Cholera toxin subunit B peptide fusion proteins reveal impaired oral tolerance induction in diabetes-prone but not in diabetes-resistant mice ...
Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.: Activation of dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for priming of cyt
Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954] for ELISA. Anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit mAb (GTX36671) is tested in Bacteria samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin produces intestinal secretion by activation of the adenylate cyclase complex. However animal studies have shown 5-hydroxytryptamine may be released after exposure to cholera toxin, and thereby contribute to the secretory state. AIM: To determine whether cholera toxin releases 5-hydroxytryptamine in human jejunum. SUBJECTS: Seven male subjects were given a subclinical dose of cholera toxin in a paired, controlled, randomised, double blind study. METHODS: A closed 10 cm segment of upper jejunum was exposed to 15 micrograms of cholera toxin for two hours prior to closed segment perfusion with plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable volume marker, [14C]-polyethylene glycol. 5-Hydroxytryptamine in jejunal effluent and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine (up to seven hours after cholera toxin) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. RESULTS: In contrast with controls, all subjects secreted fluid in response to ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is endowed with a variety of surface-exposed proteins representing putative vaccine candidates. Lipoproteins are covalently anchored to the cell membrane and highly conserved among pneumococcal serotypes. Here, we evaluated these lipoproteins for their immunogenicity and protective potential against pneumococcal colonisation. A multiplex-based immunoproteomics approach revealed the immunogenicity of selected lipoproteins. High antibody titres were measured in sera from mice immunised with the lipoproteins MetQ, PnrA, PsaA, and DacB. An analysis of convalescent patient sera confirmed the immunogenicity of these lipoproteins. Examining the surface localisation and accessibility of the lipoproteins using flow cytometry indicated that PnrA and DacB were highly abundant on the surface of the bacteria. Mice were immunised intranasally with PnrA, DacB, and MetQ using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) as an adjuvant, followed by an intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae D39. PnrA protected
Extraordinary transmission based axial imaging (EOT-AIM) for cell microscopy is reported. EOT-AIM uses linear arrays of nanoapertures, each of which samples target fluorescence up to a preset axial distance from surface, in combination with wide-field microscopy for acquisition of lateral images. Current design of nanoapertures provides EOT-AIM with axial super-resolution that is as small as 20 nm for a depth range of 500 nm. Experiments were performed for the measurement of the axial distribution of ganglioside in mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells using FITC-conjugated cholera toxin subunit B. The results were successfully confirmed with conventional confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. ...
to express cholera toxin subunit B in e.coli. The gene is inserted in a plasmid for expression in vibrio sp. 60. But i do not have the bugs. The cloning worked well in e. coli and then i said lets give it a try. I tried 3 different temperatures 37; 30 and 20 in combination with 2 different induction times 3 and 18 hours. For induction i used IPTG 1mM. And started the induction once at OD600=1.2 once at OD=0.6 and once OD=0.2 ...
Cholera toxin B subunit is a receptor-binding subunit of the oligomeric cholera toxin (Item No. 19654).1 It binds to GM1 gangliosideM1receptors on the surface of mammalian cells and facilitates entry of cholera toxin subunit A, which is the enzymatic subunit of the toxin that dysregulates Gs proteins and activates
A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pACTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructe
Synonyms for Cholera toxin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cholera toxin. 8 synonyms for toxin: poison, venom, bane, canker, contagion, poison, venom, virus. What are synonyms for Cholera toxin?
Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is then free to bind with a human partner protein ...
The LMO 35SctxBSEK expresses a synthetic gene of the nontoxic subunit of cholera toxin that corresponds to 71% with the gene sequence of the ctxB gene from Vibrio cholerae (100% amino acid identity). The gene was adapted to the codon preference of higher plants. The ER-retention signal SEKDEL was fused to the cholera toxin subunit in order to stabilize the protein ...
Cholera toxin (CT) is one of the most effective and widely studied mucosal adjuvants. Although the ADP-ribosylating A subunit has been implicated in augmenting immune responses, the receptor-binding B subunit (CT-B) has greater immunogenicity and may
To generate vaccines that protect mucosal surfaces, a better understanding of the cells required in vivo for activation of the adaptive immune response following mucosal immunization is required. CD11c(high) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) have been shown to be necessary for activation of naive CD8(+) T cells in vivo, but the role of cDCs in CD4(+) T cell activation is still unclear, especially at mucosal surfaces. The activation of naive Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells and the generation of Abs following mucosal administration of Ag with or without the potent mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin were therefore analyzed in mice depleted of CD11c(high) cDCs. Our results show that cDCs are absolutely required for activation of CD4(+) T cells after oral and nasal immunization. Ag-specific IgG titers in serum, as well as Ag-specific intestinal IgA, were completely abrogated after feeding mice OVA and cholera toxin. However, giving a very high dose of Ag, 30-fold more than required to detect T cell ...
