Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratia marcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed ...
Chytrid Fungus (KIT-rid) (Batrachochytrium sp. - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is a fungal pathogen and a major contributor to the decline of amphibian populations around the world, threatening many species with extinction. This fungus is a global emerging amphibian pathogen which is proving to be one of the worst vertebrate infectious diseases found so far. It is causing a huge amount of extinction and disease within amphibian populations. More than 100 species of amphibians are known to be affected by the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Some are very susceptible and die quickly while others which are more resistant are carriers of the pathogen. The disease, called Chytridiomycosis, is already credited with wiping out frogs and toads in large numbers in Australia and South America. The aquarium hobbys main two species available from shops are the Dwarf African Frog (Hymenochirus boettgeri) and the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis). These have shown to be infected in ...
by Vetscite. After a six-year effort, biologists say they have for the first time managed to rid a wild toad species of a lethal fungal disease that threatens amphibians around the world.. Midwife toads on the Spanish island of Mallorca are now free of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, says Jaime Bosch, an evolutionary biologist at Spains National Museum of Natural History in Madrid. His team reported their success in the journal Biology Letters on 18 November. But the successful treatment - which involved treating tadpoles with an antifungal drug and chemically cleansing their ponds - may not be widely applicable to the habitats of other amphibian species that are threatened by chytrid, the researchers and others say.. The fungal disease is one of the greatest threats amphibians face across the globe: chytrid has already wiped out hundreds of species of frogs. Bosch and his colleagues in Spain and the United Kingdom first set out to save isolated populations of vulnerable ...
USGS scientists and their colleagues have developed a new method to detect the presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in water and sediment samples
The frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been blamed for about 100 amphibian extinctions around the globe since it was first observed in 1998, but clear information on exactly how it spreads has remained a mystery.. Now a team of scientists working in Belgium have come up with one potential clue: the chytrid fungus may sometimes be carried to new habitats on the toes of waterfowl such as geese.. According to research published April 13 in the journal PLoS One, geese are "potential environmental reservoirs" for the Bd fungus, because waterfowl and amphibians often co-occur in the same habitats. The team studied 497 wild geese-which had been rounded up from six wildlife areas in East Flanders as part of an invasive species eradication program-and found that the keratinous toe scales of 76 of the birds tested positive for Bd. The fungus was present on both species of geese that they tested: invasive Canada geese (Branta Canadensis) ...
From 1999 to 2006, we sampled ,1200 amphibians for the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at 30 sites in the southeastern USA. Using histological techniques or PCR assays, we detected chytrid infection in 10 species of aquatic-breeding amphibians in 6 states. The prevalence of chytrid infection was 17.8% for samples of postmetamorphic amphibians examined using skin swab-PCR assays (n = 202 samples from 12 species at 4 sites). In this subset of samples, anurans had a much higher prevalence of infection than caudates (39.2% vs. 5.5%, respectively). Mean prevalence in ranid frogs was 40.7%. The only infected salamanders were Notophthalmus viridescens at 3 sites. We found infected amphibians from late winter through late spring and in 1 autumn sample. Although we encountered moribund or dead amphibians at 9 sites, most mortality events were not attributed to Bd. Chytridiomycosis was established as the probable cause of illness or death in fewer than 10 individuals. Our observations ...
Emerging diseases, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, contribute to global population declines of amphibians. Virkon S is one of the most commonly used disinfectants to reduce risk of spreading such pathogens. Virkon S is classified as harmful to aquatic organisms, but until today no negative effects on tadpoles have been reported. We studied the effects of three concentrations of Virkon S on early life-stages (embryos and hatchlings) of the moor frog Rana anvils. Overall, Virkon S had no significant effects. However, hatching success was highest in the control treatment, suggesting that Virkon S may have weak negative effects on amphibian embryos. We suggest that further studies are needed to assess the negative effect of Virkon S on amphibians, and recommend that Virkon S is used with care and a minimized run-off into natural wetlands.. ...
