TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and clinical study of 183 patients with conotruncal anomaly face syndrome. AU - Matsuoka, Rumiko. AU - Kimura, Misa. AU - Scambler, Peter J.. AU - Morrow, Bernice E.. AU - Imamura, Shin Ichiro. AU - Minoshima, Shinsei. AU - Shimizu, Nobuyoshi. AU - Yamagishi, Hiroyuki. AU - Joh-o, Kunitaka. AU - Watanabe, Seiichi. AU - Oyama, Kotaro. AU - Saji, Tsutomu. AU - Ando, Masahiko. AU - Takao, Atsuyoshi. AU - Momma, Kazuo. PY - 1998/9/8. Y1 - 1998/9/8. N2 - To investigate molecular and clinical aspects of conotruncal anomaly face (CAF), we studied the correlation between deletion size and phenotype and the mode of inheritance in 183 conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CAFS) patients. Hemizygosity for a region of 22q11.2 was found in 180 (98%) of the patients with CAFS by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the N25(D22S75) DiGeorge critical region (DGCR) probe. No hemizygosity was found in three (2%) of the patients with CAFS by FISH using nine DiGeorge critical ...
Adding to the confusion about 22q11.2DS is its name. It also is known as DiGeorge syndrome, after the endocrinologist who first described four key features, and velocardiofacial syndrome, because of the heart/facial/oral/nasal cavity abnormalities. Other names for the condition that today are rarely used include Shprintzen syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, Cayler craniofacial syndrome, congenital thymic aplasia and thymic hypoplasia. Today many professionals prefer the 22q11.2DS label, because it refers to the genetic lesion that occurs in most individuals given one of these diagnoses.. Those affected by 22q11.2DS have a significantly increased risk of developing schizophrenia. While most people with 22q11.2DS do not go on to develop the psychiatric disorder, schizophrenia does develop in approximately 25 to 30 percent of cases, but the reason is not well understood. It occurs in approximately 1 percent of the general population.. Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome generally have ...
Well, backing up a bit, in 1968, William Strong, M.D., a physician from Cleveland, reported an association of cardiac abnormalities (right sided aortic arch), learning differences, and a characteristic facial appearance in four members of one family. In 1976, Dr. Kinouchi, a physician in Japan, reported a typical facial appearance specifically seen in patients with heart problems (conotruncal anomalies) and called it conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAF). IN 1978, Robert Shprintzen, Ph.D., a speech pathologist from New York, described a disorder running in families where the patients had a combination of cleft palate or VPI (velopharyngeal-incompetence - the failure of the back of the palate and the throat to close the space connecting the mouth and the nose during normal speech, which causes the patient to sound like he or she has a cold), heart defects, learning disabilities, and a characteristic facial appearance. He called this condition velocardiofacial syndrome (velo means palate or ...
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome, VCFS) is a condition caused by a missing section of chromosome 22 and can cause a wide range of health problems.
video clip.. With an estimated human population prevalence of 1:2000, Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS) is the second-most common multiple anomaly syndrome in humans and almost all children with the syndrome have speech and language impairments that are generally recognized to be complex and difficult to treat.. To demonstrate and to provide clinicians with expert guidance, the authors have produced a comprehensive two-volume set with a combination of text and video demonstrating the clinical features of Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS); the communication phenotype in VCFS; the natural history of speech and language in VCFS; diagnostic procedures necessary for assessing speech and language disorders in VCFS; the treatment of speech and language impairment in VCFS; and outcomes, demonstrated by video on an accompanying DVD to Volume II.. This volume commences with a survey of the history of VCFS and provides an exhaustive description of the 190 phenotypes associated with the syndrome, ...
Childrens Hospital of Wisconsins Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS) Program has put together resources for families living with VCFS / 22Q deletion syndrome.
Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is associated with congenital anomalies, neurocognitive deficits, and, in up to 30 pe...