The invention relates to the field of Microbiology and biotechnology, specifically to hybridoma technology, and is a clone of the hybrid cells CT-F5/H3 animals Mus Musculus L producing cell cultures and peritoneal cavity of syngeneic animals monoclonal antibodies (hereinafter MCAT) to the V. cholerae toxin (XT). Hybridoma can be used in diagnostic test systems for the specific indication of the cholera toxin in the food industry, environmental protection, medicine.. Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and the toxin produced by them are a cause of acute intestinal diseases of humans, often ending in death. The V. cholerae toxin completely determines the symptoms of cholera and is one of the Central objects of monitoring of bacterial toxins in the environment and food. Currently, the analysis of toxins of great importance in connection with the threat of bioterrorism, as many natural toxins, including cholera toxin, can be used as components of biological weapons. The dose of the toxin that causes the ...
The introduction of HRP as a retrograde tracer by Kristensson and Olsson 27 and La Vail and La Vail 31 has greatly accelerated our knowledge of neuroanatomy. Improvements of the original technique including the use of the more sensitive chromogen TMB 39-42, the microelectrophoretic delivery technique 18 and the introduction of the HRP conjugates with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP) 11 17 53 54 57 or cholera toxin (CT-HRP) 53 54 57 have further increased the sensitivity of the technique and permit one to obtain more restricted injection sites. The remarkable increase in the number of putative transmitters has further pointed to the need for methods allowing simultaneous identification of a pathway and its neurochemical identity. For this purpose, the histochemical detection of HRP and its conjugates using DABS 8 9 33 45 or stabilized TMB 46 has been successfully coupled with the immunohistochemistry of neurochemical substances on the same sections. However, such double labeling techniques present ...
Objective To research the interrelation of cholera toxin gene (CT gene) in manifestation of chitinase gene under different pH conditions among pathogenic and Non-pathogenic strains of in time depended chitinase activity, purification of expressed protein and SDS-PAGE analysis. gradients, tolerance to stress and safety from predators[7]. Emergent properties of chemotaxis, cell multiplication, induction of competence, bio?lm formation, commensal and symbiotic relationship with higher organisms, cycling of nutrients, and pathogenicity for humans and aquatic animals[8]. As factors mediating virulence of for humans and aquatic animals derive from mechanisms of adaptation to its environment, at different levels of hierarchical level, relationships with chitin represent a useful model for examination of the part of main habitat selection in the development of traits that have been identi?ed as virulence reasons in human disease[9]. In the current study primarily we targeted different climatic factors ...
Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
Many biochemical processes involve binding between carbohydrates and biomolecules on the surface of cells. These may involve multivalent interactions that can considerably alter the binding specificity and avidity of biomolecules. A novel nanocube sensor has been developed to elucidate the cooperativity in binding of biomolecules to carbohydrates. A fluidic supported lipid bilayer coated on the nanocube sensor allows this system to mimic a cell membrane in vitro. Cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has been taken as a model system and its binding with several gangliosides has been demonstrated using this sensor. The amount of CTB bound to the lipid bilayer is then quantified by observing the shifts in the quadrupolar localized surface plasmon resonance peak using a standard laboratory spectrometer. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a diagnostic tool to quickly identify diseases. This inexpensive, label free, high throughput technology allows the testing of several conditions ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Cholera toxin (Beta-subunit). Beta-subunit of cholera toxin. (MAB2796) - Products - Abnova
Hi, has anybody ever used the human colon cell line FHC? We culture this cell line but with very poor growth. The only reagent missing in the media is cholera toxin (as recommended by ATCC). Does anybody know a vendor of the cholera toxin, preferrably in Germany/Europe? Any help is highly appreciated! TIA, Inko ...
beta subunit Cholera Toxin兔多克隆抗体(ab34992)经WB, ELISA, IHC, ID, P实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Another aspect of cholera that was not understood was why its virulence varied greatly from strain to strain. Some strains even failed to produce disease. Cholera toxin, an enzyme, was eventually identified as the main virulence factor associated with strains that induced acute diarrhea. Cholera toxin is synthesized and secreted by strains in the 01 and 0139 groups, only. Those lacking this enzyme are far less pathogenic. Its mode of action eventually results in prolonged hypersecretion in the small intestine. The diarrhea is so intense that enterocytes become fragile and begin to sluff off from the basement membrane of the villus soon after symptoms appear.. Cholera toxin attaches at the level of the crypts of Lieberkühn to enterocytes that have surface ganglioside Gm1, a special glycolipid. Internalization of the toxin-ganglioside complex then occurs. The bacterial enzyme catalyses the transfer of ADP ribose from intracellular NAD+ to the s subunit of the trimeric G protein that is normally ...
