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BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin. We identified a natural nonsynonymous variant of catestatin, Gly364Ser, that alters human autonomic function and blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS - Gly364Ser heterozygotes and controls underwent physiological and biochemical phenotyping, including catecholamine production, chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. Case-control studies replicated effects of the gene on blood pressure in the population. Gly364Ser displayed diminished inhibition of catecholamine secretion from cultured neurons. Gly/Ser heterozygotes displayed increased baroreceptor slope during upward deflections (by ≈47%) and downward deflections (by ≈44%), increased cardiac parasympathetic index (by ≈2.4-fold), and decreased cardiac sympathetic index (by ≈26%). Renal norepinephrine excretion was diminished by ≈26% and epinephrine excretion by ≈34% in Gly/Ser ...
Naturally Occurring Human Genetic Variation in the 3′-Untranslated Region of the Secretory Protein Chromogranin A Is Associated With Autonomic Blood Pressure Regulation and Hypertension in a Sex-Dependent Fashion Academic Article ...
The chromogranins/secretogranins are a family of acidic, soluble proteins with widespread neuroendocrine distribution in secretory vesicles. Although the precise function of the chromogranins remains elusive, knowledge of their structure, distribution, and potential intracellular and extracellular roles, especially that of chromogranin A, has greatly expanded during recent years. Chromogranin A is coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis from vesicles in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings. Thus, measurement of its circulating concentration by radioimmunoassay may be a useful probe of exocytotic sympathoadrenal activity in humans, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we explore the storage, structure, and function of chromogranin A, and parameters that influence its circulating levels. We have also measured plasma chromogranin A concentrations in different groups of patients with hypertension, including those with pheochromocytoma. ...
The structure of the gene encoding bovine chromogranin-A has been determined by characterization of two isolated genomic clones. Chromogranin-A is encoded by eight exons, which organize the coding region into several distinct structural and functional domains. Exons 1-5 represent the highly conserved signal peptide and N-terminal domain, which are separated into regions corresponding to the signal peptide, N-terminal sequence, disulfide-bonded loop, and remainder of the conserved N-terminal domain. Exon 6 represents the variable domain and encodes a region that is identical to the novel chromogranin-A-derived peptide chromostatin. Exon 7 encodes the biologically active peptide pancreastatin as well as most of the conserved C-terminal domain, with the remainder found on exon 8. The mRNA sequence obtained from the gene contains five nucleotide differences from the consensus sequence of four reported bovine chromogranin-A cDNA clones. Two of the differences in the gene result in two amino acid changes in
Common Functional Genetic Variants in Catecholamine Storage Vesicle Protein Promoter Motifs Interact to Trigger Systemic Hypertension Academic Article ...
Heritable autonomic traits may be of particular value in investigations of the genetic underpinnings of hypertension, a complex trait with both hereditary and environmental determinants and likely even multiple genetic (or "polygenic") determinants.7,8 Human twin studies indicate that baroreceptor activity is a substantially heritable trait.33 Such traits may be valuable "intermediate phenotypes"7,8 for hypertension, especially if they display earlier penetrance than the ultimate disease trait (DBP), can be elicited in still-normotensive individuals, and suggest testable candidate genetic loci (such as CHGA). Catestatin itself may be such a phenotype.8 Several of the autonomic phenotypes studied here (Table II and Figures 2 and 3⇑) meet these criteria.. Indeed, Gly364Ser genotypes were associated with hypertension (Figure 4a and 4b), especially in men (Figure 4b). Thus, the 364Ser allele may play a protective role against future the development of hypertension.. How might this happen? Because ...
Granins are major constituents of dense-core secretory granules in neuroendocrine cells, but their function is still a matter of debate. Work in cell lines has suggested that the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed granins, chromogranin A and B (CgA and CgB), are involved in granulogenesis and protein sorting. Here we report the generation and characterization of mice lacking chromogranin B (CgB-ko), which were viable and fertile. Unlike neuroendocrine tissues, pancreatic islets of these animals lacked compensatory changes in other granins and were therefore analyzed in detail. Stimulated secretion of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin was reduced in CgB-ko islets, in parallel with somewhat impaired glucose clearance and reduced insulin release, but normal insulin sensitivity in vivo. CgB-ko islets lacked specifically the rapid initial phase of stimulated secretion, had elevated basal insulin release, and stored and released twice as much proinsulin as wildtype (wt) islets. Stimulated release of
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Pituitary secretory protein I, CgA, Chromogranin A precursor, SP-I, CGA, chromogranin A (CgA), CHGA, chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory protein 1 ...
