-shaped ciliates live in fresh or salt water attached by a slender stalk to aquatic plants, surface scum, submerged objects, or aquatic animals.
We make up Protargol S solution immediately before use. It takes about 20 minutes or so to dissolve. We just sprinkle it on top of the water and let it dissolve on its own. Then we add the copper shot. Its only used once. I have never tried to reuse the solution. I hope this helps. ...
Citation. Coyne RS, Lhuillier-Akakpo M, Duharcourt S. RNA-guided DNA Rearrangements In Ciliates: Is the Best Genome Defence a Good Offence?. Biology of the Cell / Under the Auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization. 2012 Jun 01; 104: 309-25.. External Citation. Abstract. Genomes, like crazy patchwork quilts, are stitched together over evolutionary time from diverse elements, including some unwelcome invaders. To deal with parasitic mobile elements, most eukaryotes employ a genome self-defensive manoeuvre to recognise and silence such elements by homology-dependent interactions with RNA-protein complexes that alter chromatin. Ciliated protozoa employ more offensive tactics by actually unstitching and reassembling their somatic genomes at every sexual generation to eliminate transposons and their remnants, using as patterns the maternal genomes that were rearranged in the previous cycle. Genetic and genomic studies of the distant relatives Paramecium and Tetrahymena have begun to reveal ...
View Notes - 212_Enger-2011-09-23-stdt from BIOLOGY 212 at Iowa State. trahymena thermophila, a ciliated protist Carol Greider and others have since shown that overexpression of TERT in human cells
spasmin: from spasmoneme organ of ciliated protozoa; do not confuse with spasman combination, a combination of methphenamine & trihexyphenidyl
Whole genome sequencing analyses are providing compelling evidence that pro- and eukaryote microbes, like multicellular organisms, have their life threatened by parasitic attacks. Bacteria and Archea face invading viral nucleic acids with an inheritable DNA-encoded immunity (known as the CRISPR-Cas system) that recognizes foreign DNA from self DNA. In eukaryotic microbes that are exposed to invasions from both bacteria and viruses, bacteria are promptly made harmless either by digestion into food vacuoles, or by domestication as symbionts. But the defence from viral attacks is much less effective. Foreign viral sequences can randomly insert into the cell genome, and may disrupt or deactivate vital genes. To fight this threat, ciliates rely on a unique model of inheritable genomic immune mechanism based on the evolution of two genomes, a germ-line one lying in the cell micronucleus and a somatic one lying in the macronucleus. The germ-line genome characterized by an orthodox chromosomic ...
Booyse, Dirk and Dehority, Burk A. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa. Onderstepoort j. vet. res., 2011, vol.78, no.1, p.1-7. ISSN 0030- ...
According to the University of California in Santa Barbara, the main difference between protista and fungi is that fungi need aerobic respiration to survive, whereas protists are able to live in an...
A slum, Cato Manor, and a municipal housing scheme, Chesterville, have been surveyed for intestinal parasites. The immediate effect of better conditions is not seen on the protozoal populations, but the metazoa are markedly affected.
Gregg Drilling conducts Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) cone penetration tests using an Ultra-Violet Optical Screening Tool (UVOST) module that is located behind the standard piezocone, Figure UVOST. The UVOST works on the principle that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), located in soil and/or groundwater fluoresce when irradiated by ultra violet light. Different types of PAHs will fluoresce at different wave lengths leaving a characteristic fluorescence signature. Measuring the intensity and wavelength of the fluoresced PAH allows one to assess the type and relative con- centration of PAH present in the CPT-UVOST sounding.. Performing CPT-UVOST soundings at multiple locations across a site allows for an accurate determination of the site stratigraphy and piezometric profile along with the location of the residual phase NAPL present at the site. These data can be used to select appropriate boring, sampling and monitoring well lo- cations which allows for a more rapid, accurate and cost ...