The host genetic basis of differential outcomes in HIV infection, progression, viral load set point and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) responses was examined for the common Y haplogroups in European Americans and African Americans. Accelerated progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related death in European Americans among Y chromosome haplogroup I (Y-I) subjects was discovered. Additionally, Y-I haplogroup subjects on HAART took a longer time to HIV-1 viral suppression and were more likely to fail HAART. Both the accelerated progression and longer time to viral suppression results observed in haplogroup Y-I were significant after false-discovery-rate corrections. A higher frequency of AIDS-defining illnesses was also observed in haplogroup Y-I. These effects were independent of the previously identified autosomal AIDS restriction genes. When the Y-I haplogroup subjects were further subdivided into six I subhaplogroups, no one subhaplogroup accounted for the ...
The host genetic basis of differential outcomes in HIV infection, progression, viral load set point and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) responses was examined for the common Y haplogroups in European Americans and African Americans. Accelerated progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related death in European Americans among Y chromosome haplogroup I (Y-I) subjects was discovered. Additionally, Y-I haplogroup subjects on HAART took a longer time to HIV-1 viral suppression and were more likely to fail HAART. Both the accelerated progression and longer time to viral suppression results observed in haplogroup Y-I were significant after false-discovery-rate corrections. A higher frequency of AIDS-defining illnesses was also observed in haplogroup Y-I. These effects were independent of the previously identified autosomal AIDS restriction genes. When the Y-I haplogroup subjects were further subdivided into six I subhaplogroups, no one subhaplogroup accounted for the ...
Background: AZFc on human Y chromosome has been found to be functionally important in spermatogenesis. Complete AZFc deletion is one of the most frequent causes of male infertility, while roles of partial AZFc deletions (gr/gr deletion and b2/b3 deletion) in spermatogenesis are controversial. Methods: To further study the roles of partial AZFc deletions in spermatogenic impairment and the relationship between complete and partial AZFc deletions, we typed these deletions, did quantitative analysis of DAZ gene copies, and performed Y chromosome haplogrouping in seven pedigrees of complete AZFc deletion carriers, 296 infertile and 280 healthy men in Chinese. Results: Neither gr/gr deletion nor b2/b3 deletion was found to be associated with spermatogenic failure. In one pedigree, we observed that a complete AZFc deletion was derived from gr/gr deletion, suggesting that complete deletions of AZFc can be preceded with partial deletions. In addition, we identified a new gr/gr-deleted Y haplogroup Q1 ...
Introduction: Y chromosomes are genetically highly variable due to frequent structural rearrangements. The variations may create a genetic background for the susceptibility to Y-related spermatogenic impairment, although few data have been accumulated about the possible correlation between the Y-chromosome haplotype and the predisposition of men to spermatogenic failure.. Objective: To investigate the possible association of Y-chromosome background with spermatogenic failure.. Methods: The distribution of 18 Y-chromosome haplogroups was compared between 414 infertile men with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and 262 normozoospermic men with or without AZFc deletions in a Han population of Southwest China.. Results: A significant population difference in Y-haplogroup distribution was found between the groups of normozoospermia and azoospemia or oligozoospermia, and between the patient groups with oligozoospermia and azoospermia without AZFc deletions. Interpopulation comparison of Y haplogroup ...
The panels of 9-17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) currently used in forensic genetics have adequate resolution of different paternal lineages in many human populations, but have lower abilities to separate paternal lineages in populations expressing low Y-chromosome diversity. Moreover, current Y-STR sets usually fail to differentiate between related males who belong to the same paternal lineage and, as a consequence, conclusions cannot be drawn on the individual level as is desirable for forensic interpretations. Recently, we identified a new panel of rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs, composed of 13 markers with mutation rates above 1×10(-2), whereas most Y-STRs, including all currently used in forensics, have mutation rates in the order of 1×10(-3) or lower. In the present study, we demonstrate in 604 unrelated males sampled from 51 worldwide populations (HGDP-CEPH) that the RM Y-STRs provide substantially higher haplotype diversity and haplotype discrimination capacity (with only 3 ...
Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes-including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447-806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of ...
