Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an intrauterine inflammatory condition that increases the risk for preterm birth, death, and disability because of persistent systemic and localized inflammation. The immunological mechanisms sustaining this response in the preterm newborn remain unclear. We sought to determine the consequences of HCA exposure on the fetal CD4+ T lymphocyte exometabolome. We cultured naive CD4+ T lymphocytes from HCA-positive and -negative preterm infants matched for gestational age, sex, race, prenatal steroid exposure, and delivery mode. We collected conditioned media samples before and after a 6-h in vitro activation of naive CD4+ T lymphocytes with soluble staphylococcal enterotoxin B and anti-CD28. We analyzed samples by ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion mobility-mass spectrometry. We determined the impact of HCA on the CD4+ T lymphocyte exometabolome and identified potential biomarker metabolites by multivariate statistical analyses. We discovered that: 1) ...
Birth Injury - Fetal Chorioamnionitis, Sepsis and Fetal Distress. This medical-legal illustration compares the anatomy and oxygenation of blood of a normal fetus with that of a fetus with fatal chorioamnionitis (inflammation and infection of uterine and placental tissues), sepsis, and fetal distress. The drawing describes how chorioamnionitis can lead to insufficient oxygenation of blood, along with other subsequent conditions such as meconium stained amniotic fluid and an oversized fetus.
Strunk T, Doherty D, Jacques Mbiostat A, Simmer K, Richmond P, Kohan R, Charles A, Burgner D. Histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with reduced risk of late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. PEDIATRICS 129 (1) : 134 - 141(2011) PubMed ...
The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM) injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room. Protective ventilation
Bacterial infection of the amniotic cavity, termed chorioamnionitis, is a major cause of perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Early administration of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in the laboring patient with chorioamnionitis has both neonatal and maternal benefits. Less known is the ideal postpartum antibiotic regimen - or if postpartum antibiotics are even required at all - needed to decrease febrile morbidity. Current practice has seen a wide range of practice styles ranging from no treatment to antibiotic prophylaxis for up to 48 hours after delivery.. If antibiotics are prescribed, there is good evidence to support one additional dose of antibiotics as compared to 24 hour dosing to decrease the rate of endometritis. Less clear is whether antibiotics are required at all for the properly treated patient with chorioamnionitis who requires a cesarean delivery. One study comparing continued antibiotics versus no-treatment failed to show a difference in the rate of postpartum ...
Despite extensive research, the etiology of most preterm births remains unknown. There are significant fetal consequences associated with preterm birth, which include necrotizing enterocolitis, fetal respiratory distress and intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Perinatal mortality is about 44%, 11% and 5% when deliveries occur between 25-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks and 33-34 weeks, respectively. While for many years, it was assumed that the cause of the high morbidity associated with prematurity was the birth of a neonate with a restricted adaptive capacity, it has also been suggested that part of the high perinatal morbidity was the consequence of adverse processes affecting the fetus in utero, rather than of prematurity per se. Intra-amniotic inflammation present in utero early in gestation may trigger the cascade of events leading to preterm birth (i.e. rupture of membranes, cervical ripening, uterine contractions) and provide an intrauterine milieu which is unfavorable or even harmful to the ...
Inflammation is the physiological effecter of term parturition and the pathological initiator of labor in both PTB and pPROM. Inflammatory changes in gestational tissues result in the modification of membrane structural integrity, activation of myometrial contraction and cervical ripening that are simultaneous mechanisms responsible for the onset of labor [40]. Moreover, infection-induced inflammation and other risk factors for pPROM and PTB, including behavioral risks (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use), poor nutrition and obesity, can cause a redox imbalance, increasing the release of free radicals and consuming antioxidant defenses [6, 41, 42].. In this study, we demonstrated that amniochorion membranes from pregnancies complicated by pPROM showed higher protein oxidative damage and lower antioxidant capacity than those complicated by PTB. This is consistent with previous reports by Dutta et al. [25], who reported oxidative stress-induced damaged and damaged associated senescence ...