The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining) amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains). We provide evidence that the observed ...
Epidemiological theory generally suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because the pathogen should fade out when the host population is driven below some threshold density. An emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is directly linked to the recent extinction or serious decline of hundreds of amphibian species. Despite continued spread of this pathogen into uninfected areas, the dynamics of the host-pathogen interaction remain unknown. We use fine-scale spatiotemporal data to describe (i) the invasion and spread of Bd through three lake basins, each containing multiple populations of the mountain yellow-legged frog, and (ii) the accompanying host-pathogen dynamics. Despite intensive sampling, Bd was not detected on frogs in study basins until just before epidemics began. Following Bd arrival in a basin, the disease spread to neighboring populations at approximately 700 m/yr in a wave-like pattern until all ...
Global amphibian decline is an established problem, first noted over 40 years ago. Without an obvious cause beyond the natural factors, such as habitat loss, disease has risen as a reasonable explanation. Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease targeting amphibians, namely frogs, in Central and South America. The fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been shown to be inhibited by natural mixes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found on the backs of susceptible and resistant frogs. A unique case, Atelopus zeteki, does not show the same use of AMPs. Rather, a heterocyclic diol, isosorbide, seems to be involved in their immunological response to B. dendrobatidis infection. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, flame ionization detection, and chytrid bioassays, isosorbide was determined and suggested to function in an antimicrobial manner in A. zeteki. The lowest concentration exhibiting antimicrobial properties was 250 mM isosorbide against chytrid
Adams, M.J., Galvan, S., Reinitz, D., Cole, R.A., Pyare, S., Hahr, M. et Govindarajulu, P. 2007. Incidence of the fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian populations along the northwest coast of North America. Herpetological Reviews 38:430-431.. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments. 2009. Les maladies déclarables et les maladies à notification immédiate et annuelle : un guide pour les intervenants du milieu agro-alimentaire et les laboratoires [en ligne]. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments, Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 23 Oct. 2009).. Agence de la santé publique du Canada. 2006. Maladie de Lyme - fiche de renseignements [en ligne]. Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 11 janvier 2009).. Alexander, D.J. 2000. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses. Revue scientifique et technique (Office international des épizooties) 19:443-462.. Alford, R.A. et Richards, S.J. 1999. Global amphibian declines: a problem in applied ecology. Annual Review of ...
Amphibian conservation has received increasing attention following the 2005 global declaration of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP), with placed a high premium on amongst other increasing the capacity of conservation research required to combat this global crisis. It is within this research field of amphibian conservation that I have established my research activities within the geographical bounds of sub-Saharan Africa and adjacent island of Madagascar. The majority of my work effort is focused, but not limited to the disease chytridiomycosis caused by a fungal skin pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Studying wildlife pathogens from the perspective of gaining insight on how to better conserve the host species being affected by disease requires trans-boundary collaboration between wildlife ecologists, veterinarians, and conservation organizations. For this reason my work on amphibian diseases has involved international collaboration on papers with authors from various ...
Identification of Chytrid Fungus in Native Toads and Frogs, administered by Dr. Kirk Suedmeyer, Director of Animal Health , to determine the incidence of chytrid fungus on Zoo grounds.. This one year study involves a team of staff and volunteers swabbing local amphibians for chytrid fungus. Geo tracking, species and gender determination and individual photo documentation will be performed on all toads and frogs caught. All animals tested will be released unharmed where they were found. Swabs obtained will be analyzed to determine the incidence and prevalence of this fungal organism on Zoo grounds.. In 2013 Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, discovered about a third of the ponds in their study are infected with chytrid, the notorious skin fungus that has sickened and killed amphibians in other parts of the world. In amphibians, chytrid infects and damages the skin, which amphibians use to breathe and absorb water. Once the fungus takes hold, it causes a disease called chytridiomycosis, ...
