Free Online Library: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway.(Research, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Cancer Care and treatment Risk factors Cancer treatment Chromium compounds Health aspects Cyclooxygenases Physiological aspects Genes Luciferase Transcription factors
Objective: The paper describes the results of a polycentric study for the assessment of reference values of urinary chromium (U-Cr) in the Italian population. Method: A total of 890 subjects (58.3% males and 41.7% females) were selected on the basis of standardized criteria in eight different areas of Italy. Urinary chromium was determined on morning spot samples collected using standardized procedures. The U-Cr was determined independently by three laboratories using an Electrothermic atomization-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETA-AAS) method with a detection limit of 0.05 mu g/l, adopting - for the statistical analysis - the median value of the results of the three laboratories. The between-laboratories within-subjects standard deviation was 0.049 mu g/l. Due to the high proportion (approx. 28%) of undetectable chromium levels, the geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were estimated using a procedure of linear interpolation. The analysis of the effects of some variables ...
Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m(3)), for which clear exposure-response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancerrisk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose-response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. ...
Chromium toxicity refers to the fact that chromium is toxic. Water-insoluble chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known for a long time. An investigation into hexavalent chromium release into drinking water was the basis of the true story of Erin Brockovich, dramatised as Erin Brockovich (film). Because of the specific transport mechanisms, only limited amounts of chromium(III) enter the cells. Several in vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of chromium(III) in the cell can lead to DNA damage. Acute oral toxicity ranges between 1900 and 3300 µg/kg. The proposed beneficial effects of chromium(III) and its use in dietary supplements yielded some controversial results, but recent reviews suggest that moderate uptake of chromium(III) through dietary supplements poses no risk. The World Health Organization-recommended maximum allowable concentration in drinking water for ...
Background: Chromium is a micronutrient, considered to be essential for birnak carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect if chromium on the glycemic status and lipid profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: To study the effect of chromium supplementation on glycemic status and serum lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Sixty type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to two groups. A double blind technique was used and the patients received either 250æg of chromium picolinate or placebo for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured at baseline and 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum insulin concentration was also measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: The fasting blood glucose, glycated ...
SUAREZ, O.J; OLAYA, J. J; SUAREZ, M.F y RODIL, S.E. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF DECORATIVE CHROMIUM FILMS OBTAINED FROM TRIVALENT CHROMIUM SOLUTIONS. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2012, vol.57, n.1, pp.977-982. ISSN 0717-9707. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072012000100005.. In this work, the resistance to corrosion of chromium films obtained from trivalent chromium solutions of different compositions and the influence of solution compounds on the coatings electrochemical behavior and the microstructure were studied. The chromium coatings were obtained from trivalent solutions in a chloride-based bath with different complexing agents adding also sodium hypophosphite and aluminum chloride. UV-vis spectroscopy was carried out on all solutions before and after plating to observe changes in the chromium complexes chemical state due to the plating process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were performed to examine the coatings surface morphology and composition; ...
Abdollahi M, Farshchi A, Nikfar S, Seyedifar M. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(1):99-114.. Anderson R. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):548-555.. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes and Metabolism. 2000;26(1)22-27.. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(9):266-270.. Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(5):404-410.. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intake of supplemental chromium improved glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-1791.. Anderson RA, Roussell AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto magnetic natural zeolite-polymer composite. AU - Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.. AU - Onyango, Maurice S.. AU - Ochieng, Aoyi. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Magnetic natural zeolite-polypyrrole (MZ-PPy) composite was prepared for enhanced removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent was analyzed with the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of magnetic zeolite loading within the composite, initial pH, sorbent dosage, temperature and Cr(VI) concentration on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Up to 99.99% removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was 2 and the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 300 mg/L. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the ...
Chromium occurs naturally in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exist in several different forms. Depending on the form it takes, it can be a liquid, solid, or gas. The form of chromium of most concern from a health perspective is chromium(VI), also called hexavalent chromium. Inhalation of hexavalent chromium at high levels can damage the respiratory system and cause cancer. Other forms of chromium are chromium(0) and chromium(III). Chromium(0) is the metal form of chromium. It is used in steel manufacturing. Hexavalent chromium and chromium(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient that helps the body use sugar, protein, and fat. Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated air. It is odorless and tasteless. Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of chromium(III), and in the form of small particles or aerosols. The largest industrial ...
