Description of disease Choroidal dystrophies. Treatment Choroidal dystrophies. Symptoms and causes Choroidal dystrophies Prophylaxis Choroidal dystrophies
Complete information for CACD gene (Genetic Locus), Central Areolar Choroidal Dystrophy, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mutations in the photoreceptor tetraspanin gene peripherin-2/retinal degeneration slow (gene have already been Enzastaurin linked with human being illnesses including autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) digenic RP design dystrophy adult vitelliform macular dystrophy central areolar choroidal dystrophy and other styles of macular degeneration (MD) (http://www. are held collectively via interactions between your second intradiscal (D2) loop of both protein (4 5 RDS and ROM-1 function collectively assembling in the internal section (cell body) Enzastaurin from the photoreceptor into tetrameric primary complexes (6). These complexes are after that trafficked towards the Operating-system where they additional assemble into higher purchase oligomeric constructions including hetero-octamers and Mouse monoclonal to NANOG RDS homo-oligomers (7). These bigger complexes are kept collectively by intermolecular disulfide bonds mediated by a particular cysteine residue (C150) (8 9 among seven D2 ...
Food Sources Most infant formulas usually contain vegetable oils that provide about 10в15 major fatty acids (43). A3. ПппппDisease basal laminar drusen Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy (malattia leventinese) Sorsby fundus dystrophy central areolar choroidal dystrophy AMD-like late-onset maculopathy North Carolina macular dystrophy OMIM Mode of phenotype inheritance number 126700 AR Associated gene CFH EFEMP1 (fibulin-3) TIMP3 peripherinRDS peripherinRDS unknown (MCDR1 locus) Reference(s) this thesis 182 183 this thesis 143 184 пппп126600 136900 215500 - 136550 Kamagra kaufen in der apotheke AD AD AD AD пппппппппAD, autosomal dominant; AMD.
5 3 mg 100 ml 21 60 Hypnotic Sedative пппSolvent Symbol ппMethanol ппWater пп0. The development of central areolar choroidal dystrophy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct Responsiveness to Intravitreal Ranibizumab Therapy in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy with Single or Multiple Polyps. AU - Suzuki, Misa. AU - Nagai, Norihiro. AU - Shinoda, Hajime. AU - Uchida, Atsuro. AU - Kurihara, Toshihide. AU - Tomita, Yohei. AU - Kamoshita, Mamoru. AU - Iyama, Chigusa. AU - Tsubota, Kazuo. AU - Ozawa, Yoko. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Purpose: To understand the prognosis of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) by evaluating the responsiveness to intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) monotherapy according to the presence of a single or multiple polyps. Design: Retrospective case series. Methods: We included 48 treatment-naïve eyes of 48 patients who received IVR monotherapy at the Medical Retina Division Clinic, Keio University Hospital between March 2009 and January 2013 and attended the clinic for at least 12 months. All patients received 3 monthly IVR injections followed by pro re nata injections and were divided into single polyp and ...
Purpose: We observed and analyzed the morphologic characteristics of polypoidal lesions and abnormal branching vascular network (BVN) in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: A retrospective observational case series was done of patients with PCV. All patients were scanned with a 70-kHz spectral-domain OCT system using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm to distinguish blood flow from static tissue. The OCTA images of these patients were compared to those from indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Semiautomated segmentation was used to further analyze the polypoidal lesion and the BVN. Results: We studied 13 eyes of 13 patients 51 to 69 years old. A total of 11 patients were treatment-naive. Two patients had multiple anti-VEGF injections and one underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical coherence tomography angiography was able to detect the BVN in all cases. Using ...
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is the commonest cause of severe visual impairment in older adults in Caucasian white populations. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) has been described as a separate clinical entity differing from nAMD and other macular diseases associated with subretinal neovascularization. It remains controversial as to whether or not PCV represents a sub-type of nAMD. This article summarizes the current literature on the clinical, pathophysiological and epidemiological features and treatment responses of PCV and compares this condition to nAMD. Patients with PCV are younger and more likely Asians, and eyes with PCV lack drusen, often present with serosanguinous maculopathy or hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment, and have differing responses to photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. There are also significant differences in angiographic and optical coherence tomography features between PCV and nAMD. ...