Secretogranin-1 is a neuroendocrine secretory granule protein, which may be the precursor for other biologically active peptides.
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Background: Hypertension is a complex trait, with deranged autonomic control of circulation. Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the most abundant core protein in human catecholamine secretory vesicles, playing an important role in their biogenesis. Does common interindividual variation at the CHGB locus contribute to phenotypic variation in CHGB and catecholamine secretion, autonomic stability of circulation, or blood pressure (BP) in the population? Methods and Results: To probe interindividual variability in CHGB, we systematically studied polymorphism across the locus by resequencing CHGB (≈6 kbp footprint spanning the promoter, 5 exons, exon/intron borders, untranslated regions) in 160 subjects (2n=320 chromosomes) of diverse biogeographic ancestries. We identified 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 22 were common. We then studied 1182 subjects drawn from the most extreme BP values in the population (highest and lowest 5th percentiles), typing 4 common polymorphisms spanning the ≈14 kbp ...
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Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Chromogranin A (CgA) levels have previously been found to predict mortality in heart failure (HF), but currently no information is available regarding CgA processing in HF and whether the CgA fragment catestatin (CST) may directly influence cardiomyocyte function.. ...
Complete information for CHGB gene (Protein Coding), Chromogranin B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CHGB - CHGB (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human chromogranin B (secretogranin 1) (CHGB) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms may occur in the uterine cervix, although rarely; it accounts for 0.5-1% of all malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. A case report of an Ethiopian female presented at the Gynecology Out-Patient Clinic at Jimma University Hospital, complaining from irregular vaginal bleeding over the previous three months. Clinically there was a cauliflower cervical mass; histopathologically it was formed of sheets of small cell tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an additional useful assistance
Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II.
Joost- I think a cocktail of chromogranins A and B would cover most pulmonary neuroendocrine cells without having to worry about which neuropeptide the cells elaborate. April- I love limonene as a clearing agent except in the tissue processor, we use xylene for procesing and limonene for purging the machine and all staining baths. It is not as volatile as xylene and leaves a slight oiliness in the tissues which usually is not a problem and sometimes helps, especially if the tissue is cut thin. Fatty tissues give the most problems when using limonene for processing. Vinnie and Terry, as for safety, Id rather use an agent that shows antitumor activity and is being fed orally!! to patients in clinical trials (limonene) than some mystery aliphatic that gets persnickety at the slightest hint of H2O. Our eosin never bleeds. I know some folks are allergic to limonene and get violently ill, luckily I have never encountered such a worker in nearly fifteen years of use (maybe 35 or 40 people). Limonenes ...
Islet cell autoantigen of 69kDa (ICA69) is a small GTPase-binding protein of unknown function. ICA69 is enriched in the Golgi complex and its N-terminal half contains a BAR domain, a module that can bind/bend membranes and interacts with phospholipids. Here we show that in insulinoma INS-1 cells ICA69 binds to the small GTPase Rab2, which regulates the transport of COPI vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Rab2 binds to ICA69 in a GTP-dependent fashion and recruits it to membranes. Over-expression of either Rab2 or ICA69 in INS-1 cells results in a phenotype characterized by: (i) impaired anterograde transport of the secretory granule protein precursors pro-ICA512 and chromogranin A; (ii) reduction of stimulated insulin secretion. Taken together, these data identify ICA69 as a novel Rab2 effector and point to its role in regulating the early transport of insulin secretory granule proteins.
Introduction: Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most important general tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET). CgA assays may have different sensitivities, which is of importance for the clinical diagnosis and handling of NET patients ...
