Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was associated with thinning of the subfoveal choroid in patients treated for unilateral idiopathic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, a study found. The prospective study included 16 patients with unilateral idiopathic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization who underwent a single intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg ranibizumab and subsequent injections as needed. Investigators used enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography to measure subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). Mean patient age was 31.9 years. Visual acuity was also evaluated. Full Story →. ...
Purpose : Historically, large animal models of neovascular age-related macular degeneration have been unpredictable, with only 70% of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in non-human primates (NHP) considered clinically relevant. Furthermore, only up to 40% of these CNV lesions are considered ideal, exhibiting Grade IV leakage on fluorescein angiography. This inefficiency leads to excess animal use and high study cost. Previous swine CNV models displayed extensive retinal damage and only minimal choroidal involvement when neovascularization was present. We aimed to create a reproducible, predictable swine model of laser-induced CNV improving efficiency and lowering cost compared to available NHP CNV models. Methods : Yucatan minipigs were used to optimize laser induction of CNV. Bilaterally, six lesions were created using a 532nm green argon laser under direct visualization with a slit lamp and condensing lens. Follow-up examinations included optical coherence tomography ...
Purpose: : This study aimed to examine relationship of histamine receptor H4 (HRH4) and the pathogenesis of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (laser-CNV) and to determine whether oral administration of HRH4 antagonists suppressed laser-CNV in mice. Methods: : Laser photocoagulation was performed in mice to induce the laser-CNV. Histamine was administered intravitreously, and CNV volume was measured. Laser photocoagulation and intravitreous injection of HRH4 antagonist JNJ7777120 were performed after intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposome, which depletes circulating monocyte-derived macrophages; CNV volume was compared with that in mice injected with control (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]/PBS). Three days after laser-CNV, the F4/80+CD11b+ macrophage population in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid complex was quantified with flow cytometry in wild-type and Hrh4−/− mice. The long-acting HRH4 antagonist JNJ28307474 was then administrated periorally, and the laser-CNV volume ...
purpose. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a protein produced by the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Recent studies have implicated PEDF in activities that are inhibitory to angiogenesis. In this study, the expression of PEDF was investigated in normal rat eyes and in eyes with experimentally induced choroidal neovascularization and compared with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).. methods. Choroidal neovascularization was induced by laser photocoagulation in rat eyes. At intervals of up to 2 weeks after photocoagulation, the eyes were removed and prepared for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study. In situ hybridization was performed with digoxigenin-labeled PEDF riboprobes. Protein expression of PEDF and VEGF was studied immunohistochemically.. results. In normal adult rat eyes, PEDF mRNA was observed mainly in the corneal epithelial and endothelial cells, lens epithelial cells, ciliary epithelial cells, retinal ganglion cells, and the ...
The market presents significant growth opportunities for vendors. Companies are increasingly forming strategic alliances and engaging in M&A to increase their market share. As the development cost of ophthalmic drugs is high, small biotechnology firms are forming alliances with big pharmaceutical companies for product development.". Ask Sample PDF of Choroidal Neovascularization Market Report @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/10278447 According to the Choroidal Neovascularization report, Better infrastructure in terms of healthcare facilities and sophisticated treatment options has led to a rise in the life expectancy rates, leading to a rise in the number of people over 60 years. The normal aging process results in reduced choroidal blood flow, which leads to ischemia. This, in turn, leads to increased expression of VEGF and development of excess blood vessels resulting in choroidal neovascularization and finally the loss of vision. With the increase in older ...
... Summary Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Choroidal Neovascularization - Market research report and industry analysis - 11207704
This prospective, open-label, non-comparative, interventional case series evaluates the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in juxtafoveal and extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia in 27 eyes of 27 patients.. The average visual acuity dropped from 58.5 letters to 49.19. The visual acuity remained stable in 13 patients (48.1%), whereas 14 patients (51.9%) lost more than 8 letters due to the extension of the lesion to subfoveal space. A strong association was found between advanced age and a worse visual prognosis (p = 0.001 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arg-leu-tyr-glu suppresses retinal endothelial permeability and choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting the VEGF receptor 2 signaling pathway. AU - Park, Wonjin. AU - Baek, Yi Yong. AU - Kim, Joohwan. AU - Jo, Dong Hyun. AU - Choi, Seunghwan. AU - Kim, Jin Hyoung. AU - Kim, Taesam. AU - Kim, Suji. AU - Park, Minsik. AU - Kim, Ji Yoon. AU - Won, Moo Ho. AU - Ha, Kwon Soo. AU - Kim, Jeong Hun. AU - Kwon, Young Guen. AU - Kim, Young Myeong. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in pathologic ocular neovascularization and vascular leakage via activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic mechanisms and effects of the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE), a VEGFR2 inhibitor, in the development of vascular permeability and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), treatment with RLYE blocked VEGF-Ainduced phosphorylation ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, biological activity and pharmacodynamic effect of repeated intravitreal doses of hI-con1 0.3 mg administered as monotherapy and in combination with ranibizumab 0.5 mg compared to ranibizumab 0.5 mg monotherapy in treating patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD ...