The most significant and widely studied remodeling of the African genetic landscape is the Bantu expansion, which led to an almost total replacement of the previous populations from the sub-Saharan region. However, a poor knowledge exists about other population movements, namely, the Nilotic migration, which is a pastoralist dispersal that, contrary to the Bantu expansion, impacted only East African populations. Here, samples from a Ugandan Nilotic-speaking population were studied for 37 Y chromosome-specific SNPs, and the obtained data were compared with those already available for other sub-Saharan population groups. Although Uganda lies on the fringe of both Bantu and Nilotic expansions, a low admixture with Bantu populations was detected, with haplogroups carrying M13, M182 and M75 mutations prevailing in Nilotes together with a low frequency of the main Bantu haplogroups from clade E1b1a-M2. The results of a comparative analysis with data from other population groups allowed a deeper
Nineteen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS388, DYS434, DYS435, DYS436, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS460, DYS461 and DYS462 were typed in Inuit (n=70) and Danish (n=62) population samples.
Int J Legal Med. 1999;112(6):403-5. Haplotype frequencies of eight Y-chromosome STR loci in Barcelona (North-East Spain). Gene M, Borrego N, Xifro A, Pique E, Moreno P, Huguet E. Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, C. Casanova 143, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain. [email protected] Haplotype frequencies for eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined in paragraph signa population sample
TUCSON, ARIZONA-Geneticists from the University of Arizona have identified an extremely rare Y chromosome that they say is the oldest-known branch of the human Y chromosome lineage tree. The discovery pushes back the most recent common ancestor for the lineage tree to 338,000 years ago, before the appearance of modern humans in the fossil record. This particular Y chromosome came from an African-American man living in South Carolina who had sent a DNA sample to a consumer genetic testing company. His Y chromosome was eventually matched with 11 men from western Cameroon. "And the sequences of those individuals are variable, so its not like they all descended from the same grandfather," said Michael Hammer of the University of Arizona. "It is likely that other divergent lineages will be found, whether in Africa or among African-Americans in the U.S. and that some of these may further increase the age of the Y chromosome tree," he added. ...
Approach and Results-A total of 1988 biologically unrelated men from 4 white European populations were genotyped using 11 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms and classified into 13 most common European haplogroups. Approximately 75% to 93% of the haplotypic variation of the Y chromosome in all cohorts was attributable to I, R1a, and R1b1b2 lineages. None of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressures, lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and insulin resistance, was associated with haplogroup I of the Y chromosome in the joint inverse variance meta-analysis. Fourteen of 15 ubiquitous single-copy genes of the male-specific region were expressed in human macrophages. When compared with men with other haplogroups, carriers of haplogroup I had ≈0.61- and 0.64-fold lower expression of ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat, Y-linked gene (UTY) and protein kinase, Y-linked, pseudogene (PRKY) in macrophages (P=0.0001 and P=0.002, ...
This study is to survey 10 Y-STR loci in 241 males from Turkey. In this study, the 241 healthy and unrelated males living in different parts of Turkey for at least three generations were included. Genomic DNAs were isolated from peripheral blood samples by standard phenol-chloroform extraction method. 10 Y-STR loci including DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS388, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and YCAIIa/b were analyzed by using PCR and denaturing PAGE. Allele frequencies, gene diversities and haplotype frequencies were analyzed. Gene diversity per locus varied from 0.5788 (DYS388) to 0.8903 (DYS385a/b). The numbers of haplotypes in minHt recommended by YCC and Ht10 have been 208 and 186, respectively. When our minHt haplotypes frequencies compared with the other seven populations, we have found statistically significant differences between our results and other populations (P 0.05). We suggest that an alternative haplotype designated as aHt maybe alternative to minHt in respect of its Y-STR
The Y chromosome has recently been suggested to have an association with prostate cancer risk in human populations. Since this chromosome is haploid and lacks recombination over most of its length, haplotypes constructed from binary markers throughout the chromosome can be used for association studies. To assess the possible Y-chromosomal contribution to prostate cancer risk, we have therefore analyzed 14 Y-chromosomal binary markers in 106 prostate cancer cases and 110 controls from the Korean population. In contrast to previous findings in the Japanese population, no statistically significant difference in the distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup frequencies was observed between the case and control groups of Koreans. Thus, our data imply that the previously reported associations between Y-chromosomal lineages and a predisposition to, or protection against, prostate cancer might be explained by statistical fluctuations, or by genetic effects that are seen only in some environments.
