Dentine sialoprotein (DSP) represents 5-8% of all non-collagenous proteins present in the tooth, but, together with dentine phosphoprotein, has been shown to be vital for correct tooth formation. Recently, the existence of a highly glycosylated form of porcine DSP has been reported and it was shown to possess glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The current investigation confirms that this is also the case for bovine DSP and has further characterized these carbohydrates. Dentine sialoprotein was purified from bovine dentine extracts by anion exchange chromatography and identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), western blotting, and mass spectroscopy. An increase in molecular mass was observed, from 120 kDa to greater than 250 kDa, with a corresponding rise in anionic strength. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and western blotting indicated the presence of chondroitin sulfate GAG chains within these dentine fractions. Further examination using sequential digestion
One immediate result of our experiments is the ability to assign Ser999 as the principal site of chondroitin sulfate attachment to the NG2 polypeptide. On the basis of the apparent difference in molecular size between the NG2 core glycoprotein (300 kDa) and the intact proteoglycan (400-600 kDa smear) on SDS-PAGE, we had speculated that there might be several chondroitin sulfate chains associated with the core. The presence of at least two good consensus sequences for chondroitin sulfate attachment at Ser999 (EGSGD) and Ser1342 (SGLG, Nishiyama et al., 1991a) seemed consistent with this prediction. However, our current experiments with point mutants have shown that NG2/S1342A still contains chondroitin sulfate, whereas NG2/S999A is devoid of glycosaminoglycan, indicating that Ser1342 is not used as an attachment site. Thus, at least in this case, the E/DGSGE/D motif ( Zimmermann and Ruoslahti, 1989) is utilized, whereas the SGXG motif ( Bourdon et al., 1987) is not. This usage may highlight the ...
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate ...
During development and regenerative growth, neuronal pathways are defined in part by several endogenous cues that collectively determine directed growth. The interactions between such cues largely are unknown. To address potential interactions, we have examined in vitro the combined effect on nerve growth of two endogenous growth cone guidance cues: chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and weak dc electric fields. Addition to the culture medium of a chondroitin 6-sulphate/keratan sulphate containing PG (BNC-PG) markedly enhanced the cathodal re-orientation of embryonic Xenopus neurites in an electric field, whereas a proteoglycan containing chondroitin 4-sulphate (RC-PG) was inhibitory. These effects of BNC-PG and RC-PG were reproduced by their chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycan side chains alone. Chondroitin 6-sulphate or chondroitin 4-sulphate, respectively, enhanced and inhibited cathodally-directed nerve re-orientation. This was dependent on the integrity of the glycosaminoglycan chain ...
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1. Busci L & Poor G: Efficacy and tolerability of oral chondroitin sulfate as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(supplement A):31-36. 2. Morrison LM & Enrick NL: Coronary heart disease: reduction of death rate by chondroitin sulfate-A. Angiology 1973: 24(5): 269-287. 3. Tallia A & Cardone D: Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002; 15(6):841-848. 4. Uebelhart D, Thonar E & Delmas P: Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6 (supplement A):39-46. 5. Verbruggen G, Goemaere S & Veys E: Chondroitin sulfate: S/MOAD (structure/disease modifying anti-osteoarthritis drug) in the treatment of finger joint OA. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(suppl A): 37-38. 6. Product Information: Glucosamine hcl chondroitin sulfate oral tablets. Puritans Pride, Bohemia, NY, 2006. ...
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Doctors in Europe and Asia have been using glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates for years to treat osteoarthritis and other joint problems. Numerous studies have shown that these substances are effective in reducing joint pain, swelling and tenderness and improving range of motion. Thousands of patients worldwide have found relief through the use of these ingredients. Despite these positive findings overseas, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates did not become well known in the US until the publication of the best- seller The Arthritis Cure by Jason Theodosakis, M.D., M.S., M.P.H. In the book, Dr. Theodosakis lays out the scientific basis for the use of these ingredients and the large body of research supporting their use in osteoarthritis ...