Patients received up to 12 intravitreal injections (Month 0 through Month 11). The dose of 0.3 mg ranibizumab was administered monthly for three consecutive months. From Month 3 through Month 11, either 0.3 mg ranibizumab or, after implementation of an amendment to the protocol, 0.5 mg ranibizumab were injected as individually needed based on retreatment criteria described in the protocol. Ranibizumab was administered no sooner than 14 days after the previous treatment ...
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Inhibition of choroidal fibrovascular membrane formation by new class of RNA interference therapeutic agent targeting periostin. Nakama, T; Yoshida, S; Ishikawa, K; Kobayashi, Y; Zhou, Y; Nakao, S; Sassa, Y; Oshima, Y; Takao, K; Shimahara, A; Yoshikawa, K; Hamasaki, T; Ohgi, T; Hayashi, H; Matsuda, A; Kudo, A; Nozaki, M; Ogura, Y; Kuroda, M; Ishibashi, T // Gene Therapy;Feb2015, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p127 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision-threatening disease characterized by choroidal fibrovascular membrane (FVM) formation, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and choroidal fibrosis. No safe and effective therapeutic method has been developed for the choroidal fibrosis, although... ...
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the outer blood-retinal barrier in the eye, secretes many growth factors to support the normal functions of both the retina and the choroid. Dysfunction of RPE is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Advanced AMD can manifest in either geographic atrophy (dry AMD) or a neovascular form of the disease (wet AMD). Recently our studies indicated that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), one growth factor of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, may be involved in the molecular switch that determines which advanced form of AMD an individual develops. We demonstrated that BMP4 was highly expressed in the macular RPE and adjacent extracellular matrix of dry AMD patients, and BMP4 mediated oxidative stress induced RPE cell senescence in vitro. However, BMP4 was immunohistochemically absent in RPE in subretinal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) membranes of wet AMD patients. This work ...
A discussion was made with girls parents and they agreed to monthly injection of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept for 3 consecutive injections under sedation, and informed consent was obtained from the parents. Ziv-aflibercept intravitreal Injection was administered under sterile condition every 4 weeks for 3 three consecutive injections, injection site was prepared by disinfecting the skin using povidone iodine 10% and the conjunctiva using povidone iodine 4% under sedation, the injection is carried out after placing sterile drape and lid speculum isolating eye lashes in the inferior temporal quadrant, injection site was measured with calipers 4 mm from the limbus, 30 gauge half inch needle is used to inject 0,05 ml/1.25 mg of Ziv-aflibercept (ZALTRAP) then cotton tip applicator is placed over the injection site to prevent reflux of fluid, topical and systemic antibiotics were used post injection.. Best corrected visual acuity was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks using snellen ...
I am a 40 years old man suffered from choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) 2 years back in the right eye. I took Avastin at that time. The blood dried but it left a scar on that place and I lost the vision of my right eye. Now |b|I have developed black spots and lines in my other eye too|/b|, which is causing pain in both the eyes and I am facing problem in reading too. How can I save my left eye? Is there any treatment for the CNVM scar?