The following year, when frog chytrid showed up at the National Zoo, pathologists Allan Pessier and Donald Nichols, and mycologist Joyce Longcore, determined that it was Bd, a chytrid fungus.. Around the world, scientists puzzled over the sudden loss.. "The changes have been nothing short of dramatic, from very abundant populations to seeing tens of thousands of dead carcasses on lake shorelines," says biologist Vance Vredenburg, assistant professor at San Francisco State University and AAAS member, whos worked with yellow-legged frogs in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California for more than 15 years.. These frogs - which have lived in the area for some 5 million years - dwell in highly protected, pristine habitats with roadless areas, Vredenburg explains. Soon after publishing studies that showed that frog populations would rebound if invasive species were removed, the chytrid appeared.. It was 2004 when chytrid hit Sixty Lake Basin in the Sierra Nevada mountains, where Vredenburg was ...
Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D.E., Cunningham, A.A., Goggin, C.L., Slocombe, R., Ragan, M.A., Hyatt, A.D., McDonald, K.R., Hines, H.B., Lips, K.R., Marantelli, G. & Parkes, H. (1998) Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 95, 9031-9036 ...
Chytridiomycosis is a globally emerging disease of amphibians and the leading cause of population declines and extirpations at species-diverse montane sites in Central America. We continued long-term
Synonyms for Chytridiales in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chytridiales. 1 synonym for Chytridiales: order Chytridiales. What are synonyms for Chytridiales?
Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. 0 Comments. ...
Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the particular fungus responsible for chytrid in frogs, and while hundreds of amphibian populations (and species!) have already been lost to this pathogen, there are many other populations that are doing just fine*.. So chytrid is a big problem, but predicting susceptibility to chytrid in natural populations is tricky business. A major focus of this effort is understanding how immunity is conferred to amphibians populations, and this process starts with the heroic genes that are most responsible for fighting chytrid: those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).. Conservation biologists hope that immunity to Bd is being selected for quickly, but the evolution of host resistance has only been recently addressed. Most recently, Anna Savage and Kelly Zamudio took a big step by taking measurements of positive selection for immunity out of the laboratory and into the field by analyzing MHC genes in wild populations of frogs with ongoing chytrid ...
Learn about chytrid fungus in Foothill Yellow-Legged Frogs (Rana boylii) in the Alameda Creek area of California. Chytridiomycosis research.
Literature Cited. Barr, D. J. S. 1971. Morphology and taxonomy of Entophlyctis confervae-glomeratae (Chytridiales) and related species. Can. J. Bot. 49: 2215_2222.. Barr, D. J. S. 1973. Six Rhizophydium species (Chytridiales) in culture. Can. J. Bot. 51: 967_975.. Barr, D. J. S. 1986. Allochytridium expandens rediscovered : morphology, physiology and zoospore ultrastructure. Mycologia 78(3): 439_448.. Berdan, H. B. 1939. Two new genera of operculate chytrids. Amer. J. Bot. 26(7): 459_463.. Berdan, H. B. 1941. A developmental study of three saprophytic chytrids. II. Catenochytridium carolinianum Berdan. Amer. J. Bot. 28: 439_448.. Canter, H. M. 1961. Studies on British Chytrids XVII. Species occurring on planktonic desmids. Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 44(2):163_176.. Fuller, M. S. and A. Jaworski. 1987. Zoosporic fungi in teaching and research. Southeastern Pub. Co., Athens, Georgia, 303 pp.. Hsu, M.-L. 1992. Morphological and taxonomic studies on Chytridiales in Yangmingshan National Park. Master ...
It is thought that the cause for the decline of the southern day frog was the same virulent disease which is the suspected cause of the extinction of the two species of gastric brooding frog. The southern day frog and southern gastric brooding frog disappeared from the same region within the same year, strengthening the theory that declines were most likely a result of an infection with the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). These are just two of many species which are thought to have been affected by a chytrid epidemic that spread through Australian Frog populations from the late 1970s until the early 1990s ...
Chytridiomycosis is a fatal disease of post-metamorphic frogs and can be carried by healthy tadpoles. Here we describe methods for preparing and interpreting histologic sections from adults and tadpoles for the diagnosis of chytridiomycosis.. ...
Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are responsible for massive population declines. In amphibians, chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has severely affected many amphibian populations and species around the world. One promising management strategy is probiotic bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria on amphibian skin. In vivo experimental trials using bioaugmentation strategies have had mixed results, and therefore a more informed strategy is needed to select successful probiotic candidates. Metagenomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic methods, colloquially called "omics," are approaches that can better inform probiotic selection and optimize selection protocols. The integration of multiple omic data using bioinformatic and statistical tools and in silico models that link bacterial community structure with bacterial defensive function can allow the identification of species involved in pathogen inhibition. We recommend using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and ...
...An international team of researchers has completed the first major sur...The disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium de...Asia is home to a highly diverse set of amphibian species and potenti... Thats why were excited about this first really big survey said Vr...,Researchers,complete,first,major,survey,of,amphibian,fungus,in,Asia,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
by Vetscite. Misty mountains, glistening forests and blue-green lakes make Cameroon, the wettest part of Africa, a tropical wonderland for amphibians.. The country holds more than half the species living on the continent, including dozens of endemic frogs - an animal that has been under attack across the world by the pervasive chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Africa has been mostly spared from the deadly and rampant pathogen that wiped out entire species in Australia, Madagascar and Panama, until now.. University of Florida herpetologist David Blackburn and colleagues at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin have documented declines in frog species on Cameroons Mount Oku and Mount Manengouba over a span of more than 12 years. The scientists link the decline of at least five species of frogs found only in these mountains to chytrid, which may have been exacerbated by habitat destruction, pollution and climate change resulting in weaker and more susceptible frogs, said Blackburn, ...
This chytrid fungus (Chytriodiomycota: Chytridiales) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. This fungus has been implicated as the cause of amphibian declines and extinctions of more than 250 species of frogs across six continents (the widespread distribution of this disease the likely consequence of anthropogenic effects). B. dendrobatidis can infect both larval and adult amphibians. Infections in larvae cause a reduction in grazing efficiency, food intake, and survival. Infections in adults cause thickening of the skin which might interfere with osmoregulation or ion balance. This fungus has two parts of its life cycle: one part in the host and one part outside of the host (a motile zoospore stage). Recent studies have shown that B. dendrobatidis can survive for long periods of time outside of the host, increasing its ability to drive host populations extinct. Although this fungus is believed to have originated in Africa, B. dendrobatidis was ...
There isnt one conclusive answer. Those animals that are immunosuppressed, however, tend to be more vulnerable to fungal infection. But why are these animals so unhealthy? The answers are complex and may have to do with many different causes, perhaps a "perfect storm" of causes: the overall decrease of biodiversity, use of pesticides, climate change, clear cutting of forests and habitat destruction and degradation, and other issues.. Readers of Frogs Are Green are familiar with the the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has wiped out hundreds of species of amphibians.. In 2006 the white-nose syndrome, an infection caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans killed a few bats in New York; since then it has killed more than 5 million bats in 21 states and four Canadian provinces.. Recently honey bee populations have been devastated. There is evidence that co-infection with multiple pathogens, including fungi, is one cause.. A fungus called Cryptococcus neoformans ravages humans ...
We proposed to test the hypothesis that ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures will increase susceptibility of metamorphic amphibians to a fungal pathogen known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, or Bd. Bd has received considerable attention as one of the causes of declining amphibian populations. We hypothesized that exposure to the contaminants in the larval stage would cause increased pathogen load, decreased growth, and increased mortality of amphibians. Our amphibians included 2 species of tree frogs (Spring Peepers and Pacific tree frogs), 1 toad species (Western Toads), and 2 true frog species (Leopard frogs and Cascades frogs). Each species of frog was split into five different pesticide treatments: high herbicide, low herbicide, high insecticide, low insecticide, and a control treatment. Half of the frogs in each pesticide treatment were exposed as tadpoles and half were exposed as metamorphs. In the end, three of the five species showed significant mortality rates. ...