Lencer, W.I. and Madara, J.L. and Jobling, M.G. and Holmes, R.K. and Hirst, Timothy R. (1996) Proteolytic activation of cholera toxin (CT) and E-coli labile toxin (LT) by intestinal epithelia. Gastroenterology, 110 (4). A342-A342. ISSN 0016-5085. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
The transposon TnphoA was used to generate fusions between phoA, the gene for alkaline phosphatase (PhoA), and genes encoding proteins that are secreted by Vibrio cholerae. One of the PhoA+ mutants isolated showed a dramatic reduction in its ability to colonize the intestines of suckling mice. This mutant no longer produced a 20.5-kDa protein (TcpA) that we show is the major subunit of a V. cholerae pilus. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the TcpA pilus subunit showed that it shares amino acid homology with the pilins produced by several other pathogenic bacteria. The TcpA pilus was coordinately expressed with cholera toxin under various culture conditions, and this effect appeared to be dependent on the transcriptional activator encoded by the toxR gene. We conclude that the toxR gene plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of multiple virulence genes of V. cholerae.. ...
Cholera, Cell, Children, Cholera Toxin, Infection, Adults, Vaccines, Vibrio, Disease, Patients, Vibrio Cholerae, Cholera Toxin B Subunit, Igg, Water, Memory, Diarrhea, Iga, Plasma, Antibodies, Immunization
Due to the availability of methods for the measurement of serum zonulin levels, several laboratories in the United States have begun to offer zonulin level analysis for the detection of increased intestinal permeability in patients with autoimmune disease or other chronic inflammatory illnesses. The majority of these laboratories analyze serum zonulin levels from a single blood draw without consideration for the variability of serum zonulin levels during the time course of a single day or from day to day. The scientific basis for offering serum zonulin levels as a diagnostic indicator mainly stems from a paper published by Sapone et al[41] in 2006 which demonstrated a correlation with zonulin upregulation and increased gut permeability in a subgroup of patients with type 1 diabetes. While this study contains several key and landmark discoveries with which we agree wholeheartedly, it is our opinion that the data on which the conclusions were drawn merit further analysis before they become the ...
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Liang S., Hosur K.B., Nawar H.F., Russell M.W., Connell T.D., Hajishengallis G. In vivo and in vitro adjuvant actions of the B subunit of Type IIb heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-IIb-B5) from Escherichia coli. Hajishengallis G., Nawar H., Tapping R.I., Russell M.W., Connell T.D. The Type II warmth-labile enterotoxins LT-IIa and LT-IIb and their respective B pentamers differentially induce and regulate cytokine manufacturing in human monocytic cells. Alone P.V., Garg L.C. Secretory and GM1 receptor binding function of N-terminal region of LTB in Vibrio cholerae. Ploix C., Bergerot I., Durand A., Czerkinsky C., Holmgren J., Thivolet C. Oral administration of cholera toxin B-insulin conjugates protects NOD mice from autoimmune diabetes by inducing CD4+ regulatory T-cells. Lavelle E.C., Jarnicki A., McNeela E., Armstrong M.E., Higgins S.C., Leavy O., Mills K.H. Effects of cholera toxin on innate and adaptive immunity and its software as an immunomodulatory agent.. CHD indicate the proposed catalytic ...
Bacterial toxin-mediated diarrheal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this work we designed an on-bead library of protease-resistant, acid-stable peptoid molecules and screened for high affinity binding of cholera toxin. From 100 000 compounds, we discovered a single sequence of residues that can bind and retain cholera toxin at high affinity when immobilized on a solid-phase particle. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these peptoid-displaying particles can sequester active cholera toxin from cell culture media sufficient to protect intestinal cells. We foresee this work as contributory to a potential adjunct therapeutic strategy against cholera infections and other toxin-mediated diseases ...