To evaluate the efficacy of selective episcleral delivery of celecoxib formulated in a sustained-release episcleral exoplant on a model of retinal and choroidal neovascularization induced in rabbits by subretinal injection of matrigel combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nine New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups (episcleral celecoxib exoplant, intravitreal bevacizumab injection and control group). The bFGF was mixed with matrigel at a concentration of 10 ug/0.1 mL, and VEGF was mixed with matrigel at a concentration of 2 ug/0.1 mL. Animals assigned to celecoxib or intravitreal bevacizumab groups were treated within 03 days from matrigel injection. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and electroretinography (ERG) were performed 5 days, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after matrigel injection. Persistence or regression of three clinical features (subretinal hyperfluorescence, retinal vascular tortuosity and retinal fibrotic spots) was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative enumeration of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells derived from bone marrow precursors in experimental choroidal neovascularization. AU - Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.. AU - Reinoso, Maria A.. AU - Pina, Yolanda. AU - Csaky, Karl G.. AU - Caicedo, Alejandro. AU - Cousins, Scott W.. PY - 2005/3. Y1 - 2005/3. N2 - Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is characterized by the subretinal invasion of a pathologic new vessel complex from the choriocapillaris. Although CNV is traditionally considered to consist of endothelial cells, the cellular population of CNV is likely more complex in nature, comprising several different cell types. In addition, recent studies suggest that the CNV cell population has a dual origin (circulating versus resident populations). In this study we sought to determine the contribution and origin of different cell types in experimental CNV. Laser-induced CNV was performed on chimeric mice generated by reconstituting C57BL/6 mice with ...
Choroidal neovascular are the new blood vessels that grow just below the retina and interrupt the vision. Choroid, which is responsible for oxygen and nutrients supply to the eye, is the area between the retina and the sclera, where the blood vessels grow and cause choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
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This trial compared the efficacy of intravitreal therapy with bevacizumab and ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization in patients with pathologic myopia
Summary Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Choroidal Neovascularization - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Choroidal
Oral pazopanib was well tolerated and may have improved visual acuity and central retinal lesion thickness in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, according to a small study.The analysis comprised data from two studies: a 14-day phase 1 placebo-controlled study with 72 healthy subjects and a 28-day phase 2a open-label study with 15 patients who had subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD.The AMD patients received oral pazopanib 15-mg tablets once daily for 28 days. Healthy subjects received single or repeated oral pazopanib 5-, 10-, 20- or 30-mg tablets or placebo once (Read more...) Full Story →. ...
New blood vessel growth beneath the macula (choroidal neovascularization, CNV) can develop in some patients with with otherwise normal eyes.
Choroidal neovascularization information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
It is relatively rare to obtain histology of CNV treated after PDT. Ghazi et al5 and Schnurrbusch et al6 reported the histological findings in surgically excised classic CNV treated with PDT. Ghazi et al studied one specimen by electron microscopy. The authors concluded that PDT causes endothelial cell damage, thrombus formation, and vascular occlusion. Schnurrbusch et al studied two recurrent CNV. The authors concluded that the evidence of fluorescein leakage from the CNV and enlargement of the neovascular complex following PDT could be related to new vessel growth and recanalisation of occluded vessels. RPE disturbances were thought to be related to the original pathology or as a result of PDT. Our specimen appeared to lack vessels where the RPE cell layer was fragmented but was vascular where the RPE cell layer was intact. These two regions may correspond to the original (PDT treated) CNV and its recurrence respectively. Bynoe et al have described the non-even distribution of blood vessels ...
article{Schmidt-Erfurth, author = {Schmidt-Erfurth, U. and Miller, J. W. and Sickenberg, M. and Laqua, H. and Barbazetto, I. and Gragoudas, E. S. and Zografos, L. and Piguet, B. and Pournaras, C. J. and Donati, G. and Lane, A. M. and Birngruber, R. and van den Berg, H. and Strong, H. A. and Manjuris, U. and Gray, T. and Fsadni, M. and Bressler, N. M.}, title = {Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration: results of retreatments in a phase 1 and 2 study}, journal = {Arch Ophthalmol}, volume = {117}, number = {9}, pages = {1177-87}, note = {0003-9950 (Print) Clinical Trial Clinical Trial, Phase I Clinical Trial, Phase II Comment Journal Article Multicenter Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt}, abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety and short-term visual acuity and fluorescein angiographic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) after retreatments with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related ...
Drug treatmentInt J Pharm. 2019 Jun 24:118458.Transscleral sustained ranibizumab delivery using an episcleral implantable device: Suppression of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats.Nagai N, Nezhad ZK, Daigaku R, Saijo S, Song Y, Terata K, Hoshi A, Nishizawa M, Nakazawa T, Kaji H, Abe T.