... [chor-y-oh-am-nee-oh-NY-tis] is an infection of the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Only a few women get it. But it is a common cause of preterm labor and delivery.
References 1. Gibbs KS, Dinsmoor MJ, et al. A randomized trial of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis vs. immediate postpartum treatment of women with intra-amniotic infection. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:823-828. 2. Sperling KS, Ramamurthy KS, Gibbs KS. A comparison of intrapartum vs. immediate postpartum treatment of intra-amniotic infection. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:861-865. 3. Mecredy RL, Wiswell TF, Hume KF. Outcome of term gestation neonates whose mothers received intrapartum antibiotics for suspected chorioamnionitis. Am J Perinatol 1993; 10:365-8. 4. Escobar GJ, Li DK, et al. Neonatal sepsis workups in infants >/=2000 grams at birth: A population based study. Pediatrics 2000;106(2 Pt 1):256-263. 5. Singhal KK, La Gamma EF. Management of 168 neonates weighing more than 2000 g receiving intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for chorioamnionitis. Evaluation of an early discharge strategy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:158-163. 6. Cararach V, Botet F, et al. Administration of antibiotics to patients with ...
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Ameyo Djeha, MSc Student (U of Montreal), 2017-2018. Project: Impact of antiretroviral therapy use in pregnancy on placental function. Role: main supervisor. Chelsea Elwood MDB.M.ScH, M.Sc, MD, Fellow (U of British-Columbia), 2016-. Project: The Role of HIV, antiretroviral therapy and the vaginal microbiome in triggering preterm birth and shaping the infant microbiome (Canadian Trial Network fellowship and Allen-Carey Education Award of Excellence in Womens Health). Role: co-supervisor. Dina Zaki, MD, Resident (U of Montreal) 2017-. Project: Chorioamnionitis: fetal and maternal risk factors for neonatal mortality. Role: main supervisor. Jennifer Longpré, MD, Resident (U of Montreal), 2016-. Project: Association between misoprostol and chorioamnionitis in labor induction: does fever count?. Role: main supervisor. Radoslaw Kaminski, MD, Resident (U of Montreal), 2016-2017. Project: The use of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy in Canada and compliance with North-American guidelines. Role: ...
Your provider will ask about your past health. He or she will give you a physical exam. He or she may be able to diagnose chorioamnionitis just by your symptoms. You may also need a lab test to check for infection.. Your healthcare provider may suggest a test called amniocentesis, although this test is not routinely done for chorioamnionitis. During this test, your healthcare provider uses a needle to take a small amount of amniotic fluid for testing.. ...
The mechanisms responsible for the onset of labor in women are not completely understood. Growing evidence suggests that bacterial products such as endotoxin could stimulate monocytes or macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, which in turn stimulate prostaglandin biosynthesis by amnion, chorion and decidua and result in the onset of labor. Amniotic fluid IL-6 could be a sensitive indicator for prospective diagnosis of acute histologic chorioamnionitis, so amniotic fluid IL-6 is considered as an important cytokine. IL-13 and TIMP-3, recently described, have been known to relate to IL-6. IL-13, a novel T-helper cell lymphokin, has been shown to upregulate IL-6 production in keratinocytes, endothelial cells and mesothelial cells, whereas it downregulates IL-6 production in human monocytes. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3(TIMP-3), new type distinct from TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, is known to be stimulated by IL-6. In this study , we examined C3H pregnant mice ...
Dirk Lange, PhD, presents the take home messages on infection/inflammation from the AUA annual meeting in Orlando, FL, including studies pointing to the utility of obtaining rectal swab cultures prior to prostate biopsy to identify patients harboring fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria and guide antibiotic prophylaxis.