WHAT DOES CHROMIUM DO FOR US?. What scientist have established is that chromium is involved in glucose metabolism. They are not sure how but they know it does. Insulin appears to be more effective when chromium levels are optimal. Because of its affect on insulin chromium also has an indirect role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism all of which insulin influences.. When chromium is ingested at the same time as vitamin C more chromium enters our blood stream.. Contrary to what the diet and exercise gurus might tell you chromium lll does not promote weight loss nor does it increase lean body mass or decrease body fat. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DONT GET ENOUGH CHROMIUM?. Chromium deficiency is the disorder that too little chromium in the diet produces. This deficiency was first observed in some extreme cases. These cases were hospitalized patients who were being fed intravenously. They developed problems with the way glucose was being managed in their bodies and they started to produce ...
The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of chromium(III) as a nutrient added to foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) and foods intended for the general population (including food supplements). The Panel concluded that following oral administration, trivalent chromium is poorly absorbed. The results of in vitro bacterial mutagenicity assays have been consistently negative. The results of other genotoxicity studies are conflicting. The Panel also evaluated new in vitro and in vivo studies on the genotoxicity of chromium(III) compounds which were not covered by previous evaluations. The Panel concluded that in very large amounts, certain trivalent chromium compounds are cytotoxic and have been shown to cause chromosomal damage. The Panel also evaluated the data on long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity for chromium(III). Based on the facts i) that maximum intake levels of up to 250 µg/day for supplemental ...
74 ADSORPTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM ONTO TAILORED ZEOLITES Ivonne Santiago, Research Assistant Vincent P. Worland, Research Assistant Enrique Cazares-Rivera, Research Assistant Fernando Cadena, Professor Department of Civil Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 CHROMIUM Chromium is used in a variety of industrial applications, including electroplating and as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling towers.1 Up to a few years ago, this metal was the favored corrosion control agent in cooling towers.2 Cooling water blowdown (waste) was dumped into rivers, pits, lakes and oceans. During the 1950s chromates were also used as a highway deicing agent in the United States. Chromium (Cr) occurs in the + 2, + 3 and + 6 oxidation states in water. The divalent slate is rarely found in field conditions because it becomes rapidly oxidized to + 3 in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.3 Insoluble Cr(III) occupies much of the Chromium Eh-pH diagram.4 Chromium (III) is less toxic than ...
Natural News) Antioxidants such as vitamin C are often taken to boost immunity and prevent diseases, but these substances can also be used against a water contaminant called hexavalent chromium. This chemical contaminates the water supply in about 200 million American homes.. Researchers from Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois discovered that vitamin C and other antioxidants like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the primary antioxidant in green tea, can reduce the harmful effects of hexavalent chromium. This chemical is often produced by industrial processes, so it usually enters the water supply through industrial waste. Additionally, it is known to cause cancer. (Related: Hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) was just found in 75% of drinking water… the mass chemical suicide of America is under way.). In this study, the researchers aimed to determine whether antioxidants can help avoid cell toxicity. To do so, the researchers exposed two types of human cells to different ...
Many of the metallic implants used in orthopaedics are made of stainless steel or cobalt-chromium alloys which contain 18-30% chromium. Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) has been shown to be the predominant form of chromium released following in vivo and in vitro corrosion of these metal implants (Merritt and Brown, 1995 K. Merritt and S.A. Brown, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995), pp. 627-633. Full Text via CrossRef , View Record in Scopus , Cited By in Scopus (67)Merritt and Brown, 1995). Blood chromium levels may be elevated between 50 and 250 times in patients with metal hip implants (Lhotka et al., 2003). At physiological pH, Cr (VI) exists predominantly as the chromate anion and as such can enter cells via non-specific anion channels. The anionic Cr (VI) diffuses readily through the red blood cell (RBC) membrane and is bound by the haemoglobin probably after its rapid reduction to the cationic trivalent state within the RBC (Gray and Sterling, 1950). The aims of this study were to investigate the ...