University of Ioannina. Repository of UOI Olympias.1992 . Creators: Anastassiou, E. D.. Contributors: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Επιστημών και Τεχνολογιών. Τμήμα Βιολογικών Εφαρμογών και Τεχνολογιών, Anastassiou, E. D.. Subjects: adp-ribosylation
Sublingual oral tolerance induction with antigen conjugated to cholera toxin B subunit generates regulatory T cells that induce apoptosis and depletion of eff
The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products that can retain their biological activity and immunogenicity, and can co
The Protein Data Bank hosts the current body of structural data on proteins and their complexes that has been acquired so far by researchers from all over the world. Beyond that, under General Education it also offers the Molecule of the Month: concise but at the same time thrilling accounts on selected molecules to be found in the Protein Data Bank. The stories are presented by David S. Goodsell, together with beautifully painted images of the protein structures. To the right you can see a reproduction of Goodsells painting of the Cholera Toxin. Such pore-proteins have inspired some of our research on DNA origami nanopores. If you ever wondered why some bacteria make you sick, read this shocking story about Cholera (original story and how it relates to other bacterial toxins to be found here): Cholera Toxin Sept 2005 Molecule of the Month by David S. Goodsell Bacteria pull no punches when they fight to protect themselves. Some bacteria build toxins so powerful that a single molecule can ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Robert M Caudle, Andrew J Mannes, Jason Keller, Federico M Perez, Shelby K Suckow, John K Neubert].
19F-NMR-based fragment screening for 14 completely different biologically lively RNAs and 10 DNA and protein counter-screens We report right here on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 19 F screening of 14… Read more ». ...
Excessive stage expression of recombinant proteins in micro organism typically leads to their aggregation into inclusion our bodies. Formation of inclusion our bodies poses a significant bottleneck in high-throughput restoration… Read more ». ...
1PZK: 3,5-Substituted phenyl galactosides as leads in designing effective cholera toxin antagonists; synthesis and crystallographic studies
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: Newman; locus tag: NWMN_1927 (NWMN_RS11120); symbol: lukG; product: leukocidin/hemolysin toxin subunit F
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: Newman; locus tag: NWMN_1928 (NWMN_RS11125); symbol: lukH; product: leukocidin/hemolysin toxin subunit S
1EEI: Exploration of the GM1 receptor-binding site of heat-labile enterotoxin and cholera toxin by phenyl-ring-containing galactose derivatives.
A serum zonulin test from Doctors Data can help identify increased intestinal permeability, which has been associated with some autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.
Figure 2: Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...
We have examined the molecular pathways involved in the adjuvant action of cholera toxin (CT) and two novel nontoxic molecules, multiple-mutated CT (mmCT) and ...
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What are toxins: Body toxins are chemicals that harm the health of the body. Body toxins are composed of four main groups: toxic chemicals, heavy metals, toxins and bacterial waste, viruses and by-products produced during the bodys metabolism. Contamination of large quantities of toxins can cause acute poisoning, such
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Tracer or toxin injections. For tracer experiments, under chloral hydrate anesthesia (7% in saline; 350 mg/kg), a fine glass pipette containing 1.0% cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; List Biologic, Campbell, CA), 12.5% biotinylated dextran (BD), or a mixture of 1% CTB and 12.5% BD was lowered to the precalculated targets based on the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998), and 9 nl of a solution containing the tracers was injected by an air pressure system. Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin (PHA-L; 2.5%) was injected by iontophoresis with a current of 5 μA for 15 min (7 s on and 7 s off). After two additional minutes, the pipette was slowly withdrawn and the incision was closed with wound clips. Animals survived for 7 d. The coordinates for tracer injections were as follows: medial prefrontal cortex, anteroposterior (AP), 2.20 mm, medial-lateral (ML), 0.4 mm, dorsoventral (DV), 4.6 mm; midline thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0 mm, DV, 4.4 mm; intralaminar thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0.8 mm, DV, 5.6 mm; ...
In the late twentieth century, oral cholera vaccines started to be used on a massive scale, with millions of vaccinations taking place, as a tool to control cholera outbreaks in addition to the traditional interventions of improving safe water supplies, sanitation, handwashing and other means of improving hygiene.[16] The Dukoral monovalent vaccine from Sweden, which combines formalin, heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, was licensed in 1991, mainly for travellers. Out of a million doses sold during the following decade, 63 negative side effects were reported.[8] The Shanchol/mORCVAX bivalent vaccine, which combines the O1 and O139 serogroups, was originally licensed in Vietnam in 1997 and given in 20 million doses to children in Vietnam during the following decade.[8] As of 2010[update], Vietnam continued to incorporate oral cholera vaccination in its public health programme, administering the vaccination through targeted mass vaccination of ...