Results From among 47000 probes, 18253 were filtered out. Probes with a p-value below than 0.005 were chosen and classified as up- or down-regulated ones. By this way, 465 differentially expressed genes between N/R and I areas were identified. Many inflammatory mediators appear differentially expressed. The interferon alpha-inductible protein 6 (IFI6) was the most up-regulated. We also identified the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), the cathepsin K (CTSK), the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and the EBV-induced G-protein coupled receptor 2 (EBI2). The differential expression of intermediates involved in angiogenesis pathway was also revealed between N/R and I areas. Among them, R-spondin-3 (RSPO3), the secreted phopshoprotein 1 (SPP1) and aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were up-regulated whereas ADAMTS1 was down-regulated. Finally, in the Wnt signaling, RSPO3 was up-regulated unlike dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3) which was in turn down-regulated. We next performed a class comparison ...
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Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis. Although chondroitin is used in dietary supplements as an alternative medicine to treat osteoarthritis and also approved and regulated as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for this disease (SYSADOA) in Europe and some other countries, it is technically neither a medicine nor a disease-modifying treatment. See Clinical effects below. It is commonly sold together with glucosamine. Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in ...
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Glucosamine + Chondroitin with MSM Healthy cartilage strength and resilience Sulfur-containing methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is included in this glucosamine and chondroitin combination to provide an enhanced spectrum of nutrients for optimal cartilage matrix composition, connective tissue strength, and joint comfort. Glucosamine promotes the synthesis of the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate is responsible for building the ground substance of cartilage, molecules known as proteoglycans. In addition, chondroitin sulfate may maintain healthy enzyme activity. An important role of sulfur from MSM is to enhance the structure and integrity of proteoglycans. Pure Encapsulations Glucosamine and Chondroitin with MSM offers highly purified constituents for healthy cartilage formation and joint movement ease. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: glucosamine HCl (crab, shrimp), 99% 300 mg. chondroitin sulfate (bovine), 95% 300 mg. MSM
According to a new report, "Chondroitin Sulfate Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Source (Synthetic, Bovine, Swine, Poultry, Shark), By Application (Nutraceuticals, Pharmaceuticals, Animal Feed, Personal Care), And Segment Forecasts, 2019 - 2025", published by Grand View Research, Inc.,. The global chondroitin sulfate market size is expected to reach USD 1.4 billion by 2025, accelerating at a CAGR of 3.2% over the forecast period, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing consumption of joint health supplements owing to rising prevalence of arthritis among obese and geriatric population is projected to drive the product demand.. Clinical efficacy and joint health benefits offered are the major factors triggering the demand for the product. Rising utilization of pharmaceutical grade sodium chondroitin sulfate to cure osteoarthritis is projected to drive industry growth. The market is highly influenced by Chinese dominated product supply, which as per the ...
Protecting patients, solving a mystery: Pediatric infectious disease specialist Alexis M. Elward, MD, and nurse Marilyn L. Jones, RN, MPH, headed the hospitals "SWAT team" as they unraveled clues related to a tainted dialysis drug.. Turns out, it wasnt the heparin after all.. Heparin is a blood thinner commonly used in patients undergoing kidney dialysis, some types of cardiac surgery, and for treatment or prevention of other serious medical conditions. It is derived from pig intestines processed primarily in small plants in China. A cheaper substitute made from animal cartilage, called oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, imitates heparin so closely that it is not recognized by routine testing. Thus this less expensive product could escape normal detection. But oversulfated chondroitin sulfate activates enzymes that cause the body to make inflammatory mediators that can lead to symptoms such as low blood pressure, abdominal symptoms and shortness of breath.. Jones says that at the time of the ...
tin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy." However, only around 40 percent of patients show a major response to this first-line treatment and therefore, "second-line treatment options for MIBC are currently in great demand," note the authors in their paper.. The new study builds on previous work by Prof. Daugaard and co-investigator Ali Salanti, a professor in the Center for Medical Parasitology at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.. That research showed that a protein called VAR2CSA - normally found in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum - could deliver cancer drugs into tumors.. The researchers say that the protein attaches to a particular group of sugar chains - called "oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS)" - that are normally found only in cancer tumors and placental tissue.. Because cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer has unusually high levels of ofCS, Prof. Daugaard and colleagues decided to explore the potential for using VAR2CSA as a basis for treating this ...
The usual of take care of MIBC is "cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy." Nevertheless, solely round 40 p.c of sufferers present a significant response to this first-line remedy and subsequently, "second-line remedy choices for MIBC are presently in nice demand," notice the authors of their paper.. The brand new research builds on earlier work by Prof. Daugaard and co-investigator Ali Salanti, a professor within the Heart for Medical Parasitology on the College of Copenhagen in Denmark.. That analysis confirmed protein referred to as VAR2CSA - usually discovered within the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum - may ship most cancers medicine into tumors.. The researchers say that the protein attaches to a specific group of sugar chains - referred to as "oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS)" - which might be usually discovered solely in most cancers tumors and placental tissue.. As a result of cisplatin-resistant bladder most cancers has unusually excessive ranges ...
Purpose: To evaluate the potential of a bioactive coating based on chondroitin sulfate (CS) and tethered epidermal growth factor (EGF) for the improvement of healing around stent-grafts (SG). Methods: The impact of the bioactive coating on cell survival was tested in vitro on human vascular cells using polyethylene terephtalate films (PET) as a substrate. After being transferred onto a more "realistic" material (expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene), ePTFE), the durability and mechanical behavior of the coating in addition to cell survival were studied. Preliminary in vivo testing was performed in a canine iliac aneurysm model reproducing type I endoleaks (3 animals with 1 control and 1 bioactive SG for each). Results: The CS and EGF coatings significantly increased survival of human smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, compared with bare PET or ePTFE (P,.05). The coating also displayed good durability over 30 days according to ELISA and cell-survival tests. The coating did not affect the ...
ITGA4 Integrins alpha-4/beta-1 (VLA-4) and alpha-4/beta-7 are receptors for fibronectin. They recognize one or more domains within the alternatively spliced CS-1 and CS-5 regions of fibronectin. They are also receptors for VCAM1. Integrin alpha- 4/beta-1 recognizes the sequence Q-I-D-S in VCAM1. Integrin alpha- 4/beta-7 is also a receptor for MADCAM1. It recognizes the sequence L-D-T in MADCAM1. On activated endothelial cells integrin VLA-4 triggers homotypic aggregation for most VLA-4-positive leukocyte cell lines. It may also participate in cytolytic T-cell interactions with target cells. Heterodimer of an alpha and a beta subunit. The alpha subunit can sometimes be cleaved into two non-covalently associated fragments. Alpha-4 associates with either beta-1 or beta-7. Alpha-4 interacts with PXN, LPXN, and TGFB1I1/HIC5. Interacts with CSPG4 through CSPG4 chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan. Belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
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Novel chondroitin sulphation motifs as putative biomarkers of articular cartilage chondroprogenitor cells [Abstract]. European Cells and Materials 10 (Supp 2) , p. 72 ...
Glucosamine + Chondroitin with Manganese Enhanced cartilage synthesis and antioxidant support This convenient formula combines two of the most important cartilage building blocks, glucosamine and chondroitin, with manganese ascorbate for enhanced connective tissue support. Glucosamine promotes the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, such as chondroitin sulfate. The primary structural compound of articular cartilage, chondroitin sulfate also helps to block the activity of degradative enzymes. Together, glucosamine and chondroitin may provide synergistic support for healthy hyaluronic acid content and synovial fluid. The trace mineral manganese plays a key role in supporting glycosaminoglycan and mucopolysaccharide production and encourages the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase. Ascorbate is a vital nutrient for proper collagen formation and also serves as an antioxidant. In a recent study, the combination of glucosamine HCl, chondroitin sulfate and manganese ascorbate demonstrated the
Background-Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and the search for novel therapeutic approaches continues. In the monogenic disease mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI, loss of function mutations in arylsulfatase B (ASB) leads to myocardial accumulation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), manifesting as a myriad of cardiac symptoms. Here, we studied changes in myocardial CS in non-MPS failing hearts, and assessed its generic role in pathological cardiac remodeling. Methods-Healthy and diseased human and rat left ventricles were subjected to histological and immuno-staining methods to analyze for GAG distribution. GAGs were extracted and analyzed for quantitative and compositional changes using Alcian Blue assay and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Expression changes in 20 CS-related genes were studied in three primary human cardiac cell types and THP-1 derived macrophages under each of 9 in vitro stimulatory conditions. In two rat models of ...