Endothelial cells (EC) grown on collagen particles inhibit intimal hyperplasia in animal models when applied perivascularly, and this effect appears to be, at least in part, the result of EC-derived soluble factors that suppress local vascular inflammation. To elucidate the molecular basis of the therapeutic effects of EC grown on collagen particles, the anti-inflammatory activity of conditioned medium from these cells was characterized. Human aortic EC (HAEC) and, for chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) were treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the presence of conditioned medium generated by HAEC grown on collagen particles (ECPCM), and the anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by analysing the expression of the inflammation-related adhesion molecules E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). The therapeutic activity of ECPCM was studied using the mouse strain JR5558, which develops spontaneous choroidal neovascularisation (CNV)
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Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is usually a pathogenic process of age-related macular degeneration a vision-threatening disease. induction. The mediators monocyte chemotactic protein-1 interleukin-1β (KO mice. Bone marrow transplantation using wild-type and KO mice suggested that both bone marrow-derived and host-derived Angptl2 were responsible for macrophage recruitment and CNV development. Peritoneal macrophages Tenofovir (Viread) derived from KO […]. Read More ». ...
Three patients with BVMD were evaluated. The first patient had macular lesions at the pseudohypopyon and vitelliruptive stages with BCVA values of 10/10 and 20/32, respectively. The second patient had a BCVA of 20/60 in the left eye and 20/25 in the right eye. Dilated fundoscopy revealed that the left eye had developed choroidal neovascularization. A macular lesion at the vitelliform stage was observed in the right eye. The last patient had pigmentary macular changes consistent with a diagnosis of BVMD. In both eyes, BCVA was 10/10. OCT-A revealed a bridging vessel in the foveal avascular zone in five eyes and a dense subretinal capillary network in one eye with choroidal neovascularization ...
PIC is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder that typically occurs in young (15-55 years), white, myopic women. Presenting symptoms are blurred vision and scotomas with or without flashes of light.(2) The symptoms are usually unilateral, but most patients show bilateral fundus involvement.(2,3) PIC is characterized by multifocal choroidal lesions (yellow-white lesions of the inner choroid and retinal pigment epithelium of approximately 100-300 ìm in size), usually distributed throughout the posterior pole but sparing the peripapillary region.(2,4) There are no other signs of ocular inflammation elsewhere in the eye. Visual prognosis is generally good since the lesions usually evolve into atrophic scars; however, choroidal neovascularization may develop in 17% to 40% of patients, potentially threatening central vision if untreated.(4-7 ...
By using this easy, fast and cheap model of ischaemia the first steps of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were shown: the increase of synthesis of HIF-1α and VEGF which is very likely responsible for the formation of gaps between endothelial cells and the formation of fenestrated endothelial cell projections into the vessel lumen. Their abundance can block perfusion of blood cells and thereby inhibit closure of the endothelial gaps by platelets, but still allow the flow of plasma. This may be the reason for a permanent leakage of fluid as it was found in so called labyrinth capillaries in surgically excised human CNV membranes before (DOI 10.1007/s00417-014-2733-0).. Back to previous ...
Improved understanding of choroidal ischaemia in the pathogenesis of AMD may lead to better and more targeted therapies for the treatment of the disease
Has anyone ever performed or have a descriptive protocol for retinal flat mounts with mouse or rat retinas? This is a new technique for me, as such would need a very detailed method ...
To compare the long-term efficacy of ranibizumab versus bevacizumab for myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This was a retrospective, multicenter, comparative, non-randomized study of 64 consecutive patients with myopic CNV treated with ranibizumab (22 patients) or bevacizumab (42 patients). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) on optical coherence tomography were evaluated before and after treatment. All the patients were followed for at least 12 months. BCVA (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) improved from 0.63 ± 0.30 to 0.43 ± 0.27, 0.41 ± 0.37, 0.40 ± 0.39, 0.39 ± 0.43, and 0.39 ± 0.42 at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment in the ranibizumab group, and from 0.67 ± 0.28 to 0.52 ± 0.31, 0.49 ± 0.31, 0.47 ± 0.31, 0.42 ± 0.32, and 0.46 ± 0.43 in the bevacizumab group (all P < 0.05 compared with baseline BCVA in each group). CFT decreased by 20.21%, 19.58%, and 22.43% from the baseline 304 ± 76 μm at 3, 6, and 12 months after
Genentech announced that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Lucentis (ranibizumab injection) for the treatment of patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV). This approval marks Lucentis as the first anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) approved to treat mCNV in the United States.