The paternal haplogroup (hg) N is distributed from southeast Asia to eastern Europe. The demographic processes that have shaped the vast extent of this major Y chromosome lineage across numerous linguistically and autosomally divergent populations have previously been unresolved. On the basis of 94 high-coverage re-sequenced Y chromosomes, we establish and date a detailed hg N phylogeny. We evaluate geographic structure by using 16 distinguishing binary markers in 1,631 hg N Y chromosomes from a collection of 6,521 samples from 56 populations. The more southerly distributed sub-clade N4 emerged before N2a1 and N3, found mostly in the north, but the latter two display more elaborate branching patterns, indicative of regional contrasts in recent expansions. In particular, a number of prominent and well-defined clades with common N3a36 ancestry occur in regionally dissimilar northern Eurasian populations, indicating almost simultaneous regional diversification and expansion within the last 5,000 ...
Abstract Three main ethnic groups live in the South American country of Ecuador: Mestizos, Amerindian natives, and African-derived populations, or Afro-Ecuadorans. Mestizos and Afro-Ecuadorans can be considered trihybrid populations containing genes originating in the Americas, Europe, and Africa, as is the case with equivalent populations in other Latin American countries. The proportion and the dynamics of the admixture process remain unknown. However, a certain sex asymmetry of the admixture process can be expected for historical reasons. We typed 11 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) in these three ethnic groups to provide adequate allele and haplotype frequencies for forensic genetic purposes and to quantify admixture proportions in male lineages. In addition, a data set of 15 autosomal STRs in the same samples were reanalyzed for the same purpose. Contributions to Mestizo Y chromosomes were estimated to be 70% European, 28% Amerindian, and 2% African, whereas in autosomes the ...
Azoospermia induced by Y chromosome microdeletions (AZF region) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price
Identification of the population origin of an individual is very useful for crime investigators who need to narrow down a suspect based on specimens left at a crime scene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are a class of markers of interest to forensic investigators because many of the markers indicate regional specificity, thus providing useful information about the geographic origin of a subject. We selected seven informative Y-SNPs (M168, M130, JST021355, M96, P126, P196, and P234) to differentiate the three major population groups (East Asian, European, and African) and used them to develop forensic application. Read More ...
Objective : To determine the prevalence and type of Y chromosome microdeletions in 136 consecutively seen intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI candidates and in 50 consecutively seen azoospermic men attending an infertility clinic. Design : Controlled clinical study. Setting : Genetics laboratory and infertility clinic at a University hospital....
This review considers genome-scale evidence on ancient Y chromosome diversity that has recently started to accumulate in geographic areas favourable to DNA preservation.
Background The Koreans are generally considered a northeast Asian group because of their geographical location. However, recent findings from Y chromosome studies showed that the Korean population contains lineages from both southern and northern parts of East Asia. To understand the genetic history and relationships of Korea more fully, additional data and analyses are necessary. Methodology and Results We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation in the hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and HVS-II) and haplogroup-specific mutations in coding regions in 445 individuals from seven east Asian populations (Korean, Korean-Chinese, Mongolian, Manchurian, Han (Beijing), Vietnamese and Thais). In addition, published mtDNA haplogroup data (N = 3307), mtDNA HVS-I sequences (N = 2313), Y chromosome haplogroup data (N = 1697) and Y chromosome STR data (N = 2713) were analyzed to elucidate the genetic structure of East Asian populations. All the mtDNA profiles studied here were classified into
List of called snps for each sample. I2201 Abel T1a1a1b2b2b1a or T1a1a1b2b2b1a1a2 Darra.I.Kur_d Afghanistan_MBA_Darra_I_Kur R2 low coverage ALA008 Alalakh_MLBA H2a1 ALA001 Alalakh_MLBA J1a2a1a2d2b2b2 ALA018 Alalakh_MLBA J1a2a1a2d2b2b2 ALA035 Alalakh_MLBA J1a2a1a2d2b2b2 ALA002 Alalakh_MLBA J1a2a1a2d2b2b2c ALA026 Alalakh_MLBA J1a2a1a2d2b2b2c
The discovery and UA analysis of an extremely rare African American Y chromosome push back the time of the most recent common ancestor for the Y chromosome lineage tree to 338,000 years ago. This time predates the age of the oldest known anatomically modern human fossils.