In Doppler OCT images, polypoidal lesions could be clearly detected at the corresponding location of lesions in the ICGA images. By the impervious feature to dye leakage, Doppler OCT imaging could identify the more detailed vascular structure in the polypoidal lesions. Polypoidal lesions in Doppler OCT images were consisted of focal aneurysmal dilation in the vascular network. Polypoidal lesions were located in the retinal pigment epithelial detachment in 13 eyes, in the choroid in one eye, and in both the retinal pigment epithelial detachment and the choroid in one eye. Mean area of polypoidal lesions in ICGA images (0.13 mm2) was significantly larger than Doppler OCT images (0.04 mm2)(P = 0.0007). After the intravitreal injection of aflibercept, areas of polypoidal lesions in ICGA images were decreased in 14 of 15 eyes, while Doppler OCT could clearly detect this therapeutic effect in all eyes. Mean reduction rates were 65.8 % in ICGA images and 66.6 % in Doppler OCT images. Reduction rate in ...
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is one of the disorders within the pachychoroid spectrum diseases. The presence of pachyvessels is one of the characteristics of pachychoroid disorders. However, the relationship between the presence of pachyvessels and the clinical characteristics of PCV eyes has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of choroidal pachyvessels and the clinical characteristics of eyes with PCV. The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with PCV and were treatment-naïve were reviewed. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT) were used to obtain images of the choroid. The presence of pathologically dilated outer choroidal vessels, pachyvessels, was determined by ICGA images. These pachyvessels were confirmed to correspond with the large choroidal vessels in the EDI OCT images. The PCV eyes
Purpose: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of eyes with extrafoveal polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treated with argon laser. Design: Prospective cohort, noninterventional study. Methods: A prospective study of Asian patients with extrafoveal PCV, confirmed on indocyanine green angiography and treated with argon laser with and without anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Patients were followed-up over 12 months with visual, angiographic, and structural outcomes recorded. Results: Of the 93 eyes with PCV at baseline, 33 eyes (35.5%) in 31 patients had extrafoveal involvement and were treated with argon laser. Foveal involvement with fluid or blood at baseline was apparent in 23 eyes (69.7%), despite the extrafoveal location of 1 or more polyps. Of these 33 eyes, 12 (36.4%) also received anti-VEGF injections (median, 2.5 injections) over the 12-month period. Two eyes received photodynamic therapy rescue during subsequent follow-up and were excluded for ...
PURPOSE To compare the 12-month real-world visual and disease activity outcomes of eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treated with a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections (combination group) versus those eyes treated with anti-VEGF monotherapy alone with rescue PDT being used as required (monotherapy group). DESIGN Database comparative observational study. PARTICIPANTS Eyes with PCV as graded in the Fight Retinal Blindness! database from Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and Switzerland. METHODS Clinical information from a multisite, international registry of neovascular age-related macular degeneration was analyzed with an intention-to-treat approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Primary outcome measure was the change in visual acuity in logMAR letters over 12 months between the two groups analyzed with intention-to-treat approach. RESULTS Forty-one and 152 eyes received combination therapy and anti-VEGF monotherapy, ...
This study aimed to analyze the choroidal characteristics in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, affected eyes) and unaffected fellow eyes, a
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) primarily affects pigmented individuals, especially Asians and African-Americans. Typically presents in 7th to 8th decad
Methods Twenty-nine patients (29 eyes) with treatment-naïve subfoveal PCV were consecutively enrolled in this institutional study. The subjects were classified into two subtypes (type 1, polypoidal choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), 16 eyes; and type 2, idiopathic PCV, 13 eyes) based on the presence or absence of both feeder and draining vessels on ICGA. Intravitreal aflibercept was administered at baseline and at 1, 2 and 4 months. The primary outcome was the polyp regression percentage after 3 monthly injections. Changes in the best-corrected visual acuity and subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) were evaluated at 3 and 6 months. ...
4 Gription (Depuy, Warsaw, IN) Gription is a recently released, Cheap Generic Filagra Soft, super-textured, commercially pure titanium coating material currently Sof in multiple areas of orthopaedic Sooft including THA and TKA. Involvement of the macula aloneвalso called central areolar choroidal sclerosis (Fig.
Case Reports; Letter; Aged; Choroid Diseases; Coloring Agents; Female; Fluorescein Angiography; Humans; Inclusion Bodies; Indocyanine Green; Photochemotherapy; Polyps; Retinal Pigment Epithelium; Subretinal Fluid; Tomography, Optical Coherence; Visual Acuity ...