February is age related macular degeneration (AMD) and low vision awareness month.. Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of loss of vision in adults over age 65. AMD is a condition that causes a breakdown of the macula in the eye which is responsible for sharp vision in the center of your field of view.. Age Related Macular Degeneration Symptoms. The first warning signs of age related macular degeneration are usually blurriness or blind spots in the central vision. Since the symptoms typically come on slowly and painlessly, the effects are sometimes not noticed until the disease has reached a later stage. This is why it is crucial to schedule a routine eye exam, particularly once you turn 65.. Risk Factors for Age Related Macular Degeneration. There are a number of factors that put you at greater risk of developing AMD including race (Caucasian), being over the age of 65, smoking and family history. If you are categorized as being at greater risk, annual eye ...
ReportsnReports.com adds report Age Related Macular Degeneration - Pipeline Review, H1 2014 to its store. Age Related Macular Degeneration - Pipeline Review, H1 2014, provides an overview of the Age Related Macular Degenerations therapeutic pipeline.. This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Age Related Macular Degeneration, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Age Related Macular Degeneration and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects.. The report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over 20 therapy areas and nearly 3,000 indications. The report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC ...
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Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), accounts for the majority of AMD-relate...
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), accounts for the majority of AMD-relate...
Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration, Wet AMD, Non-Neovascular Macular Degeneration, Age Related Macular Degeneration is an Ophthalmology Disease that is Treated at the Retina Center of New Jersey which has Locations in Bloomfield, NJ, Teaneck, NJ, North Bergen, NJ and Ramsey, NJ Treated by Dr. Patrick Higgins, Dr. Kurt Jackson, Dr. Lauren Kallina, Dr. Lee Angioletti, Dr. Justin Gutman, Dr. Louis V. Angioletti Jr.
Javitt, J. C., Zlateva, G. P., Earnshaw, S., Pleil, A. M., Graham, C., Brogan, A., ... Adamis, A. R. (2008). Cost-effectiveness model for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: Comparing early and late treatment with pegaptanib sodium based on visual acuity. Value in Health, 11(4), 563-574 ...
Effect of total anti-VEGF treatment exposure on patterns of choroidal neovascularisation assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography in age-related macular degeneration: a retrospective case series
Evidence-based recommendations on ranibizumab (Lucentis) for treating choroidal neovascularisation associated with pathological myopia
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository DUGiDocs: Background: Age-releated macular degeneration (AMD) is a very prevalent disease worldwide and it is the most common cause of severe vision loss in developed countries. Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV), previously known as
Conventional retinal laser photocoagulation can achieve direct destruction of a choroidal neovascular membrane. It requires confluent high-energy burns over and around the whole membrane. The overlying retina is also destroyed, the laser scar may expand, leading to visual loss, and the rate of recurrence of the neovascular membrane is high. Laser photocoagulation is only used for choroidal neovascular membranes that are more than 200 microns from the center of the foveal avascular zone (extrafoveal).. In photodynamic therapy, a photosensitive dye, verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis), which is believed to preferentially accumulate in active new vessels, is infused intravenously and then activated by a low-energy visible laser (689 nm). The resultant reaction produces localized thrombosis of the new vessels. Treatment is repeated every 3 months as required. Significant improvement in the proportion of patients with stable or improved vision at 2 years has been shown to occur in those with ...
DISCUSSION. We observed that nine of the 12 eyes developed RPE tears during the treatment of choroidal neovascularization with ranibizumab injections. We continued to inject intravitreal ranibizumab after the development of RPE tears. After all injections, two of the 12 eyes appeared to be stable, nine of the 12 eyes showed improvement, and only one eye showed worsening of visual acuity at the end of the follow-up periods. At the last follow-up visits, however, the visual acuity had decreased in the patients with a high degree of tears, but the decrease was not statistically significant. According to our experience, continuation of anti-VEGF injections for patients who developed RPE tears during injection therapy appears to be necessary. In our study population, the heights of the PEDs were ,400 microns, and PEDs in seven of the eight eyes had irregular contours.. The pathogenesis of RPE tears is not fully understood. Contraction of the choroidal neovascularization under the weak RPE, increased ...