Description: Background: A sexual dimorphism exists in the incidence and prevalence of coronary artery disease - men are more commonly affected than are age-matched women. We explored the role of the Y chromosome in coronary artery disease in the context of this sexual inequity. Methods: We genotyped 11 markers of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome in 3233 biologically unrelated British men from three cohorts: the British Heart Foundation Family Heart Study (BHF-FHS), West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), and Cardiogenics Study. On the basis of this information, each Y chromosome was tracked back into one of 13 ancient lineages defined as haplogroups. We then examined associations between common Y chromosome haplogroups and the risk of coronary artery disease in cross-sectional BHF-FHS and prospective WOSCOPS. Finally, we undertook functional analysis of Y chromosome effects on monocyte and macrophage transcriptome in British men from the Cardiogenics Study. Findings: ...
Haplogroup I-M253, also known as I1, is a Y chromosome haplogroup. The genetic markers confirmed as identifying I-M253 are the SNPs M253,M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, and L187. It is a primary branch of Haplogroup I-M170 (I*). The haplogroup reaches its peak frequencies in Sweden (52 percent of males in Västra Götaland County) and western Finland (more than 50 percent in Satakunta province). In terms of national averages, I-M253 is found in 35-38 per cent of Swedish males, 32.8% of Danish males, about 31.5% of Norwegian males, and about 28% of Finnish males. Haplogroup I-M253 is a primary branch of haplogroup I* (I-M170), which has been present in Europe since ancient times. The other primary branch of I* is I-M438, also known as I2. Before a reclassification in 2008, the group was known as I1a, a name that has since been reassigned to a primary branch, haplogroup I-DF29. The other primary branches of I1 (M253) ...
We analyzed the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome for complete (b2/b4) and distinct partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3, b2/b3) in 822 infertile and 225 proven fertile men. We observed complete AZFc deletions in 0.97% and partial deletions in 6.20% of the cases. Among partial deletions, .... ...
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
A set of unique event polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY) provides evidence concerning successful migrations originating from Africa, which can be interpreted as subsequent colonizations, differentiations and migrations overlaid upon previous population ranges ...
Read "Current state of research in ethnogenomics: Genome-wide analysis and uniparental markers, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Here is the new map of mt-haplogroup I. http://www.eupedia.com/images/content/mtDNA-I-map.png Its impossible to attribute an ethnic origin to the whole of haplogroup I as it is divided in 6 main branches and many subclades, which have a very different geographic distribution. Subclades - I1a is found in Central and Eastern Europe, in the Caucasus and in the British isles. I1a1a seem to be found almost exclusively among the Finns. I1b has been found in Sweden, Poland and
The Hindu Gotra System - Male Lineage Identification The Gotra is a system which associates a person with his most ancient or root ancestor in an unbroken male lineage. For instance if a person says that he belongs to the Bharadwaja Gotra then it means that he traces back his male ancestry to the ancient…
We all have 46 chromosomes: 23 of them are inherited from our father and 23 are from our mother. The genetic information for our entire body is stored
The Jats represent a large ethnic community that has inhabited the northwest region of India and Pakistan for several thousand years. It is estimated the community has a population of over 123 million people. Many historians and academics have asserted that the Jats are descendants of Aryans, Scythians, or other ancient people that arrived and lived in northern India at one time. Essentially, the specific origin of these people has remained a matter of contention for a long time. This study demonstrated that the origins of Jats can be clarified by identifying their Y-chromosome haplogroups and tracing their genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A sample of 302 Y-chromosome haplotypes of Jats in India and Pakistan was analyzed. The results showed that the sample population had several different lines of ancestry and emerged from at least nine different geographical regions of the world. It also became evident that the Jats did not have a unique set of genes, but shared an underlying genetic unity
Paleoanthropological evidence indicates that modern humans reached South Asia in one of the first dispersals out of Africa, which were later followed by migrations from different parts of the world. The variation of 20 microsatellite and 38 binary polymorphisms on the non-recombining part of the uniparental, hapliod Y-chromosome was examined in 1434 male individual of 87 different populations of India to investigate various hypothesis of migration and peopling of South Asia Sub-continent. This study revealed a total of 24 paternal lineages, of which haplogroups H, R1a1, O2a and R2 portrayed for approximately 70% of the Indian Y-Chromosomes. The high NRY diversity value (0.893) and coalescence age of approx. 45-50 KYA for H and C haplogroups signified an early settlement of the subcontinent by modern humans. Haplogroup frequency and AMOVA results provide similar evidence in support of a common Pleistocene origin of Indian populations, with partial influence of Indo-European gene pool on the ...