Results Exudative branching vascular networks were characterised as occult choroidal neovascularisation (38 eyes) or classic choroidal neovascularisation (7 eyes) on fluorescein angiography. Intravitreal bevacizumab maintained or improved vision in 38 eyes (84%) over 12 months and in 36 eyes (80%) over 24 months, although the mean visual acuity at 12 and 24 months did not differ significantly compared with baseline. Complete resolution of macular fluid was achieved continuously in 26 eyes (58%) during 24 months. Sixteen eyes (36%) responded once to treatment but became unresponsive to additional injections for recurrent exudation. Three eyes (7%) were refractory to treatment throughout follow-up. Cystoid macular oedema eventually developed in 10 eyes and was a poor prognostic sign for visual outcome. ...
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy is considered to be one of the subtypes of the neovascular age-related macular degeneration, especially frequent in Asians. The disease is clinically manifested by the recurrent serosanguineous pigment epithelial detachment and polypoid reddish-orange nodules visible in the posterior segment of the globe. The association of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with the spectrum of age-related macular degeneration raises some controversies due to the relatively rare occurrence in its case of several characteristic findings such as drusen, pigment changes or RPE atrophy. Choosing the optimal therapeutic option for each patient the individual characteristics of the patient's disease and the availability of diagnostic and therapeutic tools should be considered ...
DefinitionChoroidal dystrophy is an eye disorder that involves a layer of blood vessels called the choroid. These vessels are between the sclera and retina.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The proposed study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a modified treat and extend regime based on disease activity with aflibercept monotherapy for PCV.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Twenty-two tumours from 19 eyes of 17 patients were included in the study. Mean age at presentation was 43.5 years (range-15-68 years). Mean presenting BCVA was +1.10 Log MAR. Secondary tumours were found in 68% eyes. At presentation, mean basal tumour dimension of primary tumours was 7.17 mm and secondary tumours was 9.92 mm. Most common association of secondary VPT was Coats disease (n=5) followed by retinal vasculitis (n=2), Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (n=2), Familial exudative vitreorretinopathy (n=2) and traumatic chorioretinopathy (n=2). Ten tumours (45%) involved the inferior quadrant. tumour associated features were intra/sub-retinal exudates (n=14), vitritis (n=7), sub-retinal fluid (n=5), vitreous haemorrhage (n=3), pre-retinal fibrosis (n=3), epiretinal membrane (n=3) and sub-retinal blood (n=2). Treatment included transconjunctival cryotherapy (n=9), intravitreal or oral steroids (n=4), laser (n=3), transconjunctival cryotherapy with encirclage (n=1), transconjunctival ...
Characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Usually this disorder is diagnosed at the onset of puberty (primary amenorrhea, poor development of sexual organs, sparse growth of secondary hair, short stature, delayed puberty, delayed bone age, infertility), spinocerebellar ataxia (with a variable age of onset; impaired balance, ataxic gait, mild dysmetria on finger-to-nose testing, but marked dysmetria on heel-to-shin testing, nystagmus, bilateral extensor plantar responses), and choroidal dystrophy (variable age of onset, diffuse and slowly progressive, with involvement of the choriocapillaris, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer retina, resulting in loss of visual acuity with a dense ring scotoma and a spared central field). Muscle strength, sensibility, and proprioception are normal. ...
PMID 19556007] Role of RDBP and SKIV2L variants in the major histocompatibility complex class III region in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy etiology [PMID 19899988] Association of c3 gene polymorphisms with neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a chinese population ...
Ultra-widefield photograph demonstrating the total resolution of choroidal detachment, 1 month later. Note the Verhoff lines at temporal and nasal side ...
This is a 2-step process combining a light-activated drug called Visudyne (verteporfin) with light from a cold laser directed onto the abnormal area of retina. Once activated, the drug causes the abnormal vessels to close off. PDT does not cause direct damage to the surrounding retina. Therefore, it can be used to treat new vessels that are under the centre of the macula (fovea).. Several treatments are needed to keep the leaking blood vessels closed and stop the progression of wet MD. Close follow up and monitoring is needed to determine if further treatment is required.. Unlike anti-VEGF drugs with which the vision is usually maintained, patients undergoing PDT continue to lose vision in the first 6 months. Their vision then stabilises so that the eye does not progress to severe vision loss.. PDT is now rarely used to treat ordinary wet MD. It is sometimes used in conjunction an anti-VEGF drug to treat a type of MD called polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) as some of these cases do not ...
The separation of the choroid from the sclera of the eye as a result of leakage of fluid from the vessels of the choroid. It occurs when pressure inside the eyeball is very low, usually after trauma or intraocular surgery. ...