A quick wrap-up of the animals discovered not to be extinct this week: Armoured mistfrog This Armoured Mistfrog, thought by many experts to be extinct due to the recent amphibian chytrid fungus epidemic, was rediscovered by my boss, enterprise search god, Chris Cleveland, while he should have been working, on CNN. And more specifically, in…. ...
Deforestation appears to be affecting some populations, but not others, presumably reflecting the fact that this is a complex of several species. Therefore, as currently understood, this species is generally not significantly threatened by habitat loss. Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015 ...
Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015 ...
The finding of tadpoles of Rhinella quechua (Huayramayu River, Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, Bolivia) with oral abnormalities caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis constitutes the first record of this fungal infection reported for Bolivian amphibians ...
I am a research technician in the lab at UC Davis. I received my Masters in comparative pathology here at UC Davis in 2002 and then worked in Seattle for a year helping to identify an outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Seattle homeless shelters using PFGE. I took a few years break to have two children and then started back to work in Janets lab in 2009. My interests are in molecular and microbiology, mostly in infectious diseases. In addition to providing laboratory daily administrative and research needs, I manage several different projects from Anaplasma phagocytophilum to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. I particularly enjoy troubleshooting assays!. Click here to download Joys CV (PDF) ...
Google Scholar ResearchGate Publications Christiansen JL, Davis DR, Jacobson ER, LaDuc TJ. 2020. A potential new shell disease process revealed by a long-term field study of the yellow mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens, in Texas. Journal of Herpetology 54:1-8. [PDF] Smith SN*, Watters JL, Ellsworth ED, Davis DR, Siler CD. 2019. Assessment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus…
When we arrived at the seminar location, I was relieved to see that the area where we would be performing our amphibian disease testings at was a veterinary clinical lab. Here we had counter space, power outlets, and refrigerator space. However, the molecular testings take time to run (about 2.5 hours), and the real-time PCR machine I was utilizing could only manage 48 samples at once. I ran into time limitations of how long we had to be in the facility. We needed to make sure we ran all the samples given to us by the animal facilities before we went back to the US. I had to improvise and wound up turning my hotel room into a makeshift laboratory. I had an extraction area (bedside table), my re-agent master mix preparation area (the dressing table), and my DNA loading area and instrument area (another bedside table). But do I use to keep my re-agents cool? Why, a foam cooler and ice cubes purchased from a nearby market! I extracted my samples, set up the assay instrument, and went to sleep with ...
The Chytrid fungus, which has decimated global amphibian populations, is now found on every continent and it likely got there through trade.
Oomycota - Peronosporales - Phytophthora infestans. Monument to 187 Irish would-be immigrants to Canada, fleeing from the potato famine, who drowned just off the Gaspe Peninsula in 1847 ...
This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.. Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
A method is provided for introducing a foreign gene into a plant cell by means of an Olpidium zoospore vector having associated with it a reassembled nucleoprotein complex comprising the foreign gene and reassociated coat protein of a zoospore-transmissable virus. The plant cell is contacted with the zoospore under conditions suitable for transmission of the nucleoprotein complex into the cell. The method can be conducted under nonsterile conditions, is applicable to all nucleic acids regardless of size, and is useful for introducing foreign genes into cells of both monocots and dicots.
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - A new study suggests related, but previously undescribed, Ranavirus species are wreaking havoc on a range of amphibian hosts in Spain.
Leiopelma archeyi, commonly known as Archeys Frog, is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Critically Endangered. Archeys Frog is a small green-brown frog found only in New Zealand, where it lives on the North Island in the Coromandel Peninsula and the Whareorino Forest. This frog prefers moist forest at altitudes of 400 - 1000 m. It is the smallest of the four remaining endemic Leiopelma species and is one of the worlds most primitive species of frog. Archeys Frog is a nocturnal species that lives under stones and logs during the day and is a terrestrial breeder. The larvae of Archeys Frog hatch from eggs with small arms and legs already developed, thereby skipping the free-swimming tadpole stage.. Between 1996 and 2001 there was an 88% decrease in the Archeys Frog population at monitored locations. Chytrid fungus was confirmed from wild frogs in 2001 and is implicated in the observed decline but several other factors may have been involved.. The New Zealand Department ...