Best 10 publications: 1 E Rai, S Sharma, A Koul, AK Bhat, AJS Bhanwer and RNK Bamezai. (2007). Interaction between the UCP2-866G/A. mtDNA 10398G/A and PGCαр. Thr394Thr and р.Gly482Ser polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes susceptibility in North Indian population. Hum Genet.122:535-540 2 Swarkar Sharma, Ekta Rai, Audesh K Bhat, AJS Bhanwer and Rameshwar NK Bamezai (2007) A novel subgroup Q5 of human Y-chromosomal haplogroup Q in India, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7:232 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-232 3 Sharma, S., Rai, E., Sharma, P., Jena, M., Singh, S., Darvish, K., Bhat, A.K., Bhanwer, AJS, Tiwari, P.K. and Bamezai, R.N.K. (2009). The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1 substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system. J. Hum. Genet. 54:47-55 4 J.S. Saini , A. Kumar , K. Matharoo , J. Sokhi, Badaruddoza , AJS Bhanwer (2012) Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: An analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism. Gene ...
We have characterized the Y chromosome carried by President Thomas Jefferson, the general rarity of which supported the idea that he, or a patrilineal relative, fathered the last son of his slave Sally Hemings. It belongs to haplogroup K2, a lineage representing only approximately 1% of chromosomes worldwide, and most common in East Africa and the Middle East. Phylogenetic network analysis of its Y-STR (short tandem repeat) haplotype shows that it is most closely related to an Egyptian K2 haplotype, but the presence of scattered and diverse European haplotypes within the network is nonetheless consistent with Jeffersons patrilineage belonging to an ancient and rare indigenous European type. This is supported by the observation that two of 85 unrelated British men sharing the surname Jefferson also share the Presidents Y-STR haplotype within haplogroup K2. Our findings represent a cautionary tale in showing the difficulty of assigning individual ancestry based on a Y-chromosome haplotype, ...
Background Koreans are generally considered a Northeast Asian group, thought to be related to Altaic-language-speaking populations. However, recent findings have indicated that the peopling of Korea...
The general parent Y-chromosome Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly known as E3b), which originated in either the Horn of Africa[70] or the Near East,[41] is by far the most common clade in North and Northeast Africa, and is also common throughout the majority of Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean and South Eastern Europe. E1b1b reaches its highest concentration in Greece and the Balkan region, but also enjoys a significant presence in other regions such as Hungary, Italy, France, Iberia and Austria. [5].[70]. Outside of North and Northeast Africa, E1b1bs two most prevalent clades are E1b1b1a (E-M78, formerly E3b1a) and E1b1b1b (E-M81, formerly E3b1b).. E1b1b1a is the most common subclade of E1b1b and is present throughout Europe. It was originally thought to have been a marker of Neolithic migrations (perhaps coinciding with the introduction of Agriculture into Europe) from Anatolia to Europe, via the Balkans, where it enjoys the highest frequency. However, Crucianis latest study suggests that ...
The name Wampanoag means Eastern People or People of the First Light in the local dialect of the Algonquian language. Once extensively populating the
Australias risks losing its valuable native plants that could help solve a global food problem. So do we need new laws to stop the seeds being taken overseas?
View Notes - Lecture_9_-_Variation_in_Chromosome_Number-1 from DARY 2072 at LSU. Lecture 9 Lecture Chromosome Mutations: Variation in Chromosome Variation Number & Arrangement Modifications of
Unique Jan Brouwer Genetic Marker Found: Results from extending the Y-DNA test to 67 markers in some members of the Jan Brouwer descendants has revealed that we have a marker value that is so rare that it is specific to identifying our own family branch within the larger haplogroup I2b1c. A very rare DYS565 Allele value of 7 repeats has been found in the Jan Brouwer descendants. This value defines a unique family branch within the major haplogroup I2b1c; a mutation that likely occurred in an ancestor living in the Belgium / Netherlands / Germany region 400 to 700 years before the present. If two people share the allele value on this marker and are similar enough across the rest of the markers to share a common ancestor in a genealogical time frame, then they belong to the same family branch and everyone without the rare allele does not." - Richard Brewer. ...