The study will be evaluated according to intention to treat. Power Analysis is based on an estimated 22% rate of chorioamnionitis in PPROM patients. A doubling of this rate to 44% should occur in a total of 142 subjects (71 in each arm). Similarly, the rate of patients remaining undelivered at 1 week is 50%. To achieve a 50% increase in the number of patients achieving one week undelivered is virtually identical (140). This study will have a 1:1 case-control ratio, 80% power, and p of 0.05. Of these 142 subjects, 40 inclusions will be in the Netherlands and 102 in the United States and ...
My research focuses on predictors of renal development and injury in preterm infants, as well as long-term consequences of AKI in this vulnerable population. These studies include: Animal model of chorioamnionitis: looking on the effect on nephrotoxic renal injury on renal development; Biomarkers of AKI in preterm infants; Long term consequences of AKI.. ...
I am new to posting on the forum, but I have loved reading the threads and all of the great advice on here since before my son was born. Now its my turn - I could use some advice. My son was born on June 26th, so he is about three-and-a-half weeks old. He was born via c-section, after 26 hours of labor during which I only dilated 5 cm, and during which I developed an infection (Chorioamnionitis) and a fever. My son was taken to the NICU right after birth, because they were worried that he
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Ive been going to doctor after doctor trying to figure out why my SED Rate is elevated. My SED Rate was first tested in October of 06 and it was 27; then again in December and it was 32. Now just a few weeks ago, it came back 46. Ive been tested for everything. But Im heading in the right direction. I know that the SED Rate is a marker for infection/inflammation and mine is not infection. My WBC is absolutely normal. My PCP doesnt know what more to do with me. I asked him to send me to a rheumatologist and that is in the works. But I just feel like that is going to be another dead end as well. Anybody out there know much about SED Rates ...
Pirmasis Nilo slenkstis senovėje buvo riba tarp Egipto ir Kušo. Vėliau egiptiečiai užkariavo žemes iki pat šeštojo slenksčio. Nilo slenksčiai buvo viena pagrindinių priežasčių XIX a. trukdžiusių britų keliautojams pasiekti Nilo aukštupį. ...
ryklės migdolas statusas T sritis histologija atitikmenys: lot. Adenoidea; Tonsilla pharyngealis ryšiai: platesnis terminas - ryklė
Objective. To evaluate the maternal inflammatory response to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) in women with preterm labor and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes using selected proteins in the maternal serum. Design. A prospective cohort study. Setting. Labor ward from Salgrenska University Hospital. The evaluation of the maternal inflammatory response in the presence of MIAC in preterm labor and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Population. One hundred and sixteen women with preterm labor and 73 women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between the gestational ages of 22+0 and 33+6 weeks. Methods. Twenty-seven maternal serum proteins were assayed by a multiple immunoassay. Main outcome measures. The maternal serum inflammatory response was evaluated according to the presence of MIAC. Data were stratified by gestational age. Results. There were few differences in the maternal serum protein levels when MIAC was present in both preterm labor and preterm prelabor ...
Results The prevalence of PPHN among the 12 954 extremely preterm infants enrolled was 8.1% (95% CI 7.7% to 8.6%), with the trend increasing annually, and a higher proportion as GA decreased: 18.5% (range, 15.2% to 22.4%) for infants born at 22 weeks compared with 4.4% (range, 3.8% to 5.2%) for those born at 27 weeks. Clinical chorioamnionitis and premature rupture of membranes were associated with PPHN. On multivariate analysis of the data from 5923 infants followed up for 3 years, PPHN was a significant independent risk factor for visual impairment (adjusted OR, 1.42, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.97). ...
THURSDAY, Oct. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Delivery characteristics of extremely preterm infants can be used to identify those with significantly lower incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS), according to a study published online Oct. 5 in Pediatrics.. Karen M. Puopolo, M.D., Ph.D., from Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia , and colleagues analyzed data from infants born at 22 to 28 weeks gestation in Neonatal Research Network centers from 2006 to 2014 to determine whether factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants at lower risk of EOS (≤72 hours age).. The researchers found that of 15,433 infants, 37 percent met low-risk criteria (delivered via cesarean delivery, with membrane rupture at delivery, and absence of clinical chorioamnionitis). Among infants surviving ,12 hours, EOS incidence was 29 out of 5,640 (0.5 percent) in the low-risk group versus 209 out of 8,422 (2.5 percent) in the comparison group (adjusted relative risk, 0.24). Prolonged antibiotics (five or ...
Results: Compared with genotype GG, the less common CC genotype was associated with increased risk for overall CP (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.6), quadriparetic CP (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.8-9.3), and hemiparetic CP (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7), after controlling for race. The C allele conferred increased risk for CP in both recessive and additive genetic models. In multivariate analysis controlling for race, independent risk factors for CP included CC genotype compared with GG (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), clinical chorioamnionitis (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-10.4), maternal age >or= 35 (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.1), and male sex (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4 ...
We demonstrated that maternal viral infection can lead to productive replication in the placenta and a fetal inflammatory response, even though the virus is not detected in the fetus. The experiments described in this work are intended to show that viral infection of the placenta can elicit a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn can cause organ damage and, potentially, downstream developmental deficiencies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a viral infection of the placenta may sensitize to bacterial infection and promote preterm labor.. Pregnant women are exposed to many infectious agents that are potentially harmful to the fetus. The risk evaluation has been focused on whether there is a maternal viremia or fetal transmission (62). Viral infections that are able to reach the fetus by crossing the placenta might have a detrimental effect on the pregnancy (63, 64). It is well accepted that in those cases infection can lead to embryonic and fetal death, induce miscarriage, or induce major ...
A pregnancy specific sepsis can be chorioamnionitis. This occurs from rupture of membranes early, leading to infection in the amniotic fluids.. With cases of chorioamnionitis, delivering the baby is going to be better for both the child and the mother. Non delivered foetal survival rates are almost non existent.. Inducing a birth is usually done with medication or pessaries in the UK. One thing you can do in the developing world. Putting a catheter into the cervical os: you inflate the balloon to start stimulating the cervix. Also give an oxytocin IV infusion.. We also had session on haemorrhage and eclampsia. I failed to get many notes, but they were awesome! Then I went for a curry and finally got Peshwari chips for the first time!. ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM O41.1234 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Progesterone improves perinatal neuromotor outcomes in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation via immunomodulation of the placenta. AU - Novak, Christopher. AU - Ozen, Maide. AU - Mclane, Michael. AU - Alqutub, Sadiq. AU - Lee, Ji Yeon. AU - Lei, Jun. AU - Burd, Irina. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - To assess the fetal neuroprotective potential of progesterone using a well-validated mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Embryonic day 17 pregnant mouse dams (n = 69) were randomly allocated to receive 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC), micronized progesterone (MP), or vehicle 1 hour prior to intrauterine injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or LPS. After 6 hours, mice were killed for the collection of placentas and fetal brains, or pregnancy continued for the evaluation of preterm birth (PTB) and offspring neuromotor function. Placentas and fetal brains were analyzed by mini-mRNA array for 96 immune markers with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transvaginal administration of intraamniotic digoxin prior to dilation and evacuation. AU - Gariepy, Aileen M.. AU - Chen, Beatrice A.. AU - Hohmann, Heather L.. AU - Achilles, Sharon L.. AU - Russo, Jennefer A.. AU - Creinin, Mitchell D. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Background: Transabdominal injection of digoxin into the amniotic fluid or fetus to induce fetal demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) abortion has become common practice since the passage of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in 2007. Study Design: We performed a prospective study to assess the feasibility of transvaginal administration of intraamniotic digoxin the day before D&E. All women between 18 0/7 and 23 5/7 weeks of gestation seeking termination from December 2009 to May 2011 were approached for study participation. Women who declined participation were asked to identify their primary rationale. For women declining study participation, transection of the umbilical cord during D&E was performed to ...
