Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.: Activation of dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for priming of cyt
Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954] for ELISA. Anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit mAb (GTX36671) is tested in Bacteria samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , QED \ Anti-Cholera toxin beta subunit \ 20202 for more molecular products just contact us
BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin produces intestinal secretion by activation of the adenylate cyclase complex. However animal studies have shown 5-hydroxytryptamine may be released after exposure to cholera toxin, and thereby contribute to the secretory state. AIM: To determine whether cholera toxin releases 5-hydroxytryptamine in human jejunum. SUBJECTS: Seven male subjects were given a subclinical dose of cholera toxin in a paired, controlled, randomised, double blind study. METHODS: A closed 10 cm segment of upper jejunum was exposed to 15 micrograms of cholera toxin for two hours prior to closed segment perfusion with plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable volume marker, [14C]-polyethylene glycol. 5-Hydroxytryptamine in jejunal effluent and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine (up to seven hours after cholera toxin) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. RESULTS: In contrast with controls, all subjects secreted fluid in response to ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is endowed with a variety of surface-exposed proteins representing putative vaccine candidates. Lipoproteins are covalently anchored to the cell membrane and highly conserved among pneumococcal serotypes. Here, we evaluated these lipoproteins for their immunogenicity and protective potential against pneumococcal colonisation. A multiplex-based immunoproteomics approach revealed the immunogenicity of selected lipoproteins. High antibody titres were measured in sera from mice immunised with the lipoproteins MetQ, PnrA, PsaA, and DacB. An analysis of convalescent patient sera confirmed the immunogenicity of these lipoproteins. Examining the surface localisation and accessibility of the lipoproteins using flow cytometry indicated that PnrA and DacB were highly abundant on the surface of the bacteria. Mice were immunised intranasally with PnrA, DacB, and MetQ using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) as an adjuvant, followed by an intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae D39. PnrA protected
Extraordinary transmission based axial imaging (EOT-AIM) for cell microscopy is reported. EOT-AIM uses linear arrays of nanoapertures, each of which samples target fluorescence up to a preset axial distance from surface, in combination with wide-field microscopy for acquisition of lateral images. Current design of nanoapertures provides EOT-AIM with axial super-resolution that is as small as 20 nm for a depth range of 500 nm. Experiments were performed for the measurement of the axial distribution of ganglioside in mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells using FITC-conjugated cholera toxin subunit B. The results were successfully confirmed with conventional confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. ...
to express cholera toxin subunit B in e.coli. The gene is inserted in a plasmid for expression in vibrio sp. 60. But i do not have the bugs. The cloning worked well in e. coli and then i said lets give it a try. I tried 3 different temperatures 37; 30 and 20 in combination with 2 different induction times 3 and 18 hours. For induction i used IPTG 1mM. And started the induction once at OD600=1.2 once at OD=0.6 and once OD=0.2 ...
A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pACTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructe
Synonyms for Cholera toxin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cholera toxin. 8 synonyms for toxin: poison, venom, bane, canker, contagion, poison, venom, virus. What are synonyms for Cholera toxin?
Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is then free to bind with a human partner protein ...
The LMO 35SctxBSEK expresses a synthetic gene of the nontoxic subunit of cholera toxin that corresponds to 71% with the gene sequence of the ctxB gene from Vibrio cholerae (100% amino acid identity). The gene was adapted to the codon preference of higher plants. The ER-retention signal SEKDEL was fused to the cholera toxin subunit in order to stabilize the protein ...