Chromium exists in the environment in two most stable oxidation states, Cr (III) and Cr (VI), which are likely to be interconvertible in natural waters and in soils (Schroeder & Lee 1975; Handerson 1994). However, these two forms of chromium are mainly different in their physicochemical and toxicological properties. Cr3+ is soluble in acidic solutions and it precipitates as the hydroxide in alkaline solutions (Rai et al. 1987). Chromium (III) is less toxic, but in higher concentrations it is likely to produce genotoxic DNA effects in the cell nucleus (ATSDR 2012). Cr (VI) mainly exists in water as chromic acid (H2CrO4), hydrogen chromate (HCrO4−), chromate (CrO42−) and dichromate (Cr2O72−) depending on the pH and total chromium concentration (Palmer & Puls 1994). The distribution of Cr (VI) species as the function of the pH, are H2CrO4 below a pH of about 1, CrO42− above a pH of about 6, and HCrO4− at pHs between 1 and 6, when the concentrations of Cr (VI) are relatively low. The ...
Genotoxicity in vitro Bacterial mutation The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) bacterial reverse mutation assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. In addition, an NTP Ames test (non-standard protocol) performed with sodium dichromate dihydrate was positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant Ames tests are available, further testing is not required based on the weight of evidence from the large number of existing studies. Chromosomal aberration The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) cytogenicity / clastogenicity / chromosomal aberration assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant studies are available, further testing is not required ...
Significant exposure to hexavalent chromium, a metal with broad toxicity potential in humans, has been reported. In order to understand the mechanisms of dermal toxicity induced by hexavalent chromium, global gene expression profiling of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to potassium dichromate was performed. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in the fibroblasts treated with potassi
Chromium toxicity is very low. According to some studies, a 150-lb. person could take approximately 175,000 doses of 200-mcg chromium tablets and show no signs of toxicity. ** However, since chromium might be deposited in the liver and kidneys and because extra high doses are generally unnecessary, there is no reason for the average person to take above the regular dosages found in chromium supplements. **. Caution: If you are diabetic, take chromium supplements only with a doctors supervision. Chromium may alter insulin requirements.. ** Source: Some of the above information was taken from the book "Stop Aging Now!" written by Jean Carper. Several authorities and articles on the benefits of chromium and health, provided additional information.. ...
Increased serotonin levels are known to improve mood and decrease carbohydrate cravings.. Additional research on chromium was presented by scientists from the U.S.D.A. and from the Medical College of Georgia. The U.S.D.A. study in animals found that chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate reduced the expression of the gene in the brain that produces TAU proteins. The TAU protein is involved in the development of Alzheimers disease. Research by MCG demonstrated that high doses of chromium picolinate are safe and does not cause kidney dysfunction in animal models of obesity and of diabetes.. "These results provide a mechanism by which chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate improves mood and reduces carbohydrate cravings," stated James Komorowski, Nutrition 21 VP technical services and scientific affairs. "The research by the U.S.D.A. provides evidence to support additional research in new chromium applications that address significant quality of life issues in our society. The research ...
Workers chronically exposed to hexavalent chromium have elevated risk of lung cancer. Our study investigates the incidence of lung cancer types, age at onset of the disease, and survival time among chromium exposed workers with respect to the expression of anti-apoptotic p53 and pro-apoptotic survivin proteins. 67 chromium exposed workers and 104 male controls diagnosed with lung cancer were analyzed. The mean exposure time among workers was 16.7 ± 10.0(SD) years (range 1- 41 years). To investigate the possible regulation of survivin by p53 we examined the expression of both proteins using immohistochemical visualization. Chromium exposure significantly decreases the age of onset of the disease by 3.5 years (62.2 ± 9.1 in the exposed group vs. 65.7 ± 10.5 years in controls; P = 0.018). Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) amounted for 25.4% of all cases in chromium exposed workers and for 16.3% in non-exposed individuals. The mean survival time in the exposed group was 9.0 ± 12.7 vs. 12.1 ± 21.9 months
Chromium can exist in air, water, soil, and food, and common exposure pathways include ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. Chromium is commonly found in two forms: trivalent chromium (chromium III) and hexavalent chromium (chromium VI). Chromium III is the most stable form of the element, and occurs naturally in animals, plants, rocks, and soils. Chromium VI rarely occurs in nature, and is usually the product of anthropogenic activities.. The health effects of chromium depend on the route of exposure and the form of the chromium. For example, inhaling chromium can cause damage to the respiratory system, whereas dermal or oral exposures generally do not. Gastrointestinal effects are generally associated with oral exposure, but not with dermal exposure. In addition, chromium VI typically causes greater health risks than chromium III. The reasons for the increased danger of chromium VI versus chromium III are complex, and relate in part to the varied paths of cellular uptake between the two ...