The severity level of DiGeorge syndrome including the associated health complications tend to differ from one patient to another. A majority of the affected individuals have to seek treatment from different types of specialists. Initially, DiGeorge syndrome was referred to by different names such as velocardiofacial syndrome, etc., before the cause was identified as an error occurring in chromosome 22. One may note that despite the fact that the term 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is often used in the current circumstance and which undoubtedly describes the condition, the older names of the condition are also recognized and used today.. ...
PROTOCOL OUTLINE:. Blood samples are collected at diagnosis of chromosome 22q11 deletion and assessed for lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and concanavalin A (mitogen stimulation analyses). These analyses are repeated at 4 months along with a quantitative analysis of immunoglobulin.. At 8 months, patients are tested for their lymphocytes ability to respond to antigens (candida, tetanus, and diphtheria). At 1 year, patients have lymphocyte subset, IgG, IgA, and IgM analyses performed. Quantitative evaluations of antibody titers to diphtheria, tetanus, Haemophilus influenza, and hepatitis B are also performed.. Over 1 year of age, all studies are performed if the patient is seen for a single visit. ...
Q: What is DiGeorge syndrome?A: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of some of the genes on chromosome 22. There is a lot of variability in how patients are affected by this syndrome, with the manifestations in an individual person depending on exactly which genes are deleted.DGS affects about one in every 5,000 babies. Although DGS may be inherited (in a dominant fashion, so if either parent has it there is a 50 percent chance the child will inherit it), over
Q: What is DiGeorge syndrome?A: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of some of the genes on chromosome 22. There is a lot of variability in how patients are affected by this syndrome, with the manifestations in an individual person depending on exactly which genes are deleted.DGS affects about one in every 5,000 babies. Although DGS may be inherited (in a dominant fashion, so if either parent has it there is a 50 percent chance the child will inherit it), over
Q: What is DiGeorge syndrome?A: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of some of the genes on chromosome 22. There is a lot of variability in how patients are affected by this syndrome, with the manifestations in an individual person depending on exactly which genes are deleted.DGS affects about one in every 5,000 babies. Although DGS may be inherited (in a dominant fashion, so if either parent has it there is a 50 percent chance the child will inherit it), over
Q: What is DiGeorge syndrome?A: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of some of the genes on chromosome 22. There is a lot of variability in how patients are affected by this syndrome, with the manifestations in an individual person depending on exactly which genes are deleted.DGS affects about one in every 5,000 babies. Although DGS may be inherited (in a dominant fashion, so if either parent has it there is a 50 percent chance the child will inherit it), over
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and characterization of a novel gene deleted in digeorge syndrome. AU - Kurahashi, Hiroki. AU - Akagi, Kenzo. AU - Inazawa, Johji. AU - Ohta, Tohru. AU - Niikawa, Norio. AU - Kayatani, Futoshi. AU - Sano, Tetsuya. AU - Okada, Shintaro. AU - Nishisho, Isamu. PY - 1995/4/1. Y1 - 1995/4/1. N2 - The region commonly deleted in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) has been localized at 22q11.1-q11.2 with the aid of a high resolution banding technique. A 22q11 specific plasmid library was constructed with a microdissection and microcloning method. Dosage analysis proved three of 144 randomly selected microclones to detect hemizygosity in two patients with DGS. Two of the clones were found to contain independent low-copy-number repetitive sequences, all of which were included in the region deleted in the DGS patients. Screening of the cosmid library and subsequent cosmid walking allowed us to obtain two cosmid contigs corresponding to the microclones within the deletion (contig 1 and contig ...