Dr. Mains is interested in neurons and endocrine cells and the chemicals - peptides - used to talk to other cells. The enzymes involved in peptide processing and how the peptide precursors and enzymes manage to find each other and get together in the same secretory granules, are his key areas of inquiry right now. Dr. Eipper is investigating peptides, too, but her inquiry has led to questions about how cells provide the secretory granules with the environment they need to do their jobs. Current initiatives involve understanding the way in which cells provide toxic trace metals such as copper and essential factors like vitamin C to the secretory granule proteins that need them in order to function properly.. Mains and Eipper explain one practical value their research might yield. Electroconvulsive therapy is a procedure that causes a seizure in the brain by passing a mild electric current through the brain. ECT is one of the most effective treatments that exists for depression, and it is also ...
Product Description specificalThe micro CLIA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Human CGalpha. Standards or samples are added to the appropriate micro CLIA plate wells and combined with the specific antibody. Then a biotinylated detection antibody specific for Human CGalpha and Avidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugate is added to each micro plate well successively and incubated. Free components are washed away. The substrate solution is added to each well. Only those wells that contain Human CGalpha, biotinylated detection antibody and Avidin-HRP conjugate will appear fluorescence. The Relative light unit(RLU) value is measured spectrophotometrically by the Chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer. The RLU value is positively associated with the concentration of Human CGalpha. You can calculate the concentration of Human CGalpha in the samples by comparing the RLU value of the samples to the standard curve. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Two major membrane proteins (A and B) were obtained in purified form. Treatment of protein A with 2-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis resulted in two more rapidly migrating subunits, whereas protein B was unaffected by mercaptoethanol treatment. The amino acid compositions of the two purified proteins were determined. They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules.. ...
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
Binswangers disease. Coloured axial computed tomography (CT) scan of a brain with Binswangers disease. The front of the brain is at top in this view from below. The progression of this degenerative disease has caused atrophy in both halves of the brain, seen as the abnormal gaps appearing in the brain tissue. The ventricles (centre, orange) have also been affected and are dilated from their normal size. The disease, also called Binswangers dementia, involves disruption of the brains blood supply, which starves areas of the brain of oxygen, resulting in the death of nerve cells. Symptoms include depression, muscle rigidity, difficulties walking and urinary incontinence. There is no cure for the condition. - Stock Image C001/7913
NE differentiation in pancreatic carcinomas has been reported in various studies using IHC (13, 14, 15) . However, the expression of PGP9.5 and its relation to other NE markers have not been studied in pancreatic cancer to date. In this study, CGA was used as a marker for NE differentiation because it has been demonstrated to be a well-characterized marker for NE differentiation (16) . We found that tumor cells immunoreactive to CGA monoclonal antibody accounted for ,1% of the tumor cell population. On the other hand, PGP9.5 was expressed in 26 of 69 (37.7%) pancreatic cancers. These results suggested that the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic cancer is independent of NE differentiation.. Subsequently, we investigated a possible correlation of PGP9.5 status with clinicopathological features. Although PGP9.5 expression was not associated with tumor histology or the extent of the tumor, pancreatic cancer patients with PGP9.5 expression had significantly shorter survival times than those without ...
Lately, we have identified two polypeptides of 92-94 kDa (GRL1) and 45-60 kDa (GRL2), expressed in cytoplasmic granules of chicken granulocytes and thrombocytes. Here, we report that GRL1 and GRL2 are widely distributed in all exocrine and several endocrine cell types, but not in neurons of the central nervous system, during late stages of embryonic development, as well as in newly hatched and two-month-old chickens. Immunogold studies in ultrathin frozen sections of pancreatic acinar cells show that GRL1 and GRL2 are co-localized at the periphery of zymogen granules, in granules fused with apical acinar membranes and on apical membranes of acini, while the pregranular compartments of the secretory pathway are weakly or not labeled. Semiquantitative morphometric studies indicate that GRL1 and GRL2 are equally distributed in secretory granules. A variety of physical and metabolic studies reveal that GRL2, a highly N-glycosylated polypeptide, is an intrinsic membrane protein, while GRL1 is a ...