Ive developed a mild interest in East-West phylogeography in Europe in regards to human populations. In the process I stumbled onto this paper, Geographical heterogeneity of Y-chromosomal lineages in Norway. Ive put the full PDF in the forum, here. Standard caveat, take this with a grain of salt!!! But, Ive put some maps below that readers might find of interest ...
DAZ2 is a member of the DAZ family and is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF). This RNA-binding protein is important for…
About the males sharing in their Y-chromosome the following mutations (SNPs): M304/Page16, P209, S6/L60, S34, S35, L134, 12f2a, 12f2.1. Project page @ FamilyTreeDNA - Images - Archive - Forum MolGen/J FTDNA J Draft (Research) - ISOGG J (Genealogy) - YCC Karafet et al 2008 J (Science) ...
Butter is one of those foods that offends the "Paleo Police" - those who omit foods from their diet based solely on the logic, "Paleolithic man didnt consume it." Yes, from a purely evolutionary perspective, blah, blah, blah. We get it. But our perspective on food, while built on a solid "genetic heritage" foundation, isnt really concerned with whether a make-believe Grok would have exhibited a certain behavior or eaten a certain food. And in the case of butter, we think Grok is (mostly) irrelevant. What were actually more concerned with is whether a particular food choice makes us more healthy or less healthy. And while were not encouraging everyone to eat more butter, we do consider ita bit of an outlier in the dairy category, which is why were exploring the subject here.. Butter is the glorious, concentrated solid fat that is produced by churning cream. Though it can be made from the milk of sheep, goats, and even yaks - ew - most folks get their butter from cows. We know very few sane ...
Lastly, I urge you to be careful about your interpretation of what EP actually says. People who have only a passing acquaintance with EP seem to have this fixation with the notion that EP is deterministic: that your genes dictate your personality. This is a hoary old argument (nature versus nurture) and its a complete waste of time. The relationship between genes and culture is extremely complex and many issues are still being hammered out. I myself like to think of personality as a layered structure: the genes provide the foundation, culture is built on top of that foundation, and individual experience lies on top of that. We all share the same basic foundation, but its hard to see that foundation because its buried underneath the other two. Hence, genetic heritage influences behavior only in an abstract, generalized way. Culture operates at a more visible level, and individual experience is the final icing on the cake that differentiates one person from another ...
One model for the spread of the agricultural way of life into Europe is of inexorable "demic diffusion" via a "wave of advance" of farming populations met by a land surplus. Conceptually and analytically its an elegant model. Its also fundamentally methodologically individualistic, and so in keeping with the spirit of the age. Theres no need to appeal to higher order social structure or organization, farmers who have a specific cultural toolkit drive the dynamic through endogenous growth in pre-state cultures through the production of large families. This growth washes over the frontier of the advance, and the original locus of the demographic pulse synthesizes across a transect with the indigenous substrate. In the early aughts historical geneticists Bryan Sykes and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza sparred over whether demic diffusion was useful or not as a conceptual framework. Sykes reported chromosomal results which implied that 75 percent of the ancestry of Europeans derives from Pleistocene ...
The image above is adapted from the 2010 paper A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages, and it shows the frequencies of Y chromosomal haplogroup R1b1b2 across Europe. As you can see as you approach the Atlantic the frequency converges upon ~100%. Interestingly the fraction of R1b1b2 is highest among populations such as the Basque and the Welsh. This was taken by some researchers in the late 1990s and early 2000s as evidence that the Welsh adopted a Celtic language, prior to which they spoke a dialect distantly related to Basque. Additionally, the assumption was that the Basques were the ur-Europeans. Descendants of the Paleolithic populations of the continent both biologically and culturally, so that the peculiar aspects of the Basque language were attributed by some to its ancient Stone Age origins.. As indicated by the title the above paper overturned such assumptions, and rather implied that the origin of R1b1b2 haplogroup was in the Near East, and associated with the ...
Bethyl LaboratoriesAnti-ROBO1 Polyclonal, Catalog # A301-265A-M. Tested in Western Blot (WB) applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody.