The death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis pathway is thought to be unique to vertebrates. However, the presence of DR-encoding genes in the sea urchin and the basal chordate amphioxus prompted us to reconsider, especially given that amphioxus contains 14 DR proteins and hundreds of death domain (DD)-containing adaptor proteins. To understand how the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was originally established and what the differences in signaling are between invertebrates and vertebrates, we performed functional studies of several genes that encode DDs in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (Bbt). First, we observed that the increased abundance of Bbt Fas-associated death domain 1 (BbtFADD1) in HeLa cells resulted in the formation of death effector filamentous structures in the cytoplasm and the activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway, whereas BbtFADD2 protein was restricted to the nucleus, although its death effector domain induced apoptosis when in the cytoplasm. We further ...
A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and
LanceletDB: The Lancelet (Branchiostoma belcheri) Genome Sequencing and Annotation Project Database at Sun Yat-sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
LanceletDB: The Lancelet (Branchiostoma belcheri) Genome Sequence and Annotation Project Database at Sun Yat-sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
Previous studies have shown the presence of Plg only in the jawed vertebrates [3,32], and a Plgl molecule has been discovered in the amphioxus B. belcheri, a basal chordate [19]. However, molecular cloning and identification of the putative Plgl in B. belcheri was lacking. In the present paper we demonstrate for the first time the presence of a kringle domain-containing protease with Plgl activity, named BbPlgl, in B. belcheri. The deduced 430-amino-acids long protein, BbPlgl, is structurally characterized by the presence of a putative N-terminal signal peptide of 16 amino acids, 2 kringle domains with the lysine-binding site structure in the N-terminus, a serine protease domain with the putative tPA-cleavage site (between Arg297 and Val298) in the C-terminus, the catalytic triad His237-Asp288-Ser379 expected for protease function, and a potential N-linked glycosylation site, which are all typical of Plgs. Moreover, the recombinant BbPlgl is readily activated by human uPA, and exhibits Plgl ...
Many animals have as many or more CYP genes than humans do. Reported numbers range from 35 genes in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica to 235 genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae.[30] Mice have genes for 101 CYPs, and sea urchins have even more (perhaps as many as 120 genes).[31] Most CYP enzymes are presumed to have monooxygenase activity, as is the case for most mammalian CYPs that have been investigated (except for, e.g., CYP19 and CYP5). Gene and genome sequencing is far outpacing biochemical characterization of enzymatic function, though many genes with close homology to CYPs with known function have been found, giving clues to their functionality. The classes of CYPs most often investigated in non-human animals are those either involved in development (e.g., retinoic acid or hormone metabolism) or involved in the metabolism of toxic compounds (such as heterocyclic amines or polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Often there are differences in gene regulation or enzyme function of CYPs ...
Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R) is a cytokine receptor which binds interleukin 17A. Functional IL-17R is a heteromeric complex consisting of at least IL17RA and IL17RC. A number of additional variants exist including IL17RB, which binds preferentially IL17B and IL17E. A total of five members of the family have been identified. The first identified member, IL-17RA is located on human chromosome 22. There are two IL17Rs (IL17RA and IL17RD) in the genome of the basal chordate Amphioxus. After two rounds of whole genome duplications, these two IL17R genes expanded into five early vertebrate IL17R genes, IL17RA to IL17RE. Two (IL17RA and IL17RD) are found in most vertebrates, whereas the other three (IL17RB, ILR17RC and IL17RE) have undergone some losses in vertebrates during evolution. IL-17RA is the founding member of a new IL-17R(A-E) subfamily of cytokine receptors. IL-17RA is by far the largest member of the family and has the largest cytoplasmic tail of the family. This cytoplasmic tail ...
List of words make out of Branchiostoma. Anagrams and Words made out of Branchiostoma. Find Scrabble Point of Branchiostoma. Definition of Branchiostoma. Puzzle Solver.
Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120-160 million years ago. We found 113,070 noncoding elements conserved between the two species, amounting to 3.3% of the genome. The genomic distribution, target gene ontology, and enriched motifs of these CNEs all suggest that many of them are probably cis-regulatory elements. More than 90% of previously verified amphioxus regulatory elements were re-captured in this study. A search of the cephalochordate CNEs around 50 developmental genes inseveral vertebrate genomes revealed ...
1C7V: Sequential calcium binding to the regulatory domain of calcium vector protein reveals functional asymmetry and a novel mode of structural rearrangement.
The evolutionary relationships between the chordate groups and between chordates as a whole and their closest deuterostome relatives have been debated since 1890. Studies based on anatomical, embryological, and paleontological data have produced different "family trees". Some closely linked chordates and hemichordates, but that idea is now rejected.[4] Combining such analyses with data from a small set of ribosome RNA genes eliminated some older ideas, but opened up the possibility that tunicates (urochordates) are "basal deuterostomes", surviving members of the group from which echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates evolved.[42] Some researchers believe that, within the chordates, craniates are most closely related to cephalochordates, but there are also reasons for regarding tunicates (urochordates) as craniates closest relatives.[4][43]. Since early chordates have left a poor fossil record, attempts have been made to calculate the key dates in their evolution by molecular phylogenetics ...
Using sequence homology with experimentally known amphioxus mature miRNAs, a total of 155 candidate miRNAs with 71 miRNA-stars was identified from the amphioxus B. belcheri genome (Supplemental Table I). Among the 57 novel bbe-miRNAs, 55 were identical to bfl-miRNAs from B. floridae and 2 were homologous to bja-miRNAs from B. japonicum. Of the 155 mature bbe-miRNAs, 108 were amphioxus specific. To further determine whether these candidate miRNAs were genuine miRNAs, the pre-miRNA sequences downloaded were used to scan the amphioxus B. belcheri genome for stem-loop structures for the candidate miRNAs. In total, 124 loci with typical hairpin structures were generated (Supplemental Table I). These loci were considered candidate miRNA genes and were coding for 112 mature miRNAs and 68 miRNA-stars. Forty-three other mature miRNAs and their pre-miRNAs were not identified in the amphioxus B. belcheri genome; a possible explanation is this genome is not sequenced completely. For example, all of the ...
Using sequence homology with experimentally known amphioxus mature miRNAs, a total of 155 candidate miRNAs with 71 miRNA-stars was identified from the amphioxus B. belcheri genome (Supplemental Table I). Among the 57 novel bbe-miRNAs, 55 were identical to bfl-miRNAs from B. floridae and 2 were homologous to bja-miRNAs from B. japonicum. Of the 155 mature bbe-miRNAs, 108 were amphioxus specific. To further determine whether these candidate miRNAs were genuine miRNAs, the pre-miRNA sequences downloaded were used to scan the amphioxus B. belcheri genome for stem-loop structures for the candidate miRNAs. In total, 124 loci with typical hairpin structures were generated (Supplemental Table I). These loci were considered candidate miRNA genes and were coding for 112 mature miRNAs and 68 miRNA-stars. Forty-three other mature miRNAs and their pre-miRNAs were not identified in the amphioxus B. belcheri genome; a possible explanation is this genome is not sequenced completely. For example, all of the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
ID C3Y7Q0_BRAFL Unreviewed; 318 AA. AC C3Y7Q0; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-JUL-2009, sequence version 1. DT 30-AUG-2017, entry version 43. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; GN ORFNames=BRAFLDRAFT_259692 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; OS Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet) (Amphioxus). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; OC Branchiostoma. OX NCBI_TaxID=7739 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S238N-H82 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RC TISSUE=Testes {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; RX PubMed=18563158; DOI=10.1038/nature06967; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF); RA Putnam N.H., Butts T., Ferrier D.E.K., Furlong R.F., Hellsten U., RA Kawashima T., Robinson-Rechavi M., Shoguchi E., Terry A., Yu J.-K., RA Benito-Gutierrez ...
ID C3ZM81_BRAFL Unreviewed; 509 AA. AC C3ZM81; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-JUL-2009, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 61. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; GN ORFNames=BRAFLDRAFT_121378 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; OS Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet) (Amphioxus). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; OC Branchiostoma. OX NCBI_TaxID=7739 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S238N-H82 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RC TISSUE=Testes {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; RX PubMed=18563158; DOI=10.1038/nature06967; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF); RA Putnam N.H., Butts T., Ferrier D.E.K., Furlong R.F., Hellsten U., RA Kawashima T., Robinson-Rechavi M., Shoguchi E., Terry A., Yu J.-K., RA Benito-Gutierrez ...
amphioxus: Any of certain members of the invertebrate subphylum Cephalochordata of the phylum Chordata. Amphioxi are small marine animals found widely in the coastal waters of the warmer...
Estrogens are necessary for ovarian differentiation during critical developmental windows in most vertebrates and promote the growth and differentiation of the adult female reproductive system. Estrogen actions are largely mediated through the estrogen receptors (ERs), which are ligand-activated transcription factors. To understand the molecular evolution of sex steroid hormone receptors, we isolated cDNAs encoding two steroid receptors from Japanese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri: an ER ortholog and a ketosteroid receptor (SR) ortholog. Reporter gene assays revealed that the SR ortholog has molecular functions similar to those of the vertebrate ER. Surprisingly, the ER ortholog is an estrogen-insensitive repressor of SR-mediated transcription. Furthermore, we found that the SR ortholog can bind to both estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) and androgen-responsive elements (AREs) and mediates transcriptional activation by estrogens through both types of elements. Our findings suggest that the ...
... Workshop course for Biology Teachers. BIOLOGY OF LIVING INVERTEBRATES Next summer, Iowa Lakeside Laboratory (http://www.lakesidelab.org) will offer duplicate, one-week-long, intensive lab-field courses, entitled Techniques in Biology Teaching: Animal Biology. Course goals are to provide U.S. biology teacher (pre-college or college level) with unique, inspiring, hands-on, and total-immersion workshop experiences involving living invertebrates. Emphasis is on: (1) field collection, ecology, development, behavior, and physiological adaptations of freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates; and (2) new, hands-on inquiries utilizing living invertebrates that are easily cultured in the classroom. See sample activities and materials: http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/ Enrollment is limited to 8 participants per session and admission requires acceptance by instructor. Take home many free classroom resources: write-ups, texts, electronic media, living cultures, samples & ...
This was written before the amphioxus genome had been sequenced, so its not up to date. However, the article presents considerable information derived from cDNA analysis. ...
Austroblechnum lanceolatum and A. norfolkianum are a species pair that need further taxonomic investigation. Exact distinctions between these species are difficult. Chambers & Farrant (1998) suggest that this is due to hybridisim but the basis for that suggestion is not clear. Most field botanists distinguish these two species on the basis of distribution and ecology with A. norfolkianum known only from northern New Zealand where it is mostly found on offshore islands. In this area it is typically found on rodent-free, sea bird islands where it is a conspicuous member of the shaded forest floor of petrel colonies as well as the more usual shaded bank and cliff habitats. Austroblechnum norfolkianum usually has brighter green, succulent fronds without the darker pink or maroon pigmentation often seen in A. lanceolatum, and the pinna of A. norfolkianum are consistently falcate (those of A.lanceolatum less often so), while the fertile fronds of A. norfolkianum are said to be shorter than sterile ...
The Meis gene family (within the TALE class) is equivalent to the Meis gene family within the MEIS gene class of Bürglin and Mukherjee (2007). The gene family contains three human genes, two human pseudogenes, one Drosophila gene (hth) and one amphioxus gene. Proteins encoded by this gene family, like Pknox and Pbx families, are implicated as cofactors of Hox proteins (Moens and Selleri 2006 ...
Phylum-Chordata tutorial all along with the key concepts of Features of Chordates, Protochordata, features of Vertebrates, categorization of Vertebrates, Developments in Vertebrates, Basic Chordate Body Plan, Adaptations of Fish and Maintenance Systems of fish
View Notes - Vert Lecture PPT from BIOLOGY 110 at Drexel. Lecture 10: Vertebrates Chapter 34 Shared dervied traits of chordates dorsal hollow nerve cord - develops from rolled ectoderm notochord -
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Looking for online definition of cerebral vesicle in the Medical Dictionary? cerebral vesicle explanation free. What is cerebral vesicle? Meaning of cerebral vesicle medical term. What does cerebral vesicle mean?
Several Nobel Prize awards correlated with fluorescence. It is a long tradition that many Embyologists (Developmental Biologists) concentrated their interest in marine research. The term ecology was coined very late around 1960. Aspects of ecology and environmental protection (also sustainability) were unknown in the 19. and early 20. century. This is easy to understand, since environmental problems were unknown at thistime. Famous zoologist, especially developmental biologists (mainly Germans) worked at the well known marine station (Anton Dohrn) in Naples and other reserch stations, Sea urchin and lancelet fish Branchiostoma lanceolatum were favored objects for embryological studies.. It is not arrogant to say that still to day the early development of organisms is a cental topic in biology. The individual development (ontogenesis) is the most sensitive period of all organisms. The Contergan disaster during human embryogenesis is a terrible example. As we now know the adult organism is much ...
Although it is widely assumed that the evolution of jaw kinesis in the ray-finned fishes was an innovation to enhance suction feeding performance, the lack of phylogenetic replication of this event across fishes has hindered direct tests of this hypothesis. Our results reveal that within the East African cichlid radiations, multiple transitions between biting and suction feeding have occurred, and that these functional transitions are accompanied by evolutionary reduction of jaw kinesis over short evolutionary timescales of 4 Myr or less (figure 3). These rapid and repeated shifts are consistent with the hypothesis that high jaw kinesis is selectively maintained in suction feeding fishes and provides evidence supporting upper jaw protrusion as a major evolutionary innovation for ray-finned fishes.. Our power to detect associations between jaw kinesis and transitions in feeding mode is directly connected to the sheer number of dietary transitions that have occurred in these cichlid radiations, ...
President and Scientific Director, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and Director, P3G (Public Population Project in Genomics)President and Scientific Director, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research Scientific Director, P3GDr. Thomas J. Hudson is president and scientific director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research. He is implementing the institutes strategic plan, working with cancer research institutions across Ontario to leverage existing strengths. The plan focuses on prevention, early diagnosis, cancer targets and new therapeutics. Its innovation platforms include imaging and interventions, bio-repositories and pathology, genomics and high-throughput screening, and informatics and biocomputing. Dr. Hudson is recruiting more than 50 internationally recognized principal investigators.Dr. Hudson was the founder and Director of the McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre and Assistant-Director of the Whitehead/MIT Center for Genome Research. Dr. Hudson is ...
My research focuses on understanding the evolutionary origins of complex traits within the vertebrate head. Such complex traits include an elaborated ventricular brain, neural crest and placodal derivatives, and the development of craniofacial structures. Because of their absence outside the vertebrate subphylum, they are generally regarded as vertebrate innovations, thus closely linked to the invertebrate-vertebrate transition. My main objective is to decipher the molecular changes that underlie the emergence of such morphological innovations, which likely facilitated the evolution and radiation of vertebrates on earth. To do this, I use the pre-vertebrate amphioxus (cephalochordate) as a model system, since it is currently regarded as the best extant proxy to the ancestral chordate that gave rise to all vertebrates.. ...
Cephalochordates (subphylum Cephalochordata) are commonly referred to as lancelets or amphioxus. They appear fish-like, but unlike fishes they lack paired fins and only has a very poorly developed tail fin. Their nerve cord is within a simple notochord made up of tightly packed cells. They have no eyes, and use tentacle-like structures in front of the mouth to sense their surroundings and filter suspended food particles such as plankton from the water. They breathe through their skin, and hide in the sediment most of the time, though some of the specimens recorded from Singapore were caught with nets near the surface of the water. They are harvested and consumed in the region. The above photo features an unidentified museum specimen caught from the South China Sea ...
Definition of phylum chordata in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of phylum chordata. What does phylum chordata mean? Information and translations of phylum chordata in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Such efforts have gradually led me to believe that meaningful interaction of teachers and their students with a wide range of living, behaving organisms not only enhances their biology education in general but it is ultimately crucial for promoting ecological awareness and preserving biodiversity. Thus, I am now deeply committed to the notion that hands-on connections with living organisms, especially invertebrates, ought to play a key role in general biology education at all levels. And, I have strived, in my own fashion, to create and propagate such concepts and connections in the following ways:. 1) Instructing residential workshops for biology teachers. The teacher workshops that I developed in invertebrate biology at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, in 1993, served as a springboard for my subsequent involvements in educational outreach. The most notable of these was an invitation to instruct for one week at the 1996 Woodrow Wilson Foundation summer institute in neurobiology held at Princeton ...
Conway Morris and Caron (2012) have recently published an account of virtually all the available information on Pikaia gracilens, a well-known Cambrian fossil and supposed basal chordate, and propose on this basis some new ideas about Pikaias anatomy and evolutionary significance. Chief among its chordate-like features are the putative myomeres, a regular series of vertical bands that extends the length of the body. These differ from the myomeres of living chordates in that boundaries between them (the myosepta) are gently curved, with minimal overlap, whereas amphioxus and vertebrates have strongly overlapping V- and W-shaped myomeres. The implication, on biomechanical grounds, is that myomeres in Pikaia exerted much less tension on the myosepta, so the animal would have been incapable of swimming as rapidly as living chordates operating in the fast-twitch mode used for escape and attack. Pikaia either lacked the fast-twitch fibers necessary for such speeds, having instead only slow-twitch fibers, or
Fig 66 - Head of a chick, second stage, after five days of incubation, section in profile; x6 diameters. cvl, cv2, cv3, first, second, and third cerebral vesicles; 1, place of the first nerve, the olfactory; 2, place of second nerve, the optic; ic, internal carotid artery, running into skull at what was originally the pituitary space, now an opening bounded in front by the anterior, acl, behind the posterior, pcl, clinoid walls; nc, notochord; oc, occipital condyle, thence to pcl being the original parachordal cartilage, here seen in profile; eo, exoccipital; eth, ethmoid, with ps, its presphenoid region posteriorly, and pn, pre-nasal part; this whole plate afterward developing into parts of the nose and the partition between the eyes; pa, palatine; pg, pterygoid region; pa and pg reference lines are in the chicks mouth; mk meckelian cartilage (lower jaw); ch and bh, ceratohyal and basihyal parts of the hyoid or tongue bone." Elliot Coues, 1884. ...
Pterobranchs are colonial hemichordates living in secreded tubular coenecia. They reproduce by short-lived planulashaped larvae or asexual budding. Pterobranchs were originally classified similarly to bryozoans and phoronids based on lophophore feeding structures. Morphological analysis of the feeding structures along with molecular data suggest that the similarities are due to convergence. Study of 18S rDNA sequences indicate that pterobranchs are monophyletic within the clade. This would indicate that pterobranchs evolved from a enteropneust-like ancestor.. Cameron, C.B., Garey, J.R. and Swalla, B. J. (2000) Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 4469-4474. (Online) ...
Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates[2] "The Hox family of transcription factors has a fundamental role in segmentation pathways and axial patterning of embryonic development and their clustered organization is linked with the regulatory mechanisms governing their coordinated expression along embryonic axes. Among chordates, of particular interest are the Hox paralogous genes in groups 1-4 since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed. ...Together, our results indicate that during chordate evolution, cis-elements dependent upon Hox/Pbx regulatory complexes, are responsible for key aspects of segmental Hox expression in neural tissue and appeared with urochordates after cephalochordate divergence ...
Putnam NH, Butts T, Ferrier DE, Furlong RF, Hellsten U, Kawashima T, Robinson-Rechavi M, Shoguchi E, Terry A, Yu JK, Benito-Gutierrez EL, Dubchak I, Garcia-Fernandez J, Gibson-Brown JJ, Grigoriev IV, Horton AC, de Jong PJ, Jurka J, Kapitonov VV, Kohara Y, Kuroki Y, Lindquist E, Lucas S, Osoegawa K, Pennacchio LA, Salamov AA, Satou Y, Sauka-Spengler T, Schmutz J, Shin-I T, Toyoda A, Bronner-Fraser M, Fujiyama A, Holland LZ, Holland PW, Satoh N, Rokhsar DS.The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype.
Mast cells (MCs) are primarily resident hematopoietic tissue cells that are localized at external and internal surfaces of the body where they act in the first line of defense. MCs are found in all studied vertebrates and have also been identified in tunicates, an early chordate. To obtain a detailed insight into the biology of MCs, here we analyzed the transcriptome of MCs from different mouse organs by RNA-seq and PCR-based transcriptomics. We show that MCs at different tissue locations differ substantially in their levels of transcripts coding for the most abundant MC granule proteins, even within the connective tissue type, or mucosal MC niches. We also demonstrate that transcript levels for the major granule proteins, including the various MC-restricted proteases and the heparin core protein, can be several orders of magnitude higher than those coding for various surface receptors and enzymes involved in protease activation, as well as enzymes involved in the synthesis of heparin, ...