In development of colorectal cancer (CRC), stem cell (SC) overpopulation underlies tumor initiation and progression, but it is incompletely understood which dysregulated mechanisms cause SC overpopulation. Because neuroendocrine cell (NEC) and SC populations both reside in the SC niche at the normal crypt bottom, we hypothesized that i) NECs play a role in maintaining the SC population, and ii) changes in the NEC population contributes to SC overpopulation and altered epithelial: stromal interactions during tumorigenesis. Immunofluorescence mapping and flow cytometry were used to analyze SC niche structure and cell-cell interactions in normal and neoplastic colonic tissues from Caucasian and African-American patients. In normal colonic crypts, most cells (77%) staining positively for the colonic SC marker ALDH1, also co-stained for the NE cell marker chromogranin-A (CGA). In the progression from normal to normal-appearing FAP to adenomatous to malignant colonic tissue, the proportion of ...
Intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the production of lethal proteins in central neurons arent fully characterized. substrate GSK-3α/β (at Ser21/Ser9)(i.e. activation) and improved GSK-3α and GSK-3β kinase actions which occurred ahead of NP1 induction. Appearance of the dominant-negative inhibitor of Akt (Akt-kd) obstructed phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β and eventually improved NP1 induction. Whereas overexpression of constitutively turned on Akt (Akt-myr) or wild-type Akt (wtAkt) elevated GSK-α/β phosphorylation and attenuated NP1 induction. Transfection of neurons with GSK-3α siRNA blocked NP1 induction and cell loss of life completely. Similarly overexpression from the GSK-3β inhibitor Frat1 or the kinase mutant GSK-3βKilometres however not the wild-type GSK-3βWT obstructed NP1 induction and rescued neurons from loss of life. Our findings obviously implicate both GSK-3α and GSK-3β reliant system of NP1 induction and indicate a novel system in the legislation of ...
To examine the response to chronic high-dose angiotensin II (Ang II) and a proposed milder response in feminine hearts with respect to gene manifestation and ischemic injury. was recognized. Ang II improved manifestation of genes related to heart function (ANF β-MCH Verlukast Ankrd-1 PKC-α PKC-δ TNF-α); fibrosis (Col I-α1 Col III-α1 Fn-1 Timp1) and apoptosis (P53 Casp-3) without changing heart excess weight but with 68% increase in collagen content material. High (sub-toxic) dose of Ang II resulted in marked heart redesigning and diastolic dysfunction after ischemia without significant myocyte hypertrophy or ventricular chamber dilatation. Although there were some gender-dependent variations in gene manifestation female gender didnt protect against the entire response. (from the Western Convention for the safety of vertebrate pets) and everything procedures had been authorized by the Norwegian Committee on Ethics in Pet Experimentation. Experimental Process The rats had been Fischer ...
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Angiogenesis has been postulated to be critical for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM), a neoplastic disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Cleavage of the N- and C-terminal regions of circulating chromogranin A (CgA, CHGA), classically an anti-angiogenic protein, can activate latent anti- and pro-angiogenic sites, respectively. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CgA-derived polypeptides in MM patients and the subsequent implications for disease progression. We show that the ratio of pro-/anti-angiogenic forms of CgA is altered in MM patients compared with healthy subjects, and that this ratio is higher in BM plasma compared with peripheral plasma, suggesting enhanced local cleavage of the CgA C-terminal region. Enhanced cleavage correlated with increased VEGF and FGF2 BM plasma levels and BM microvascular density. Using the Vk*MYC mouse model of MM, we further demonstrate that exogenously administered CgA was ...
Patient preparation: Patient must be fasting 10-12 hours prior to collection of specimen. Patient should not be on any medications that may influence Insulin levels, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection. Specimen Type: SST Serum Container/Tube: Serum gel Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial Specimen Volume: 2 mL Collection Instructions: Draw blood in a serum gel tube(s). Spin down and send 2 mL of serum frozen in a plastic vial.
Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) are a family of cancers that cause tumours in the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system consists of nerve and gland cells. It produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream. NETs are generated by cells that release the hormones. The majority of NETs are found in the intestine, pancreas and the lungs.(4). ...
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GO:0061101. The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a neuroendocrine cell. A neuroendocrine cell is a cell that receives input form a neuron which controls the secretion of an endocrine substance. ...