FACES syndrome is a syndrome of unique facial features, anorexia, cachexia, eye and skin anomalies. It is a rare disease and estimated to occur in less than 1 in 1 million people. Friedman E, Goodman RM (1984). "The "FACES" syndrome: a new syndrome with unique facies, anorexia, cachexia, and eye and skin lesions". J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. 4 (3): 227-31. PMID 6438152. http://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/Disease_Search.php?lng=EN&data_id=1913&Disease_Disease_Search_diseaseGroup=FACES-syndrome&Disease_Disease_Search_diseaseType=Pat&Disease(s)/group%20of%20diseases=Facial-dysmorphism-anorexia-cachexia-eye-and-skin-anomalies-syndrome&title=Facial-dysmorphism-anorexia-cachexia-eye-and-skin-anomalies-syndrome&search=Disease_Search_ ...
... : treatment - General: There is currently no cure for DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). Supplements with calcium and vitamin D are used to manage an underactive parathyroid gland. A bone marrow transplant may help boost the immune system. Early thymus transplantations are controversial, because their safety and effectiveness remain unclear. Bone marrow transplant (BMT): Bone marrow transplants (BMTs) have been...
Children with VCF can have various other problems, including learning difficulties and frequent ear and sinus infections. They are also at an increased risk for scoliosis (curvature of the spine). The most likely time for scoliosis to occur is during a growth spurt, so it is important to have regular check-ups by the pediatrician while your child is growing. It is possible to prevent or reduce the problem of scoliosis by wearing a back brace or by surgery if it is caught in time. A minor feature of VCF concerns the fingers. The children with VCF often have fingers that are more slender, tapered and hyperextensible compared to other family members. A more serious complication is the risk for psychiatric problems. Whilst 10% of people with VCF have psychiatric problems, 90% will not. If these are going to occur, they tend to start during the teenage years. It is not possible to look at babies with VCF and say which will have scoliosis, learning problems or psychiatric problems. Other problems such ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific cerebellar reductions in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. AU - Bish, Joel P.. AU - Pendyal, Akshay. AU - Ding, Lijun. AU - Ferrante, Heather. AU - Nguyen, Vy. AU - McDonald-McGinn, Donna. AU - Zackai, Elaine. AU - Simon, Tony J. PY - 2006/5/22. Y1 - 2006/5/22. N2 - Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome commonly are found to have morphological brain changes, cognitive impairments, and elevated rates of psychopathology. One of the most commonly and consistently reported brain changes is reduced cerebellar volume. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to the global cerebellum reductions previously reported, volumetric reductions of the anterior lobule and the vermal region of the neo-cerebellum in the mid-sagittal plane best differentiate children with the deletion from typically developing children. These results suggest that the morphological changes of specific portions of the cerebellum may be an important underlying substrate of ...
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Genetic differences between people with chromosomal deletion, 22q11.2, or DiGeorge syndrome, who have autism and those with psychosis
Background The microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is the most common human deletion syndrome. It typically presents early in life and is rarely considered in adult patients. As part of the...
Relief is when you and the right researcher find each other Finding the right clinical trial for Chromosome 6q24-q25 deletion syndrome can be challenging. However, with TrialsFinder (which uses the Reg4ALL database and privacy controls by Private Access), you can permit researchers to let you know opportunities to consider - all without revealing your identity. ...
VCFS -- also known as the Shprintzen Syndrome, DiGeorge Sequence and, regrettably, Catch 22 -- is caused by the deletion of a small segment of the long arm of chromosome 22 (specified as 22q11.2 deletion), and is one of the most common genetic disorders in humans. Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome is characterized by cleft palate, heart abnormalities, learning disabilities, and over 180 other clinical findings
"Faces syndrome" . Le harcèlement scolaire décrypté par la thérapeute Emmanuelle Piquet. ans, les centres chagrin scolaire, afin de les armer face aux attaques quils subissent dans les cours de récréation. Délivrées en trois sessions, ces stratégies de défense se basent sur des jeux
DGCR6L - DGCR6L (untagged)-Human DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 6-like (DGCR6L) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
before she tries to conceive again after we lost DGS2 in January when he was only two weeks old. The two weeks that he was with us were so incredib
Looking for online definition of whistling face syndrome in the Medical Dictionary? whistling face syndrome explanation free. What is whistling face syndrome? Meaning of whistling face syndrome medical term. What does whistling face syndrome mean?