Intra-amniotic infections are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, which, in turn, may be associated with neurological sequelae in former preterm infants [80]. Microbial presence in the amniotic fluid may elicit maternal and fetal inflammatory response that are then responsible for neonatal complications. The association between elevated inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in the amniotic fluid and subsequent white matter injury has been noted in preterm infants [81]. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in the cord blood including IL-1β, IL-6 IL-8, and TNF-α have also been shown to correlate with neonatal cerebral lesions as detected by MRI after parturition in human premature infants [82]. Furthermore, clinical evidence shows that elevated inflammatory response in the perinatal period has been demonstrated to correlate with long-term neonatal morbidities including cerebral palsy [83], psychomotor deficits [8], and non-neurological diseases including necrotizing ...
Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) is a pregnancy complication. In this condition, the sac (amniotic membrane) surrounding your baby breaks (ruptures) before week 37 of pregnancy. Once the sac breaks, you have an increased risk for infection. You also have a higher chance of having your baby born early.
Intaramniotic infection or chorioamnionitis stands for acute infection of chorion and amnion, most frequently caused by ascedent polymicrob bacterial infection. Presence of symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, presence of maternal and fetal tachycardia, and maternal laboratory blood tests showing increased inflammatory parameters all together indicate to this condition. Definite affirmation of this dyagnosis is determinated by amniotic fluid and cervical smear microorganism cultivation, and patohystologic changes in fetal membrain and placenta. Due to a wide spectrum of appearing symptoms and a variety of clinical signs and symptoms that are not always immidiately recognised as intraamniac infection, and despite the antibiotic treatment, choriamnionitis often ends in premature birth. The child is more affected by the complications of this condition than the mother. The extent and severity of complications is increasing as the gestation week is smaller and the lower ...
Finally around midnight I got checked again and it was time to push! We sent moms out and into the waiting room and the nurse and midwife got their waterproof gear on (its really so that things are "sterile," but Im convinced that its bodily fluid protection is wherein lies its real value). N and I had made a conscious effort all throughout my pregnancy to cut back on our cursing but I couldnt help but hype myself up in my head with a quiet "LETS DO THIS SHIT!" With each contraction I pushed as long and hard as I could, and I kept doing this, until we realized we had been doing it for three hours. Towards the end of that three hours I had spiked a fever which granted me a diagnosis of chorioamnionitis (most often associated with a prolonged labor, which I guess I was having seeing as we were already on hour 24), and most concerning was that we were starting to see some late decels in baby girls heart rate (decelerations are just slowing of heart rate - early decels are usually due to head ...
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2001, in the Space Odyssey sense, is one of numerous semi-themes running through this years Proms, though Kubricks often visionary perspective on the future of. ...
narvelis statusas T sritis gyvūnų anatomija, gyvūnų morfologija atitikmenys: lot. Cellulae ryšiai: platesnis terminas - apatinė kriauklės pūslė
statusas T sritis virškinimo aparatas atitikmenys: lot. Pharynx ryšiai: platesnis terminas - virškinimo aparatas siauresnis terminas - ausies trimitas siauresnis terminas - balso aparatas siauresnis terminas - bendrasis ausies trimitas siauresnis
Our attorneys see a lot of parents calling us believing their child was harmed by chorioamnionitis who are trying to find out if they have a birth injury
The incidences of placental diseases were 2.0% (95% CI, 0.9‐3.1%) for pre‐eclampsia, 3.3% (95% CI, 0‐7.2%) for placental abruption, 0.5% (95% CI, .2‐.9%) for placenta previa and 0.3% (95% CI, 0‐0.5%) for chorioamnionitis," the authors wrote. Patients with IBD were more likely to experience preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (OR 12.10; 95% CI, 2.15‐67.98), but not early pregnancy loss (OR 1.63; 95% CI .49‐5.43 ...