A high intake of chromium in your diet doesnt cause serious side effects. But you should check with a healthcare provider before taking it. This is vital if youre pregnant or breastfeeding. If you have diabetes, chromium supplements could change how much medicine you need. They may also lower your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels closely if you start taking them. Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. Zinc may decrease how well you absorb chromium. Chromium may cause you to need less of your diabetes medicines. These may reduce chromium levels:. ...
Chromium Other name(s): trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate General description Chromium is an essential trace metal. It helps to control your blood sugar. It also helps insulin work well. You also need it to metabolize and store carbohydrates, fat, and protein. You need normal amounts of chromium in your diet to break down carbohydrates. Medically valid uses Chromium deficiency is rare in humans. Studies of chromium supplements to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes in humans arent conclusive. R...
Very little chromium (,2%) in the form of inorganic compounds is absorbed but may be higher with certain organic formulations (14). Once absorbed, chromium is distributed to various tissues of the body, but appears to be most concentrated in the kidney, muscle, and liver (16). The principal carrier protein for chromium is transferrin, which also plays a critical role in the movement of chromium from blood to LMWCr. It has been suggested that migration of transferrin receptors to the plasma membranes of insulin-insensitive cells after insulin stimulation is the initial step in this process. Transferrin containing the plasma-bound chromium is postulated to bind to the transferrin receptors and is internalized by endocytosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The pH of the internalized vesicle is reduced by ATP-driven proton pumps, chromium is released from transferrin, and the resulting free chromium is postulated to be sequestered by LMWCr (15,17). With this step, chromium is transferred from transferrin to LMWCr, ...
When present in soil, the oxidized forms of certain metallic contaminants (e.g., hexavalent chromium) are quite mobile and can be easily carried by waters percolating through the unsaturated zone. To avoid the excessive costs and risks associated with excavation, transportation, and disposal of the chromium contamination at locations such as Pantex, Hanford, and the Sandia National Laboratory, the Department of Energy (DOE) is testing the In-Situ Gaseous Reduction System (IGRS). In IGRS, the oxidized metals are reduced and immobilized. For chromium-contaminated sites, the primary chemical reaction involves the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr (III)], with subsequent precipitation as a nontoxic, insoluble solid ...
Bueverov AO. Lekarstvennii hepatyt: esly preparat nelzia otmenyt. Klynycheskye perspektyvy hastroenterolohyy y hepatolohyy 2007; 5: 13-19. Rakhymov KD, Palhova LK, Alenova AKh. Spravochnyk po pobochnym deistvyiam lekarstvennykh sredstv. Almaty; 2004: 224. Santhosh S, Sini T, Anandan R. Hepatoprotective activity of chitosan against isoniazid and rifampicin-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 572: 69-73. Posokhova KA, Shevchuk OO, Datsko TV. Porivnialna hepatotoksychnist antymikobakterialnykh zasobiv ta yikh kombinatsii. Farmakolohiia ta likarska toksykolohiia 2010; 5: 41-46. Gliman AG. Antimicrobial agents: drugs used in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, in Goodman and Gilmans the pharmacologic basis of therapeutics. New York. Pergamon Press; 1990: 1149-1152. Yew WW, Leung CC. Antituberculosis drugs and hepatotoxicity. Respirology 2006; 11: 699-707. Sarich T, Youssefi M, Zhou T. Role of hydrazine in the mechanism of isoniazid hepatotoxicity in rabbits. Arch Toxicol 1996; ...
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1. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 2. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 3. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitis with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med. 1999;16:164-167. 4. Seaborn CD, Stoecker BJ. Effects of antacid or ascorbic acid on tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of 51-chromium. Nutr Res. 1990;10:1401-1407. 5. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791. 6. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;12:91-97. 7. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin and lipid variables. Metabolism. 1983;32:894-899. 8. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et ...
Chromium is a commonly used (or at least recommended) supplement in PCOS. What is it, why is it recommended, and should you be taking it?. Chromium is a metal, just like iron and copper. Its not really needed in large amounts to do its job, which in the body, is to help metabolize sugar and fats.. Some researchers have suggested that chromium supplementation in PCOS can help insulin function. There are two articles in the National Library of Medicine database looking specifically at the use of chromium supplementation in PCOS. One study, using a dose of 200 mcg per day, resulted in improved glucose tolerance but not fertility. The second study bumped the dose up to 1000 micrograms per day, resulting in a 38% better ability to remove glucose from the blood.. BEFORE YOU RUSH OUT AND BUY A YEARS SUPPLY…. There are more than a few articles in the very same database connecting chromium picolinate to DNA damage. The earliest one, for someone writing so much about infertility, really caught my eye, ...