A University of Alberta scientist is part of a research team offering the first evidence that global warming is behind an infectious disease epidemic wiping out entire frog populations and forcing many species to extinction. The work is published in the journal Nature.
Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 184, provided a summary of taxonomy history, estimate of phylogenetic placement, and accepted the name of priority, which is Alytidae, for the taxon composed of Discoglossus and Alytes. See Dubois, 1984, Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, A-Zool., 131: 1-64, and Dubois, 1987, Alytes, 6: 56-68, for discussion of family-group nomenclature (in the sense of including Bombinatoridae of this list). Lanza, Cei, and Crespo, 1975, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 9: 153-162, and Lanza, Cei, and Crespo, 1976, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 10: 311-314, considered, on the basis of immunological evidence, that Discoglossus should be maintained in Discoglossidae, while Alytes and Bombina should be placed in a new family, Bombinidae; Barbourula was not assigned to family. Estes and Sanchíz, 1982, J. Vert. ...
Litoria freycineti Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 77. Syntypes: MNHNP 246 (2 specimens), according to Guibé, 1950 1948, Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 20. Type locality: Nova Hollandia (= Australia). Given as Port-Jackson by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 505.. Lepthyla freycinetii - Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 504.. Litoria freycineti - Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 504.. Lepthyla freycineti - Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 504.. Pelobius freycineti - Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31.. Hyla freycinetii - Keferstein, 1867, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 18: 355.. Hyla (Litoria) freycinetii var. verruculata Keferstein, 1867, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 18: 355. Syntypes: Not stated; presumed lost by Cogger, Cameron, and Cogger, 1983, Zool. Cat. Aust., Amph. Rept., 1: 43, and Böhme and Bischoff, 1984, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 19: 168. Type locality: Australien.. Litoria copei Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, ...
Declines in amphibian populations There are recent reports of apparently drastic declines in amphibian populations and of extinctions of a number of the world s ...
Common Name: Arizona pencil cholla Duration: Perennial Protected Status: Salvage restriced status in Arizona. General: Shrubby chollas that are 1-2.5 m, as wide or wider than tall, intricately branched with a dense crown, the trunk short, often well developed, up to 15 cm to the lowest branch, can reach 16 cm in diameter. The bark smooth and dark bronze on older branches and young trunks, becoming dark gray, scaly, and flaking with age, usually much branched above, the joints 3.5-15 cm long, 7-12 mm wide, green to yellow-green all year, becoming shorter upwards. Spines: Spines 0-5 and sparsely distributed along stem, pale yellow at apex to red-brown at base, aging black, stout and usually deflexed, the longest 1-5 cm long; sheaths loose-fitting, yellowish brown. The glochids are pale yellow and encircle the areole in an apical tuft with only a few marginal ones. Flowers: The inner tepals are dark bronze to orange bronze to a greenish yellow or yellow brown, spatulate, apiculate, 1.5-2 cm long, ...
ID A0A0L0H6G8_SPIPN Unreviewed; 111 AA. AC A0A0L0H6G8; DT 11-NOV-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-NOV-2015, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 13. DE SubName: Full=Translation initiation factor SUI1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1}; GN ORFNames=SPPG_07457 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1}; OS Spizellomyces punctatus DAOM BR117. OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Chytridiomycota; Chytridiomycetes; OC Spizellomycetales; Spizellomycetaceae; Spizellomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=645134 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053201}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053201} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=DAOM BR117 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053201}; RG The Broad Institute Genome Sequencing Platform; RA Russ C., Cuomo C., Shea T., Young S.K., Zeng Q., Koehrsen M., Haas B., RA Borodovsky M., Guigo R., Alvarado L., Berlin A., Bochicchio J., RA Borenstein D., Chapman S., Chen Z., Engels R., ...