Synaptophysin小鼠单克隆抗体[SP15](ab11105)可与大鼠, 仓鼠, 人, 猪样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证,被10篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The LNCaP cell line is a versatile and useful model that is suitable for the study of human prostate cancer in vitro. The elevation of LNCaP intracellular cAMP levels through the addition of membrane permeable cAMP analogues, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenylate cyclase activators, or components of the cAMP signal transduction pathway can induce reversible neuroendocrine differentiation. Elucidation of those genes that are differentially expressed between undifferentiated prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cells that have been induced to differentiate may present new insights for the molecular mechanisms governing neuroendocrine differentiation, early detection of prostate cancer, and/or potential targets for gene therapy. In this study, differential display PCR was used to identify 226 differentially expressed PCR products. Twelve of the differential display PCR products were confirmed by Northern blot analysis and cloned. DNA sequencing and database comparisons were performed. Among ...
Binswangers disease, also known as subcortical leukoencephalopathy, is a form of small vessel vascular dementia caused by damage to the white brain matter. White matter atrophy can be caused by many circumstances including chronic hypertension as well as old age. This disease is characterized by loss of memory and intellectual function and by changes in mood. These changes encompass what are known as executive functions of the brain. It usually presents between 54 and 66 years of age, and the first symptoms are usually mental deterioration or stroke. It was described by Otto Binswanger in 1894, and Alois Alzheimer first used the phrase "Binswangers disease" in 1902. However, Olszewski is credited with much of the modern-day investigation of this disease which began in 1962. Symptoms include mental deterioration, language disorder, transient ischemic attack, muscle ataxia, and impaired movements including change of walk, slowness of movements, and change in posture. These symptoms usually ...
Supplementary MaterialsTable_1. in the enriched planning of secretory granules in -TC1-6 cells. Isolation of secretory granules was validated by immunoisolation with Fc-glucagon and immunoblotting for organelle-specific proteins. Isolated enriched secretory granules had been then useful for affinity purification with Fc-glucagon accompanied by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to recognize secretory granule protein that Armillarisin A connect to glucagon. Proteomic analyses uncovered a network of protein containing glucose governed proteins 78 KDa (GRP78) and histone H4. The connections between glucagon as well as the ER tension proteins GRP78 and histone H4 was verified through co-immunoprecipitation of secretory granule lysates, and colocalization immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Structure from the proteins networks was changed at different sugar levels (25 vs. 5.5 mM) and in reaction to the paracrine inhibitors of glucagon secretion, Insulin and GABA. siRNA-mediated ...
The effect of Ca2+ and calmodulin on phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins was studied. Secretory granules were incubated in a phosphorylation reaction mixture containing [32P]ATP and test reagents. The 32P-labeled proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 32P content was visualized by autoradiography, and the relative intensities of specific bands were quantitated. When the reaction mixture contained EGTA and no added Ca2+, 32P was incorporated into two proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 13,000. When 10−4 M Ca2+ was added without EGTA, two additional proteins (58,000 and 48,000 Mr) were phosphorylated, and the 13,000-Mr protein was absent. The addition of 2.4 μM calmodulin markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of the 58,000- and 48,000-Mr proteins and resulted in the phosphorylation of a major protein whose molecular weight (64,000 Mr) is identical to that of one of the calmodulin binding proteins located on the granule ...
Chronic hyperglycemia can lead to chronic activation of the nutrient-sensing serine/threonine protein kinase, mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in β cells. Activated mTOR triggers serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-2 and its subsequent proteosomal degradation, leading to increased β-cell apoptosis (39). It should be noted, however, that chronic hyperglycemia can also trigger β-cell apoptosis by additional mechanisms, collectively referred to as "glucotoxicity." These mechanisms include the generation of potentially damaging reactive-oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of chronically increased glucose metabolism in β cells (40); chronic elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] to cytotoxic levels (3); a marked up-regulation in the synthesis of β-cell secretory granule proteins, including pro-insulin and pro-Islet Amyloid Associated Peptide (proIAPP), which in turn could promote ER stress (3, 41); and a glucose-induced increase in local interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production (42). Some of ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein with an arfaptin homology domain that is found both in the cytosol and as membrane-bound form on the Golgi complex and immature secretory granules. This protein is believed to be an autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and primary Sjogren's syndrome. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013 ...
CD56 : Aids in the identification of tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation   Aids in the identification of natural killer cell lineage in a subset of lymphomas