The objective of this research was to validate the use of sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate in reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from electroplating, and industrial wastewaters. Jars tests, and dynamic tests, were conducted using distilled water, electroplating rinse waters, and industrial wastewaters from Tinker AFB Industrial Waste Treatment Plant. Optimum process parameters were evaluated as well as analysis of the effects of typical contaminants and complexing agents, along with the effects of the process on downstream treatment. The information obtained verified that the sulfide treatment process will meet discharge permit requirements while reducing chemical and disposal costs. The results were the basis for continuing to Phase II, Pilot-Scale Study On Actual Industrial Wastewaters. Keywords: Metals treatment, Chromium reduction, Sulfide treatment, Heavy metals removal, Ferrous sulfide, Industrial wastewater, Treatment, Sludge reduction, Electroplating. (jes)*WASTE TREATMENT
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Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a potent respiratory carcinogen with widespread human exposure. The particulate form, for example lead chromate, has been determined to be the most toxic and carcinogenic form. These particles impact at bifurcation sites of the lung and persist in the respiratory tract. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of lung cancer with cells exhibiting both translocations and severe aneuploidy. However, the ability of Cr(VI) to induce translocations is unknown. We exposed human lung cells to lead chromate for three sequential 24 h periods, each separated by about a month. After each treatment, cells were seeded at colony forming density, cloned, expanded and retreated. Each generation of clones were tested for their chromium sensitivity, chromosome complement and DNA repair capacity. We found that after the first treatment, lead chromate-treated cells exhibited a normal chromosome complement though a few clones showed an increase in relative survival. ...
SUN COVERAGE: CHROMIUM Harbor Point project stirs environmental concerns Dundalk port cleanup plan set ARCHIVES: Chromium, cancer link established Developing the Harbor Point site between Fells Point and Harbor East will require temporary openings in a cap holding in toxic hexavalent chromium compounds...
The extraction of chromium from chromite ore is based on the oxidative alkali roasting of the mineral forming water-soluble alkali chromates. Previous investigations reported the formation of a molten Na2CO3-Na2CrO4 binary mixture during roasting of chromite with sodium carbonate. The physical properties of the Na2CO3-Na2CrO4 liquid phase, which are dependent on temperature, charge and gangue composition, play an important role in the oxidation reaction and may limit the chromium recovery by hindering the oxygen transport to the reaction interface. This investigation focuses on the alkali roasting of chromite ore at 1000oC using NaOH and KOH, and subsequent water leaching. The influence of the alkali ratio on the chromium extraction yield is analysed, and the results obtained with both hydroxides are compared. The formation of molten salt phase under different roasting conditions and its effect on chromium recovery is studied by means of sample characterization and phase diagram analysis.. ...
The effects of chromium methionine supplementation on performance and serummetaboliteswere evaluated in broiler chickens.Two experiments were conducted at22 oC, thermoneutral, (TN) and33±2 oC, heat stressed (HS) conditions. Two hundred and eighty eight male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments with 0 (control), 200, 400 or 800 ppb of chromium methionine for 42-d experimental period carried out. Serum metabolitesand performance were determined. Supplementing the diet of TN and HS conditions broilerswith chromium methionine improved feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) (P|0.05), but Feed conversion ration (FCR) of broilers was not affected by different levels of supplemental chromium.Chromium methionine increased serum HDL contents, but decreased glucose, (GLU), cholesterol (CHL),triacylglycerol (TG) and LDL concentrations (P|0.05) in both TN and HS temperature. The results of these experiments indicated that supplementation of
This study presents potential application of different forms of carbon including: carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, activated carbon, and fly ash into the removal of some of the high toxic heavy metals that may present in water resources. The study was based on intensive experimental work to measure the removal percentage of hexavalent chromium and cadmium from water under different situations. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the environmental application of carbon in its different forms, through the experimental removal of chromium hexavalent and cadmium divalent ions from water. Five parameters were studied during this experimental work: the pH of solution, the agitation speed, the contact time, the carbon dosage rate, and concentration of the heavy metal in water. Matrix design was developed in this experimental study in order to find the optimal conditions of the Cr (VI) and Cd (II) removal from water. In addition to these four forms of carbon, each form was modified for ...