In the present study, we demonstrated that clathrin and AP-1 are required for the retrograde transport from recycling endosomes to the Golgi. CTxB appeared to reach recycling endosomes in the clathrin- or AP-1-knockdown cells, similar to in control cells, suggesting that clathrin and AP-1 are not essential for the transport of CTxB from the plasma membrane through early endosomes to recycling endosomes. It has been shown that clathrin localizes to the TGN, early endosomes and the plasma membrane (Brodsky, 2012). We showed that CHC also localized to recycling endosomes. CHC colocalized with the recycling endosome proteins, Rab11, Tfn and SMAP2 in COS-1 cells (in which the Golgi, early endosomes and recycling endosomes are spatially distinct) (Lee et al., 2015; Misaki et al., 2007; Uchida et al., 2011). The recycling endosomes that were dispersed from the perinuclear region to the cytoplasm by nocodazole treatment remained positive for CHC. The localization of AP-1 to recycling endosomes (Folsch ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fuc-GM1 ganglioside mimics the receptor function of GM1 for cholera toxin. AU - Masserini, M.. AU - Freire, E.. AU - Palestini, P.. AU - Calappi, E.. AU - Tettamanti, G.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The ability of Fuc-GM1 ganglioside to mimic the receptor function of GM1 for cholera toxin (CT) has been investigated. For this purpose, rat glioma C6 cultured cells were enriched with Fuc-GM1 and the responsiveness to CT was compared with that of cells enriched with GM1 gangliosideM1 Fuc-GM1 was taken up by cells as rapidly and to the same extent as GM1. When comparable amounts of ganglioside were associated, the cells enriched with Fuc-GM1 bound the same amount of 125I-CT as did cells enriched with GM1. Under conditions in which GM1- and Fuc-GM1-enriched cells bound comparable amounts of CT, the Fuc-GMl-treated cells accumulated virtually the same amount of cyclic AMP as did GM1-treated cells, and activation of adenylate cyclase was also similar. The lag time preceding the CT-induced ...
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The structural genes for CT are shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXΦ), which is related to coliphage M13. The CTXΦ genome chromosomally integrated or replicated as a plasmid. CTXΦ used TCP as its receptor and infected V. cholerae cells within the gastrointestinal tracts of mice more efficiently than under laboratory conditions. Thus, the emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression. ...
The bacterium Vibrio is caused by cholera, and it is a cholera infection of the small intestine. Vibrio cholera produces a toxin called enterotoxin which causes the symptoms of cholera disease.. A type of cholera bacteria called the El Tor biotype tends to cause milder disease than the classic biotype.. The disease is of mild or moderate severity in more than 90% of affected people and is difficult to detect clinically from other forms of diarrhea diseases.. Less than 10% of infected persons develop typical cholera with signs of medium or severe dehydration that sometimes lead to death.. The maternal mortality rate without treatment is between 25% and 50%. Cholera is endemic in India and Southeast Asia.. Cholera outbreaks can bad happen in any part of the world where water supplies, sanitation, food safety, and hygiene practices are poor.. ...
FIG. 3. RPA for ctxAB transcript in various vieSAB mutant strain backgrounds. (A) Genetic organization of the V. cholerae ctxAB operon. Putative promoters are indicated by arrows. Probes designed to detect the ctxA and ctxB portions of the message are indicated by hatched bars drawn to scale. (B) RPA for ctxA message. Total RNA (1 μg) isolated from strains grown under the AKI inducing condition for 7 h as described in Materials and Methods was analyzed by using the ctxA-specific probe. A probe against rpoB was included as an internal loading control. Lanes: 1, RNA marker; 2 and 3, undigested ctxA and rpoB probes, respectively; 4 and 5, AC-V66 RNA ctxA probe only and rpoB probe only, respectively. Lanes 6 to 12 all contain both ctxA and rpoB probes. Lanes: 6, AC-V66; 7, Bah-2; 8, AC-V494; 9, AC-V752; 10, AC-V765; 11, AC-V279; 12, AC-V323b. wt, wild type. Protected bands of the expected sizes are indicated by arrows to the right. The sizes of the molecular weight markers in base pairs are given ...
Interaction of a cholera toxin derivative containing a reduced number of receptor binding sites with intact cells in culture ...
Cholera toxin animation, Welcome to viralinfections.info, we recommend viral infections related blog articles and classify them by tag.
The cholera strain causing the current outbreak in Haiti is most similar to cholera strains found in South Asia, according to lab reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Although these results indicate that the strain is non-Haitian, cholera strains may move between different areas due to global travel and trade, Haitis Minister of Health Dr. Alex Larsen said in a statement. Therefore, we will never know the exact origin of the strain that is causing the epidemic in Haiti. This strain was transmitted by contaminated food or water or an infected person.. Global travel and trade provide opportunities for infectious diseases such as cholera to spread from one country to another, according to the CDC. In most instances, cholera does not spread widely within countries where drinking water and sewage treatment are adequate. When water and sewage treatment is inadequate, as in post-earthquake Haiti, cholera can spread rapidly.. The lab findings are not unexpected, and provide ...
UN efforts to tackle cholera in Haiti are almost non-existent, a charity says, as the world body faces court action for inadvertently starting a cholera epidemic in the country.. Late last year, the UN launched a $2.2bn-appeal (£1.5bn) to improve water supplies in Haiti.. But Medecins Sans Frontieres says this has had almost no practical effect.. The UN is accused of negligently allowing peacekeeping soldiers to pollute Haitis water with cholera.. The epidemic, which is spread by infected sewage, has killed more than 8,000 people since late 2010.. Alarming situation. There have been grand plans - a 10-year $2.2bn project, Duncan McClean, a senior manager for MSF, told the BBC.. But the UN plan had not been implemented, he added.. I travel regularly to Haiti; the impact on the ground today is almost non-existent.. The UN plan to improve drinking water and sewage outlets - which MSF says is unfulfilled - was widely seen as the international bodys attempt to deflect calls by the victims ...
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is activated robustly by an immune challenge such as the systemic administration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Because IL-1β is not believed to cross the blood-brain barrier in any significant amount, it is likely that IL-1β elicits CeA cell recruitment by means of activation of afferents to the CeA. However, although many studies have investigated the origins of afferent inputs to the CeA, we do not know which of these also respond to IL-1β. Therefore, to identify candidate neurons responsible for the recruitment of CeA cells by an immune challenge, we iontophoretically deposited a retrograde tracer, cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), into the CeA of rats 7 days before systemic delivery of IL-1β (1 μg/kg, i.a.). By using combined immunohistochemistry, we then quantified the number of Fos-positive CTb cells in six major regions known to innervate the CeA. These included the medial prefrontal cortex, paraventricular thalamus ...
Neuronal communication relies on synaptic vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis and recycling for multiple rounds of fusion. Whether all synaptic vesicles have identical protein content has been challenged, suggesting that their recycling ability may differ greatly. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that is internalized in synaptic vesicles at motor nerve terminals and induces flaccid paralysis. Recently, BoNT/A was also shown to undergo retrograde transport, suggesting it might enter a specific pool of synaptic vesicles with a retrograde trafficking fate. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques including electron microscopy and single molecule imaging, we found that the BoNT/A binding domain is internalized within a subset of vesicles that only partially co-localize with cholera toxin B-subunit and have markedly reduced VAMP2 immunoreactivity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of action of ZOT-derived peptide AT-1002, a tight junction regulator and absorption enhancer. AU - Gopalakrishnan, Shobha. AU - Pandey, Niranjan. AU - Tamiz, Amir P.. AU - Vere, John. AU - Carrasco, Rosa. AU - Somerville, Robert. AU - Tripathi, Amit. AU - Ginski, Mark. AU - Paterson, Blake M.. AU - Alkan, Sefik S.. PY - 2009/1/5. Y1 - 2009/1/5. N2 - Tight junctions (TJs) are intercellular structures that control paracellular permeability and epithelial polarity. It is now accepted that TJs are highly dynamic structures that are regulated in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Here, we provide details on the mechanism of action of AT-1002, the active domain of Vibrio choleraes second toxin, zonula occludens toxin (ZOT). AT-1002, a hexamer peptide, caused the redistribution of ZO-1 away from cell junctions as seen by fluorescence microscopy. AT-1002 also activated src and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways, increased ZO-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, ...
Summary and Conclusions 1. A simple method for the laboratory diagnosis of cholera is presented: (a) Peptone water is inoculated with fresh stool and incubated 8 hours, (b) Alkaline nutrient agar plates are streaked and incubated overnight, (c) Transparent colonies are tested for agglutination with anti-cholera O serum. (d) Agglutinable vibrio are tested for hemolysis using 5 per cent sheep or goat cells. 2. V. cholerae are present in the intestinal tract only in the first few days of illness, therefore sulfonamides or other bactericidal agents are effective only if given early in the course of the disease. 3. The value of sulfonamides in cholera carriers cannot be definitely evaluated at this time. 4. Of 3,000 contacts, 61 became contact carriers. Two of these developed the disease. The number of clinical cases developing from contact carriers is very small.
Eleven years ago, Professor Adrian Lee, head of the School of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of New South Wales commented on the failure of the first Helicobacter vaccine to work in a European trial. The Astra Research Center in Boston, USA collaborated with the New South Wales University on the project. Professor Lee believed that two or three recombinant antigens, and a much more potent adjuvant were required. Not only did the first vaccine, which had only one antigen, not work, but the e. coli and cholera toxin adjuvants caused diarrhoea in the vaccine recipients ...
In this study, we report the development of a novel, rationally designed immunostimulatory adjuvant based on chemical conjugation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) to the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). We demonstrate that the immunostimulatory effects of CpG can be dramatically enhanced by conjugation to CTB. Thus, CpG ODN linked to CTB (CTB-CpG) was shown to be a more potent stimulator of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses in murine splenocytes and human PBMCs than those of CpG ODN alone in vitro. The presence of CpG motif, but not modified phosphorothioate ODN backbone, was found to be critical for the enhanced immunostimulatory effects of CTB-CpG. Our mode-of-action studies, including studies on cells from specifically gene knockout mice suggest that similar to CpG, CTB-CpG exerts its immunostimulatory effects through a TLR9/MyD88- and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Surprisingly, and as opposed to CpG ODN, CTB-CpG-induced immunity was shown to be independent of ...
Hudson, T H. and Johnson, G L., Peptide mapping of adenylate cyclase regulatory proteins that are cholera toxin substrates. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3108 ...
If you develop severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting - particularly after eating raw shellfish or traveling to a country where cholera is epidemic -seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, its important to get cholera treatment right away.. Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.. ...
Cholera is inherently linked to water supply and is spread when people consume contaminated food or water. Cholera is a disease of inequity. The poverty map of the world is the same as the cholera map, says Dominique Legros, a cholera expert at WHO. Typical at-risk areas are peri-urban slums, with precarious basic infrastructures, as well as internally displaced or refugee camps, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are often not met.. ...
Cholera was one of the most feared infectious diseases of the Industrial age. Indeed, it is still a major killer in the Third World and in areas where sanitation is poor. Cholera first struck England in 1831, killing some 30,000 people in an outbreak lasting the best part of a year. The vast majority of these deaths were of people living in overcrowded slums with poor housing and little, if any, provision of clean water. The rate of death prompted several enquiries into the cause of the disease, including John Snows breakthrough in the 1850s. Known as King Cholera due to the way in which the disease mastered, controlled and decided the fate the people it struck on several further occasions in the 19th century. Pasteurs germ theory and the subsequent identification of the cholera germ provided the scientific evidence required to force through change, and by the turn of the century, Cholera was no longer king. Things to think about:. ...
Progress with respect to enrichment and separation of native membrane components in complex lipid environments, such as native cell membranes, has so far been very limited. The reason for the slow progress can be related to the lack of efficient means to generate continuous and laterally fluid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) made from real cell membranes. We show in this work how the edge of a hydrodynamically driven SLB can be used to induce rupture of adsorbed lipid vesicles of compositions that typically prevent spontaneous SLB formation, such as vesicles made of complex lipid compositions, containing high cholesterol content or being derived from real cell membranes. In particular, upon fusion between the moving edge of a preformed SLB and adsorbed vesicles made directly from 3T3 fibroblast cell membranes, the membrane content of the vesicles was shown to be efficiently transferred to the SLB. The molecular transfer was verified using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) binding to monosialoganglioside
Notice how the A2 chain (spacefill) connects the A1 fragment (white) to the B pentamer (pink). The A2 chain is crucial for toxin assembly and successful functioning since there are few direct stabilizing interactions between A1 and B. The A2 subunit assumes a complete alpha-helical structure except for a 52-degree kink in the central portion of the protein. There are three discrete units of the A2 chain: an amino-terminal helix (green), a length of chain that winds through the pore of the B pentamer (blue), and a carboxyl-terminal helix (red). It is interesting to note that the last four residues of the A2 chain are KDEL (red), which is an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal and integral for toxin stability ...
Other than a role for Ca2+ store depletion, the molecular mechanisms that regulate antigen-stimulated Ca2+ influx into mast cells are not well-understood. The observation that CT dramatically enhances 45Ca2+ influx into RBL-2H3 cells suggests that this reagent might be a useful tool to study the Ca2+ entry pathway (Narasimhan et al., 1988). That CT amplifies both antigen-evoked ICRAC and 45Ca2+ influx to a similar extent bolsters the idea that CRAC channels are a major pathway for FcεRI-mediated Ca2+ uptake into RBL-2H3 mast cells (Zhang and McCloskey, 1995).. Two hypotheses to explain the effect of CT on 45Ca2+ influx are immediately testable by patch clamping. First, it is possible that CT activates Cl− or K+ channels, and thereby increases the electrical force propelling Ca2+ entry. This indirect mechanism cannot explain the enhancement of Ca2+ influx currents that we observed, because voltage-clamp measurements eliminate any difference in membrane potential between control and CT-treated ...