The suprachoroidal space is normally virtual because the choroid is in close apposition to the sclera. As fluid accumulates, this space becomes real, and the choroid is displaced from its normal position.
Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapours adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Carefully collect remainder. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment ...
Neither the EC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the EC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information. ...
Clinical Ophthalmology Dovepress open access to scientific and medical research review Open Access Full Text Article Central serous chorioretinopathy: a pathogenetic model This article was published in the following Dove Press journal: Clinical Ophthalmology 18 Febuary 2011 Number of times this article has been viewed Antonio Caccavale 1 Filippo Romanazzi 1 Manuela Imparato 1 Angelo Negri 2 Anna Morano 3 Fabio Ferentini 2 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Neuropthalmology and Ocular Immunology Service, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital "C. Cantù", Abbiategrasso, Milan, Italy; 3University Eye Clinic, Foundation IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy Abstract: Despite numerous studies describing predominantly its demography and clinical course, many aspects of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) remain unclear. Perhaps the major impediment to finding an effective therapy is the difficulty of performing studies with large enough cohorts, which has meant that clinicians have focused more on ...
AimsTo investigate the prevalence of pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) in fellow eyes of patients with unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to determine differences between patients with PPE, uncomplicated pachychoroid (UCP) and normal fellow eyes.MethodsWe retrospectively r
A clinical research study published in The Lancet has reported that the treatment of eplerenone should be discontinued for the use of serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) in ophthalmic practice. An analysis of the study reported that both primary and secondary outcomes of the trial indicated that there was no benefit of eplerenone treatment over placebo. Following the research, a commentary on the report stated that: "This result is an important outcome that will change clinical practice. The trial results should prompt ophthalmologists to stop prescribing eplerenone to treat CSCR and encourage patients to participate in future trials of other potential interventions." The study was led by Prof. Andrew Lotery at the University of Southampton, and Prof. Sobha Sivaprasad at the Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.. The aetiology of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) has an estimated 10 new cases per 100,000 men and 2 cases per 100,000 women in the population however, there is no clear ...
Purpose:. to evaluate the effectiveness as well as the detrimental influence of half-dose and half-fluence modification of verteporfin PDT for the treatment of prolonged unresolved Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR).. Study Design and Patient Recruitment:. This study was a prospective, randomized, consecutive, open-labeled, comparative interventional case series. Patients with symptomatic acute or chronic CSC of 3 weeks or more duration were recruited. Patients were offered treatment if they had worsening of symptoms or no subjective improvement since the onset of the CSC. Inclusion criteria included 1) patients with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/400 or better; 2) presence of subretinal fluid (SRF) and/or serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED) involving the fovea on optical coherence tomography (OCT); 3) presence of active angiographic leakage in fluorescein angiography (FA) caused by CSC but not CNV or other diseases; and 4) abnormal dilated choroidal vasculature and other ...
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is the fourth most common retinopathy after age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion.[1] CSCR typically occurs in males in their 20s to 50s who exhibit acute or sub-acute central vision loss or distortion. Other common complaints include micropsia, metamorphopsia, hyperopic (most common) or myopic shift, central scotoma, and reduced contrast sensitivity and color saturation.[2] No underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proven, but CSCR is thought to occur due to hyper-permeable choroidal capillaries, which, in association with retinal pigment dysfunction, cause a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina. Recurrence occurs in about 31% patients with CSCR,[3] though the recurrence rate has been quoted to be up to 50% in most texts.
A major interest in a well-known and not uncommon disorder of the macula is central serous chorioretinopathy. This is a disorder that occurs in young adults who under stress or who have a particular risk of leakage and swelling of the choroidal circulation, leading ultimately to detachment of the macula.. Numerous clinical features as well as imaging characteristics have been the subject of The Macula Foundation research in the past several decades. While the pathogenesis or precise causative factors are still poorly understood, The Macula Foundation investigators have reported on particular classifications, imaging features, and treatment modalities. It is the most common macular disorder that is seen beginning in young adulthood.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low-dose rifampin as maintenance therapy in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. AU - Mattingly, Jeffrey J.. AU - Amram, Alec Lee. AU - El-Annan, Jaafar. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85040763872&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85040763872&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jcjo.2017.11.019. DO - 10.1016/j.jcjo.2017.11.019. M3 - Article. C2 - 30340736. AN - SCOPUS:85040763872. JO - Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. JF - Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. SN - 0008-4182. ER - ...