Nadia Zomorodian is one of the approximately 2,000-4,000 children born each year with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Although it receives less public awareness, it is believed that 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is as common as Down syndrome.From Day One, Nadia was a fighter. She was born with a congenital heart defect, which required surgery when she was only one week old. Nadia was also born with a cleft palate, which made it difficult for her to breathe and swallow properly, and caused her to develop aspiration pneumonia a total of 12 times before she was even two years old. She was in and out of the hospital throughout her infant and toddler years, and at age three was finally given the diagnosis of Velocardiofacial Syndrome, now commonly known as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a deleted or missing section of chromosome 22. The deleted segment is present at the time of conception and in 10% of cases is believed to be inherited from a parent; in ...
VCFS Texas, Inc. The purpose of VCFS Texas, Inc. (22q Texas) is to provide support and resources to individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome a.k.a. Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) or DiGeorge syndrome (collectively "22q"), their families, professionals, and the community in Texas. We achieve this purpose by: - Increasing public awareness and understanding about VCFS/22q; - Creating a forum for the exchange of information, ideas and experiences related to VCFS/22q; - Improving the provision of services and supports to people with VCFS/22q through governmental agencies, the medical and therapeutic community, educational institutions and non-profit organizations; - Providing education, resources and support to parents and educators to ensure quality medical and therapeutic treatment for individuals with VCFS/22q in accordance with up-to-date scientific research; - Providing educational resources and support to parents and educators to ensure quality education which will prepare individuals ...
Polymicrogyria is a brain malformation due to abnormal cortical organization. Two histological types, unlayered or four-layered can be distinguished. Polymicrogyria is a rare manifestation of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome. We report two boys with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome and polymicrogyria, and describe the neuropathological features of the malformation in one of them. Clinical examinations, EEG, brain MRI, chromosomal analysis with FISH, and neuropathological studies of surgically resected cortical tissue were performed. Both patients showed severe developmental delay with cardiovascular malformations and one of them had drug resistant epilepsy. Polymicrogyria was found in the frontal, parietal, and temporal areas, unilaterally in one patient and bilaterally in the other. Histology revealed four-layered polymicrogyria. The pathogenesis of polymicrogyria in 22q11 deletion syndrome is discussed.
Validation study and pilot projects in several European countries demonstrated highest test accuracies for the detection of the 22q11 deletion syndrome. Konstanz, January 18, 2016 - PrenaTest®, Europes first NIPT, now also routinely tests for the DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11 deletion syndrome. By adding this microdeletion as the most common genetic microdeletion syndrome occurring in about one out of 3,000 births, LifeCodexx now offers a non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) with one of the largest test panels available today at highest accuracy.. For validation of the examination method data from synthetic pooled DNA samples as well as from several blood samples from pregnant women, whose unborn children had a 22q11.2 microdeletion, were examined. In all cases the microdeletion was correctly detected without any false-positive or false-negative results. Starting May 2016, the results of the validation study were confirmed during pilot projects in several European countries with the aim ...
Abstract: The COMT gene is thought to contribute to the cognitive/psychiatric phenotypes in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We measured these manifestations against the Val/Met alleles of the COMT gene, in 40 nonpsychotic 22q11DS children. The Val allele was associated with poor IQ, processing speed, executive function and a higher frequency of anxiety disorders, underscoring the importance of the COMT gene in the childhood psychopathology in 22q11DS.. COMT and anxiety and cognition in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome ...