The occurrence of pseudotumours following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) has been associated with high serum metal ion levels and consequently higher than normal bearing wear. Measuring ground reaction force is a simple method of collecting information on joint loading during a sit-to-stand (STS). We investigated vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) asymmetry during sit-to-stand for 12 MoMHRA patients with known serum metal ion levels. Asymmetry was assessed using two methods: a ratio of VGRF for implanted/unimplanted side and an absolute symmetry index (ASI). It was found that subjects with high serum metal ion levels preferentially loaded their implanted sides. The difference between the two groups was most apparent during the first 22% of STS. VGRF ratio showed significant and strong correlation with serum metal ion levels (Spearmans rho = 0.8, p = 0.003). These results suggest that individual activity patterns play a role in the wear of MoMHRA and preferential loading of an
Made infamous by the activist Erin Brockovich and the film produced about her, the heavy metal hexavalent chromium will now be receiving a little more attention. Also, known as Chromium 6, the California EPA have set limits on the arguably cancer causing chemical found in water within the state.. On Wednesday, the California EPA imposed a statewide limit of chromium 6 of 0.02 parts per billion, the maximum amount of the chemical before it is considered to be a significant health risk. Current federal regulations limit chromium, both chromium 6 and chromium 3, to 100 ppb in water, but there are no regulations on chromium 6 itself. Chromium 3 is non-toxic and is important to glucose metabolism of the body.. Chromium 6, however, is a rather toxic substance. It is commonly discharged as waste by steel and pulp mills and also used in metal-plating and leather-tanning factories.. As the only state in the nation to require testing, California originally proposed a public health goal (PHG) for chromium ...
Chromium (picolinate) Supports lipid and glucose metabolism Chromium is important for fat metabolism, enzyme activation, and glucose support. It promotes healthy lipid and carbohydrate utilization. Chromium picolinate is a highly utilizable form of chromium, promoting healthy glucose and lipid metabolism. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: chromium (picolinate) 500 mcg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 1-2 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
Since neither of the above-mentioned extraction methods was conducted in ultra-basic aqueous environments, it could be expected that not all Cr(VI) containing salts would quantitatively be extracted. Therefore, Cr(VI) values reported in this paper should not be considered to represent the total Cr(VI) quantitatively. However, absolute total Cr(VI) concentrations were not considered as a pre-requisite for this work, since the main aim was to determine Cr(VI) generation trends.. Cr(VI) determination. The Cr(VI) content of the extracted solutions was determined with a Pharmacia Biotech Ultrospec 3 000 uv/visible spectrophotometer. Analysis was conducted in a 100 mm optical cell at a wavelength of 540 nm. Prior to analysis, s-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) in a phosphate medium was added, as recommended by Bartlett (1991). The uv/visible DPC method has some weaknesses. This includes the fact that it is usually utilised in conjunction with acidic extraction of Cr(VI) that does not extract partially ...
Significant industrial waste is haphazardly dumped into the Meycauayan River, a source of domestic and agricultural water for 250,000 people living in and around Manila. Substantial contamination comes from small scale lead recycling facilities along the river at Marilao, and from the many tanneries that dump untreated hexavalent chromium into the river. This river also feeds directly into the Manila Bay, and its effluents contaminate shellfish in commercial fishing areas.
Introduction: Over 1 million metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements were performed between 2003 and 2010. These prostheses were intended to be more durable than previous models, but have been associated with a higher failure rate. There have also been isolated cases of fulminant cardiomyopathy in patients with very high serum cobalt levels. We screened a cohort of asymptomatic patients with these prostheses for subclinical cardiac abnormalities. Methods: All patients with MOM hip replacements at our centre undergo regular follow-up in the orthopaedic clinic with serum cobalt and chromium levels, and periodic magnetic resonance scanning of the affected joint. We recruited consecutive asymptomatic patients to receive echocardiography and recorded demographic data including age, height, weight, serum cobalt and chromium levels, and date of prosthesis implantation. Echocardiographers were blinded to medical history and laboratory results. The cohort was split into quartiles of serum cobalt. ANOVA, ...