Hank introduces us to ourselves by taking us on a journey through the fascinatingly diverse phyla known as chordata. And the next time someone asks you who you are, you can give them the facts: youre a mammalian amniotic tetrapodal sarcopterygian osteichthyen gnathostomal vertebrate cranial chordate.
നട്ടെല്ലുള്ള ജീവികളും അവയുമായി അടുത്ത ജനിതകബന്ധം പുലർത്തുന്ന നട്ടെല്ലില്ലാത്ത ചില ജീവികളും ഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന ജന്തുക്കളിലെ ഒരു ഫൈലമാണ് കോർഡേറ്റ (Chordata). ഈ ഫൈലത്തിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന ജീവികളാണ് കോർഡേറ്റുകൾ (Chordates). ഈ ഫൈലത്തിന്റെ സബ് ഫൈലങ്ങൾ യൂറോകോർഡേറ്റ, സെഫലോകോർഡേറ്റ, ക്രാനിയേറ്റ എന്നിവയാണ്, ഹെമികോർഡേറ്റ നാലാമത്തെ സബ് ഫൈലമായി കരുതിയിരുന്നുവെങ്കിലും ഇപ്പോൾ ഹെമികോർഡേറ്റ ഒരു ഫൈലമായാണ് ...
It is an interesting time to consider the means and roles of cell adhesion in the eukaryotes. There was initial wonder at the results of Wilsons reports of species-specific reaggregation of sponge...
Enteropneusts, or acorn worms, are creatures of the deep whose relationship with vertebrates has caused considerable interest for over a century. More recently, marine biologists were intrigued by fuzzy pictures appearing to show enteropneusts with tentacles sprouting from the collar. This would have important implications for the body plan of these so-called lophenteropneusts: were they a missing link between enteropneusts and their cousins, the colonial tentacled pterobranchs? This lophenteropneust hypothesis is now dismissed as a case of mistaken identity. A series of remarkable deep-sea photographs and videos shows broad-collared enteropneusts gliding along the sea bed. One specimen has been sucked up with what they call in the trade a slurp gun: this newly named specimen has the broad-collared look, but it is not caused by tentacles. The deep ocean is home to a group of broad-collared hemichordates-the so-called lophenteropneusts-that have been photographed gliding on the sea floor1,2,3,4,5,6
The origin and affinities of chordates and echinoderms have long been a subject of interesting speculation. Relationships between creatures are postulated..
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Variety Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom ssp. lanceolatum var. latifolium (Semple & Chmielewski) G.L. Nesom Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
There is a single member of this gene family in human and amphioxus. Drosophila lacks the gene family; this is secondary loss, because there is a probable orthologue (manacle) in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Expression of the amphioxus, ascidian and vertebrate Dmbx genes has been compared in an investigation of midbrain evolution (Takahashi and Holland 2004 ...
It was nice to see that they tossed in a mention of Elpistostege. As you can see, Elpistostege is a lot like Tiktaalik, which is why Tiktaalik is dubbed an "elpistostegalian". Elpistostege is known only very incomplete remains, the limbs have been entirely unknown. However, its tetrapod affinities have been recognized since its discovery in 1938, when T.S. Westoll actually called it the earliest known tetrapod! In 1985, Hans-Peter Schultze and Marius Arsenault recognized it for what it was, a very tetrapod-like fish, similar to Panderichthys. In 1996, Schultze described a short pice of the trunk that has rhomboid-shaped schales and a few vertebrae. What little is known of its skull and trunk of Elpistostege is scarcely different from Tiktaalik. However, after decades of searching no new data on Elpistostege ever came to light. Shubin and Daeschler wanted more of this animal, but knew that the original locality wasnt going to give up its secrets. So, they went looking in similar-aged rocks ...
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Cephalochordates- Cephalochordates take water in via the mouth. The water is drawn in by the cilia producing beating movements. The cilia are located on the wheel organ, which is a set of folds inside the mouth. The oral cirri, projections around the mouth, cleanse the water, and then the water passes through the gills. There is a mucus net covering the pharyngeal slits. This net traps little food particles that are available in the seawater. The food passes through the digestive tube. The filtered water passes through the slits to the atrium, and out of the organism through the atriopore. The remainder of the digestive tract is basic: the hepatic caecum squirts digestive enzymes and the rest of the digestive process in carried out in the iliocolinic ring which is part of the intestine. (AK ...
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