Most people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are missing about 30 to 40 genes. The exact function of many of these genes remains a mystery. But one gene, TBX1, probably accounts for the syndromes most common physical symptoms, including heart problems and cleft palate. Another nearby gene, called COMT, may also help explain the increased risk for behavior problems and mental illness in people with the syndrome.. About 90 percent of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cases occur randomly at fertilization or early in fetal development. So most people affected with the disorder have no previous family history of it. However, they may pass the condition on to their children. The remaining 10 percent of cases are inherited from either the mother or the father. When the condition is inherited, other family members could also be affected. Because a person who has this chromosome deletion has a 50 percent chance of passing the deletion to a child, both parents are generally offered the opportunity to have their ...
Most people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are missing about 30 to 40 genes. The exact function of many of these genes remains a mystery. But one gene, TBX1, probably accounts for the syndromes most common physical symptoms, including heart problems and cleft palate. Another nearby gene, called COMT, may also help explain the increased risk for behavior problems and mental illness in people with the syndrome.. About 90 percent of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cases occur randomly at fertilization or early in fetal development. So most people affected with the disorder have no previous family history of it. However, they may pass the condition on to their children. The remaining 10 percent of cases are inherited from either the mother or the father. When the condition is inherited, other family members could also be affected. Because a person who has this chromosome deletion has a 50 percent chance of passing the deletion to a child, both parents are generally offered the opportunity to have their ...
Objective The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It is characterised by wide phenotypic variability, including congenital heart disease (CHD), immunodeficiency and scoliosis. However, little is known regarding the prevalence and characteristics of scoliosis in patients with 22q11.2DS. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of scoliosis, its characteristics and the association with CHD in patients with 22q11.2DS. ...
Mutation analysis of our cohort of non-deleted patients did not detect any cases with unambiguous loss of TBX1 function. Considering the strong experimental evidence for a major role of TBX1 in the 22q11 deletion syndrome from the deletion studies in the mouse,14-16 our findings are somewhat surprising. In contrast to our results, the majority of mutations inTBX5 in association with Holt-Oram syndrome are predicted to produce haploinsufficiency by nonsense or frameshift mutations within the T box region.12 13 23 Similarly, five of the 10 published mutations in TBX3, found in patients with ulnar-mammary syndrome, are predicted to disrupt the DNA binding domain.24 It is likely that the aetiology of non-deleted DGS/VCFS patients is heterogeneous. Malformations similar to those seen in the 22q11 deletion syndrome have been associated with prenatal exposure to retinoic acids and ethanol, maternal diabetes, and deletions of the short arm of chromosome 10. Therefore, it is possible that mutations ...
DiGeorge syndrome, or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a genetic disorder that can display itself in a variety of ways. Its quite rare and children with the
Monosomy 1p36 Deletion Syndrome 1p36 deletion syndrome is a chromosome disorder. A chromosome disorder is a change in chromosome number or structure which results in a set of features or symptoms. People with 1p36 deletion syndrome have lost a small but variable amount of genetic material from one of their 46 chromosomes. 1p36 deletion syndrome was described for the first time in the late 1990s, although the first case of a child with a deletion of 1p36 was published in 1981. Most reports suggest that 1p36 deletions affect girls more often than boys - around 65 per cent of reported cases are girls. Unique families support this: 73 per cent of the children with 1p36 deletion syndrome are girls. The reasons for this are, as yet, not known.
DiGeorge Syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by abnormal migration and development of certain cells and tissues during fetal development. As part of the developmental defect, the thymus gland may be affected and T-lymphocyte production may be impaired, resulting in low T-lymphocyte numbers and frequent infections.
Medical definition of DiGeorge syndrome: a rare congenital disease that is characterized especially by absent or underdeveloped thymus and parathyroid glands, heart defects, immunodeficiency, hypocalcemia, and characteristic facial features (as wide-set eyes, small jaws, and low-set ears) and is typically caused by a deletion on the chromosome numbered 22.