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the profiles of maternal plasma soluble adhesion molecules in patients with preeclampsia, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses, acute pyelonephritis, preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL), preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (preterm PROM), and fetal death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine maternal plasma concentrations of sE-selectin, sL-selectin, and sP-selectin as well as sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sPECAM-1 in patients with 1) an uncomplicated pregnancy (control, n = 100); 2) preeclampsia (n = 94); 3) SGA fetuses (in women without preeclampsia/hypertension, n = 45); 4) acute pyelonephritis (n = 25); 5) PTL (n = 53); 6) preterm PROM (n = 24); and 7) fetal death (n = 34 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood Serum Anti-Fetal Brain Antibodies Do Not Predict Autism. AU - Morris, Christina M.. AU - Zimmerman, Andrew W.. AU - Singer, Harvey S.. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Autoimmune hypotheses for autism include in utero transplacental exposure to maternal antibodies and acquired postnatal insults. Previous work demonstrated that some mothers of children with autistic disorder have specific antibodies against human fetal brain that differentiate them from mothers with typical children. In the present study, Western immunoblotting was used to determine whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (n = 29) have serum reactivity against human fetal brain that differs from that of controls (n = 14). There was no significant difference in reactivity, corrected for serum immunoglobulin G content and brain actin content and with special attention to reactive bands at 36, 39, 61, and 73 kDa, between autistic children and normal control subjects. Thus, in contrast to ...
A newborn baby, particularly a small or preterm baby, is at risk of suffering a neurological injury if he or she becomes infected. The mother may be carrying Group B Strep bacteria, which can be passed on to the baby as the baby is delivered. As well, infection can occur during labour affecting the placenta (chorioamnionitis) or the umbilical cord (vasculitis or funisitis). These conditions may have an impact on the health of the newborn.. ...
Findings 21% of women were between 35-40 years. 10% of patients had BMI , 35. Majority of patients were white British (56%) followed by Asian (25%) background. Medical problems identified were Prexisting diabetes/developed during pregnancy (6%) and asthma (9%).. 21% mothers had history of smoking. 40% of patients presented with reduced fetal movements. Most of the babies weighed between 3.1-4.0 Kg and abnormalities were identified in 10% after birth. Results from the placental histology revealed mild to moderate chorioamnionitis (13%) followed by infarction (7%) and thrombus/fibrin deposits (7%). Patients who agreed to have karyotyping, results revealed normal in 13% of cases but failed in 10%.. ...
In the present study, we report that inhibition of PDE4s by rolipram in rabbit pups exposed to chorioamnionitis preserved antenatal and postnatal alveolarization, without modifying the inflammatory response. However, we observed marked intrauterine growth retardation and a very high incidence of stillbirth in animals treated with rolipram, results not yet reported in this model. Rolipram is the prototypical PDE4 selective inhibitor. PDEA4 enzyme is the main cAMP-metabolizing enzyme in immune and inflammatory cells, airway smooth muscle, and pulmonary nerves; its inhibition suppresses the recruitment and activation of several inflammatory cells (neutrophils, CD8 T cells, and macrophages) known to have a crucial role in the pathophysiological processes of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (Sanz et al., 2005; Hayes et al., 2010). In this context, we chose to test this new treatment in a previously described model of antenatal infection with subsequent impaired alveolarization in the rabbit (Gras-Le Guen ...
BACKGROUND While the human fetal immune system defaults to a program of tolerance, there is a concurrent need for protective immunity to meet the antigenic challenges encountered after birth. Activation of T cells in utero is associated with the fetal inflammatory response, with broad implications for the health of the fetus and of the pregnancy. However, the characteristics of the fetal effector T cells that contribute to this process are largely unknown.METHODS We analyzed primary human fetal lymphoid and mucosal tissues and performed phenotypic, functional, and transcriptional analysis to identify T cells with proinflammatory potential. The frequency and function of fetal-specific effector T cells was assessed in the cord blood of infants with localized and systemic inflammatory pathologies and compared with that of healthy term controls.RESULTS We identified a transcriptionally distinct population of CD4+ T cells characterized by expression of the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia ...
by Elizabeth Bruce The topic of premature rupture of membranes (hereafter referred to as PROM) is one of particular interest to me because its occurrence was the ultimate cause of my cesarean. At the time my membranes ruptured (or more […]