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
The municipality of Plaine du Nord and Grison-Garde, La Bruyere and La Souffriere (the areas of the municipality of Acul du Nord) continue to send cholera patients to the CTC of Robillard. I do not see anything done yet to improve the situation of Robillard that is becoming chaotic. I do not want to have to experience such a stressful experience like the one of last Sunday. Cholera is an issue of public health. I do not understand the reason why the cholera patients of the CTC of Robillard are treated the way they are treated. Who has the financial means to help the cholera patients in Haiti? Can you help me know who received financial assistance to help them? Forgive my complaints, because I am tired to have to carry the burden of the cholera patients while the are people who have the responsibility to do that. I have to reapeat that the situation of Robilard is urgent. Those who have to improve that situation, what are they waiting for? Are they waiting for an human disaster to move quickly? I ...
This protocol describes the immunofluorescent labeling technique used to identify serotonin expression in CtB-labelled phrenic motor neurons and within a defined region of interest...
News Analysis Scientists Continue to Use Outdated Methods The use of underperforming computational tools is a major offender in sciences reproducibility crisis-and theres growing momentum to avoid it.. ...
هدف: عامل کلونیزاسیون پیلی tcpAو توکسین کلرا مهم‌ترین عوامل بیماری‌زایی ویبریو کلرا هستند و توانایی تحریک سیستم ایمنی را دارند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی بیوانفورماتیکی، بیان پروتئین کایمر نوترکیب CTXB-TCPA در باکتری اشریشیا کلی و تولید آنتی‌بادی علیه آن در موش بود. مواد و روش‌ها: کاست ژنی دربردارنده ژن‌های ctxB، tcpAو فاصله‌انداز با روش‌ بیوانفورماتیکی طراحی شد. شاخصه‌هایی از قبیل ساختار پروتئین کایمر و اپی توپ‌ها بررسی شد. برای ساخت کاست ژنی، ژن‌های ctxBو tcpAتکثیر و در ناقل pET28a همسانه‌سازی شدند. بیان ژن‌های ctxB-tcpAدر pET28a(+) تحت القای IPTG انجام شد. پروتئین نوترکیب CTXB
Find guidelines for treating cholera patients in Haiti. Prompt restoration of lost fluids and salts can save the lives of even severely ill patients.
Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24
Cholera, caused by the secretion of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae within the intestinal lumen, triggers massive secretory diarrhea which may lead to life-threatening dehydration. CT is an AB5-type protein toxin that is comprised of an ...
This practical field guide brings together lessons learned from Oxfams past interventions in the prevention and control of cholera, and other related guidance. The aim is to provide a quick, step-by-step guide to inform cholera outbreak interventions and ensure public health programmes that are rapid, community-based, well-tailored, and gender and diversity aware. Published in August, 2012 ...
I received the following email from Partners in Health a short while ago. The numbers are shocking. With hurricane season in full swing, the cholera epidemic is more dire than ever. From Partners in Health (PIH) As you may be aware, a second wave of cholera is battering Haiti. What you may not know is…
THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to hitch a ride into cells. Thi
NEW YORK, USA, 25 October 2010 - Concern is growing in Haiti as the number of cases of acute diarrhoea caused by cholera continues to rise, and fear of a wider outbreak grows. Since the first cases were confirmed last week, a total of some 3,000 cholera cases and more than 250 deaths from the waterborne illness have been reported.
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. You can get cholera if you eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria.
Delhi is facing the worst episode of cholera in last 16 years. MCD has reported as many as 548 cases of cholera in the city up to May 15. In the earlier years
The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.
Severe diarrhea has killed at least 135 in Haiti and while doctors await test results, cholera remains at the top of the list of suspects.
A cholera outbreak in Haiti has killed more than 500 people as relief agencies struggle to cope with the impact of Hurricane Tomas, the World Health Organization says.
One of the key aspects to gaining control of the fast-moving cholera outbreak in Haiti is the simplest of human necessities, actor and activist Sean Penn told CNNs AC360 .
Robert Bazell (NBC Nightly News) reports on the fight to hold back Haitis growing cholera epidemic as torrential rainfall is expected in a place where millions are without shelter.. ...
Nearly 7,000 people have now died from cholera in Haiti in an epidemic which has become one of the worst of recent decades, a top health official said Friday.
Haiti is facing the worst epidemic of cholera in the world, with some 500 cases a week of the potentially fatal bacterial infection