Three months of supplementation with 400 micrograms of elemental chromium in the form of chromium dinicocysteinate produced 30% improvements in reduced fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance, compared with no significant improvements in the placebo or chromium picolinate.. "Results of this study indicate that the presence of the cysteinate molecule in chromium dinicocysteinate helps provide better protection against the oxidative stress and the activation of signal transduction pathways associated with the insulin resistance and vascular inflammation of type 2 diabetes,"​ wrote researchers in the peer-review journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research​.​. "Whether or not chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can similarly prevent insulin resistance and vascular inflammation and thereby, delay or prevent the onset of diabetes in the prediabetic population is not known and will be interesting to investigate. ​. "If it works as well as this research hints that it may, then ...
Almost anyone is capable of increasing the level of physical activity. While walking is one of the best forms of activity for improving insulin resistance, any activity that creates muscular activity is beneficial. Losing weight, however is not so simple.. Since Insulins primary function is to convert sugar to fat, high levels of insulin promote weight gain. As body weight rises, insulin resistance increases. In response the body produces more insulin, which converts more sugar to fat, and the vicious cycle continues.. Chromium Plus was for formulated to address the causes of insulin resistance in a comprehensive manner. Chromium Polynicotinate is the key ingredient. Chromium is an insulin co-factor, and chromium deficiencies, which are widespread in our society, are indistinguishable from what is called type 2 diabetes. The polynicotinate form is the most bioavailable, meaning that it is the form that is best absorbed and utilized by the body.. Chromium alone will reverse some, but not all ...
Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. The most common forms are chromium(0), trivalent (or chromium(III)), and hexavalent (or chromium(VI)).
The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for chromium in 2001. For chromium there was not sufficient information to set EARs and RDAs, so needs are described as estimates for Adequate Intakes (AIs). The current AIs for chromium for women ages 14 and up is 25 μg/day up to age 50 and 20 μg/day for older. AI for pregnancy is 30 μg/day. AI for lactation is 45 μg/day. For men ages 14 and up 35 μg/day up to age 50 and 30 μg/day for older. For infants to children ages 1-13 years the AI increases with age from 0.2 to 25 μg/day. As for safety, the IOM sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of chromium there is not yet enough information and hence no UL. Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).[8] Japan designate chromium as an essential nutrient, identifying 10 μg/day as an Adequate Intake for ...
To legally get the Chromium OS, you have to wait for Google to launch Chromium Netbooks with optimized hardware. This means you cannot download and run the Chromium OS on your desktop or laptop.. But here is the good news:. Chromium OS, the open source build of Googles upcoming web-focused Operating System, was made into a thumb-drive-friendly build early on by a helpful hacker named Hexxeh.. Hexxeh has before released his Chromium OS ZERO Build which became quite famous. Now, he has released his latest build the FLOW.. ...
A series of investigations was undertaken to determine the acceptability of certain industrial wastes containing hexavalent chromium by a biodisc system providing both secondary treatment and biological nitrification. The initial objectives of the study were: to determine the extent to which a biodisc system can tolerate chromium (VI) without losing efficiency in either BOD removal or in nitrification; to establish mechanisms of chromium removal and the benefits of staging, and to understand differences in short and long-term effects and steady state or shock load conditions. These objectives were established to serve a number of purposes. The data gathered will assist municipalities in determining the quantity and characteristics of chromium containing waste that may be accepted without causing interference in operation. The data gathered will also assist design engineers in understanding and better defining the process reliability between an activated sludge and a biodisc system and finally the
When Windows 10 came out I found out I had a pretty healthy dislike for the Edge browser that came with it. My dislike turned into public mocking and shaming. I was a Chrome man, like my father before me, and Edge had no chance of supplanting it as my browser of choice. No one liked Edge, probably not even Edges mother, and we all got a good chuckle at its expense. And then Edge didnt suck anymore.. In December of 2018 Microsoft announced that it was going to move to the Chromium engine for Edge. I remembered being pretty "Meh" about the announcement. It was confirmation of what I had always said, Edge was a stinker, and I was already using Chrome which was built on top of the Chromium engine, obviously, so what on Earth could Edge possibly offer me? I was about to find out.. Last year at Ignite Marc was telling me how he was using the Chromium Edge (henceforth affectionately referred to as ChrEdge) and he liked it. I asked him what was so great about it, besides it not being the crappy Edge. ...
Adsorption of Chromium on dye contaminated soil has been studied using batch adsorption technique. This study is carried out to examine adsorption capacity of Chromium on..