Degenerative arthritis is a painful condition frequently treated with pain relievers, anti-inflammatory medications, supplements, physical therapy and even weight loss. It has long been accepted that treatment best involves a combination of complementary therapies from the above list. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are not only cartilage building blocks but they can have anti-inflammatory properties of their own, making them excellent additions to any joint support protocol.. In a normal joint, cartilage breakdown is balanced by cartilage production. In the diseased joint, there is more breakdown than production. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates are components of cartilage, and the theory is that by taking these precursors orally (by mouth), a body can use them to repair and rebuild damaged cartilage. This has actually borne out and studies show that cartilage "building blocks" taken orally are indeed utilized in cartilage repair. The cartilage cells of the joint are able to manufacture ...
Chondroitin Sulfate comes from two main sources: • the bovine source (cattle), where the chondroitin is usually taken from the cattles trachea • the marine source, with the chondroitin typically sourced from shark cartilage. Good quality manufacturers will state on their packaging what type of chondroitin is used in their products. This is most important to people who have strong views over the type of chondroitin they use. For example, some may be happy to use supplements derived from shark cartilage but will not be willing to use supplements made from cow by-products - or vice-versa. In fact, the source of any dietary supplement should be one of your prime consideration. If you do not wish to use either animal or marine products to relieve your arthritis pain you may wish to try organic rosehip supplements, which offer a natural herbal alternative.. ...
Chondroitin sulfate is used in treatment of osteoarthritis. It is often used in combination with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Chondroitin sulfate is also used for heart disease, osteoporosis, and high cholesterol. Chondroitin sulfate is also used in a complex along with iron for treating anemia.
The disease course of localized prostate cancer is highly variable, and patients potentially curable by aggressive management are not readily identified by current clinical practice. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycan is a candidate biomarker as elevated levels of CS in peritumoral stroma of prostate cancer have been associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Immunoreactive CS was measured using image analysis of archived radical prostatectomy tissues, obtained from 157 men with a median of 47 months (range, 16-111 months) clinical follow-up. CS level, Gleason score, and preoperative serum PSA levels were independent predictors of PSA failure by Coxs multivariate analysis. Patients with low CS levels had significantly fewer PSA failures after radical prostatectomy than patients with high levels of CS (Kaplan-Meier plot; 32% PSA failures at 5 years for CS mean integrated absorbance cut point | 7.0 versus 50% for CS | or = 7.0, P = 0.0001). In the subgroup of patients with
Chondroitin is a chondrin derivative. Types include: Chondroitin sulfate Dermatan sulfate Chondroitin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
Many people with arthritis and osteoarthritis use supplements in their diet to relieve their joint pain. Glucosamine and chondroitin are the most popular supplements to use. These substances are often used together because they have similar mechanisms of lowering inflammation, slowing and preventing the degeneration of joint cartilage and treating pain. In addition, theyre considered very safe and pose little risk for side effects.. Recommended: Learn More about Taking Ideal Collagen for Your Joints (combines collagen with glucosamine and chondroitin).. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are components of normal cartilage. They are the building blocks for cartilage and appear to stimulate the body to make more cartilage.. Both help create molecules that form cartilage, which is the substance found within the spaces between our joints that help attach muscles to bones.. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are found in nature. Natural glucosamine is derived from the hard exoskeletons of shellfish. ...
Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators; however, the relationship between their structural diversity and function in axonal guidance is not well known. To uncover the roles of CS in axonal guidance, artificially modified hybrid molecules: CS derivatives of biotinylated CS and lipid-derivatized CS, were used. The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones distinguish types of CS with different unit contents and are likely to discriminate the structural
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Previous studies have indicated that CD44 isoforms, spliced with variant exons, are heterogeneously glycanated with chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate chains. Because such alternative splicing may regulate divergent biological effects of the specific isoforms, we analysed the consequences of this process on the composition and structure of the chondroitin-sulphate chains. Recombinant chimaeras were engineered with and without exons V3-10 or V3,8-10 and expressed as Ig fusion proteins in COS cells. In addition, the chondroitin sulphates of wild-type isoforms were contrasted with those of isoforms mutated with serine-to-alanine codon substitutions at a putative Ser-Gly-Ser-Gly glycosaminoglycan acceptor site within exon V3. The chondroitin sulphates contained both 4- and 6-sulphated galactosamine residues, although there was a high content of non-sulphated galactosamine-containing repeat units. Splicing of exons V4-7, which contain no Ser-Gly consensus motifs, resulted in increased ...
2) 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate + [chondroitin]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine = adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + [chondroitin]-4,6-di-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Glossary: 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate = PAPS. Other name(s): GalNAc4S-6ST; CHST15 (gene name). Systematic name: 3-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:[dermatan]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase. Comments: The enzyme is activated by divalent cations and reduced glutathione. The enzyme from human transfers sulfate to position 6 of both internal residues and non-reducing terminal GalNAc 4-sulfate residues of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Oligosaccharides derived from chondroitin sulfate also serve as acceptors but chondroitin sulfate E, keratan sulfate and heparan sulfate do not. Differs from EC 2.8.2.17, chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase, in being able to use both chondroitin and dermatan as effective substrates. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: ...
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Some early studies advise that a certain eye Remedy that contains chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronate (Viscoat, Alcon Laboratories) can lower force in the attention and boost All round eye wellness after a cataract is taken off. Having said that, the drops will not seem like much better than drops that contains hyaluronate alone or An additional chemical known as hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose. The effect of methods made up of only chondroitin sulfate on cataract surgical procedures is not identified ...
Description: The formation of a cross-link between peptide chains mediated by a chondroitin 4-sulfate glycosaminoglycan that originates from a typical O-glycosidic link to serine of one chain; the other chain is esterified, via the alpha-carbon of its C-terminal Asp, to C-6 of an internal N-acetylgalactosamine of the glycosaminoglycan chain.. ...
1. A process for the preparation of a chondroitin sulphate sodium salt in which all N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) units in a polysaccharide chain are monosulphated randomly, at the 4-position, or at the 6-position, the process comprising: a) transforming a chondroitin sodium salt into its free acid or a salt thereof with a quaternary ammonium cation selected from the group consisting of tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, and tetrabutylammonium, into a pyridinium salt, or into a methyl ester; b) reacting the compound obtained in step a) with an orthoester of formula RC(OR1)3, wherein R is selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl or phenyl and R1 is selected from methyl or ethyl, in the presence of acid catalysis, to give a compound in which a repeating disaccharide unit present in chondroitin has the formula I ##STR00010## wherein R and R1 are as defined above; c) protecting the hydroxy groups at the 2- and 3-positions of the glucuronic acid units of the compound obtained step b) by ...
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Chondroitin sulfate is a class of glycosaminoglycans covalently linked to form proteoglycans on proteins. Chondroitin sulfate exists in all organisms from nematodes to humans except plants, and plays ...
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Chondroitin Sulfate is a naturally-occurring compound found in the cartilage, bone, skin, cornea, and arterial walls, as well as tissues throughout the body. It plays an important role in the health, function, and mobility of joints, as well as the comfort and elasticity of joint tissues.** It also works with hyaluronic acid to support the shock-absorbing properties of aggrecan.**. Piping Rocks Chondroitin Sulfate supplements deliver 600 mg of this joint-nourishing nutrient in each serving. Adults take one (1) quick release capsule two to three times daily with meals for optimal nutritional support. It is important to note that, like glucosamine, it may take several weeks of supplementation before any noticeable difference is seen.. ...
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