Overview of Chromosome 8q deletion syndrome as a medical condition including introduction, prevalence, prognosis, profile, symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, and treatment
DiGeorge syndrome. // Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary;2005, p599 A definition of the medical term "DiGeorge syndrome" is presented. DiGeorge syndrome refers to a congenital aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus. It is caused by a missing gene on chromosome 22 and subsequent deficiency of competent T lymphocytes and cell-mediated immunity. Its characteristics... ...
DiGeorge syndrome is caused by a problem called 22q11 deletion. This is where a small piece of genetic material is missing from a persons DNA.. In about 9 in 10 (90%) cases, the bit of DNA was missing from the egg or sperm that led to the pregnancy. This can happen by chance when sperm and eggs are made. It isnt a result of anything you did before or during the pregnancy.. In these cases, theres usually no family history of DiGeorge syndrome and the risk of it happening again to other children is very small.. In around 1 in 10 (10%) cases, the 22q11 deletion is passed on to a child by a parent who has DiGeorge syndrome, although they may not realise they have it if its mild.. ...
DiGeorge syndrome is caused by a problem called 22q11 deletion. This is where a small piece of genetic material is missing from a persons DNA.. In about 9 in 10 (90%) cases, the bit of DNA was missing from the egg or sperm that led to the pregnancy. This can happen by chance when sperm and eggs are made. It isnt a result of anything you did before or during the pregnancy.. In these cases, theres usually no family history of DiGeorge syndrome and the risk of it happening again to other children is very small.. In around 1 in 10 (10%) cases, the 22q11 deletion is passed on to a child by a parent who has DiGeorge syndrome, although they may not realise they have it if its mild.. ...
In the present study, we further analyzed flanking genes of 3p25 syntenic members identified in the Torafugu genomic database and determined their expression with cDNA isolated from ovary and liver. CECR5 was found in the upstream of RAF1 and CECR6 downstream of MKRN1 in Torafugu genomic scaffolds. In addition, the last exon of IL17R was located downstream of CECR6 on the opposite strand, in the same configuration as seen in human chromosome 22q11, with a high degree of conservation in sequence similarity and exon/intron structures. These results supported that the major part of the long arm of human chromosome 22 (q11 to q13), with a collinear order of IL17R, CECR6, and CECR5 (22q11) and SYN3 (22q12) and PPARA (22q13), is homologous to the ancestral 3p25 synteny containing a similar paralogous set of reference genes (SYN, PPAR, MKRN, RAF, CECR5, CECR6, and IL17R). It is also noted that CECR5, CECR6, and IL17R were likely to be functional in fish because their cDNAs were obtained from liver or ...
This 5 year competing application describes an opportunity to explore the long term outcomes of thymus transplantation in detail, with particular focus on the r...
Blog Day is a linkfest initiated by Nir Ofir in 2005, in the belief that bloggers should have one day which will be dedicated to discover new blogs and expose them to the world. We all have a small number of people and sources of information with which we interact of a regular basis, and that social and informational context is part of what shapes who we are in the world. Blog Day is a chance to expand those social and informational horizons by forging new links into new networks, bridging the divides between people and communities and enlarging our own experience.. The basic rules for Blog Day ask bloggers to post about five blogs that they would like to share with the world. Ive decided to do a little more… ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
What causes DiGeorge syndrome? As mentioned, 90 percent of patients with the features of this syndrome are missing a small part of their chromosome 22 at the q11 region. This region encompasses about 30 individual genes and results in developmental defects in specific structures throughout the body. It is not known why this region of chromosome 22 is prone to become deleted, but this is one of the most frequent chromosome defects in newborns. Deletion 22q11.2 is estimated to occur in one in 3,000 to 4,000 live births. Most of the 22q11.2 deletion cases are new occurrences or sporadic (occurs by chance). However, in about 10 percent of families, the deletion is inherited and other family members are affected or at risk for passing this deletion to their children. The gene is autosomal dominant, therefore, any person who has this deletion has a 50 percent chance of passing the deletion to a child. For this reason, whenever a deletion is diagnosed, both parents are offered the opportunity to have ...