The macula in the left eye shows a small puddle of fluid involving the fovea. This represents a detachment of the neurosensory retina from the RPE. OCT confirmed this finding. These findings are classic for idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC), also called central serous retinopathy. ICSC typically occurs in 20- to 45-year-old males who exhibit type A personalities.1 Although our patient is age 50, it does not change our diagnosis; ICSC has been reported in patients as old as age 60.2 It occurs more commonly in males than females (a 10-to-1 ratio), and there is often a strong relationship between ICSC and emotional stress, although we do not know whether stress triggers the condition.1 Migraine headaches also have been associated with the onset of these neurosensory detachments. On examination, the macula usually exhibits a round or oval area of elevation of the neurosensory retina. This can be very subtle and easily missed if the detachment is small or if there is a very shallow ...
COPHy AA in Seoul again will be devoted to evidence-based debates and discussions amongst session moderators, speakers and the audience, all of whom will examine and analyze the most relevant and controversial issues raised during the course of 2016 and 2017 within the field of ophthalmology. This educational Congress will continue to discuss controversies in Anterior Segment, Glaucoma, and Retina, as well as other areas of ophthalmology, such as neuro-ophthalmology, ocular imaging, and uveitis. Topics will include the treatment of retinal diseases such as diabetic macular edema, the role of anti-VEGF agents versus panretinal photocoagulation in the management of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, pathologic myopia, the current management of corneal disease with the use of advanced technologies for corneal transplants, as well as novel medical and surgical glaucoma issues ...
Ultra-widefield photograph showing an inferior chorioretinal coloboma and an inferior retinal detachment, in a 55-years-old male. He complains of left eye visual loss. Visual acuity: 20/28 RE; < 20/400 LE ...
Our understanding of "pachychoroid disease" has expanded greatly thanks to multimodal clinical imaging technologies. Cross-sectional and en face depth-resolved imaging, such as enhanced depth imaging (EDI) OCT, Swept-Source OCT (SS-OCT), and OCT angiography (OCTa), have enabled a deeper appreciation for the role of the choroid in a wide-range of macular disorders.. Pachychoroid disease is a phenotype encompassing a spectrum of macular conditions which manifest common choroidal findings, and includes pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, peripapillary pachychoroid syndrome and focal choroidal excavation. This phenotype of great clinical relevance in that it may predispose patients to macular neovascularization (pachychoroid neovasculopathy). Many patients with pachychoroid disease develop this type 1 neovascularization as a late-stage manifestation. In some eyes, these vessels may form a branching network that can give rise to aneurysmal type 1 neovascularization ...
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a retinal disorder that has been linked to the systemic use of corticosteroids. Recently, it has also been reported after local corticosteroid administration.
PDF Similar Articles Mail to Author Mail to Editor Outcomes of Photodynamic Therapy with a Half Dose of Verteporfin in Patients with Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Fatih Mehmet TÜRKCÜ1, Harun YÜKSEL1, Alparslan ŞAHİN1, Yasin ÇINAR1, Kürşat CİNGÜ1, Muhammed ŞAHİN1, Adnan YILDIRIM2, İhsan ÇAÇA3 Turkish Abstract Abstract ...
PDF Similar Articles Mail to Author Mail to Editor Short-term Effi ciency of (577-nm) Subthreshold Yellow Laser on Treatment of Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Ökkeş BAZ1, İhsan YILMAZ1, Cengiz ALAGÖZ1, Ahmet TaylanYAZICI,2, Abdullah ÖZKAYA2, Muhittin TAŞKAPILI2 Turkish Abstract Abstract ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Choose font and icon sizes appropriate to iOS devices. iPhones and iPads have smaller screens than the typical browser window in which you would use Mapbox Studio, especially when multitasking is enabled. Your users viewing distance may be shorter than on a desktop computer. Some of your users may use the Larger Dynamic Type and Accessibility Text features to increase the size of all text on the device. You can use the runtime styling API to adjust your styles font and icon sizes accordingly.. Design sprite images and choose font weights that look crisp on both standard-resolution displays and Retina displays. This SDK supports the same resolutions as iOS. Standard-resolution displays are limited to older devices that your application may or may not support, depending on its minimum deployment target.. Icon and text labels should be legible regardless of the maps orientation. By default, this SDK makes it easy for your users to rotate or tilt the map using multitouch gestures. If you do not ...
All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. No financial disclosures. Both authors (D.C and M.C) were involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.. The authors have full control over the primary data, and they agree to allow Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology to review their data if requested. ...