Cholera toxin (CT) is one of the most effective and widely studied mucosal adjuvants. Although the ADP-ribosylating A subunit has been implicated in augmenting immune responses, the receptor-binding B subunit (CT-B) has greater immunogenicity and may
To generate vaccines that protect mucosal surfaces, a better understanding of the cells required in vivo for activation of the adaptive immune response following mucosal immunization is required. CD11c(high) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) have been shown to be necessary for activation of naive CD8(+) T cells in vivo, but the role of cDCs in CD4(+) T cell activation is still unclear, especially at mucosal surfaces. The activation of naive Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells and the generation of Abs following mucosal administration of Ag with or without the potent mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin were therefore analyzed in mice depleted of CD11c(high) cDCs. Our results show that cDCs are absolutely required for activation of CD4(+) T cells after oral and nasal immunization. Ag-specific IgG titers in serum, as well as Ag-specific intestinal IgA, were completely abrogated after feeding mice OVA and cholera toxin. However, giving a very high dose of Ag, 30-fold more than required to detect T cell ...
The introduction of HRP as a retrograde tracer by Kristensson and Olsson 27 and La Vail and La Vail 31 has greatly accelerated our knowledge of neuroanatomy. Improvements of the original technique including the use of the more sensitive chromogen TMB 39-42, the microelectrophoretic delivery technique 18 and the introduction of the HRP conjugates with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP) 11 17 53 54 57 or cholera toxin (CT-HRP) 53 54 57 have further increased the sensitivity of the technique and permit one to obtain more restricted injection sites. The remarkable increase in the number of putative transmitters has further pointed to the need for methods allowing simultaneous identification of a pathway and its neurochemical identity. For this purpose, the histochemical detection of HRP and its conjugates using DABS 8 9 33 45 or stabilized TMB 46 has been successfully coupled with the immunohistochemistry of neurochemical substances on the same sections. However, such double labeling techniques present ...
Objective To research the interrelation of cholera toxin gene (CT gene) in manifestation of chitinase gene under different pH conditions among pathogenic and Non-pathogenic strains of in time depended chitinase activity, purification of expressed protein and SDS-PAGE analysis. gradients, tolerance to stress and safety from predators[7]. Emergent properties of chemotaxis, cell multiplication, induction of competence, bio?lm formation, commensal and symbiotic relationship with higher organisms, cycling of nutrients, and pathogenicity for humans and aquatic animals[8]. As factors mediating virulence of for humans and aquatic animals derive from mechanisms of adaptation to its environment, at different levels of hierarchical level, relationships with chitin represent a useful model for examination of the part of main habitat selection in the development of traits that have been identi?ed as virulence reasons in human disease[9]. In the current study primarily we targeted different climatic factors ...
Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
Many biochemical processes involve binding between carbohydrates and biomolecules on the surface of cells. These may involve multivalent interactions that can considerably alter the binding specificity and avidity of biomolecules. A novel nanocube sensor has been developed to elucidate the cooperativity in binding of biomolecules to carbohydrates. A fluidic supported lipid bilayer coated on the nanocube sensor allows this system to mimic a cell membrane in vitro. Cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has been taken as a model system and its binding with several gangliosides has been demonstrated using this sensor. The amount of CTB bound to the lipid bilayer is then quantified by observing the shifts in the quadrupolar localized surface plasmon resonance peak using a standard laboratory spectrometer. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a diagnostic tool to quickly identify diseases. This inexpensive, label free, high throughput technology allows the testing of several conditions ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Cholera toxin (Beta-subunit). Beta-subunit of cholera toxin. (MAB2796) - Products - Abnova
Hi, has anybody ever used the human colon cell line FHC? We culture this cell line but with very poor growth. The only reagent missing in the media is cholera toxin (as recommended by ATCC). Does anybody know a vendor of the cholera toxin, preferrably in Germany/Europe? Any help is highly appreciated! TIA, Inko ...
beta subunit Cholera Toxin兔多克隆抗体(ab34992)经WB, ELISA, IHC, ID, P实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Another aspect of cholera that was not understood was why its virulence varied greatly from strain to strain. Some strains even failed to produce disease. Cholera toxin, an enzyme, was eventually identified as the main virulence factor associated with strains that induced acute diarrhea. Cholera toxin is synthesized and secreted by strains in the 01 and 0139 groups, only. Those lacking this enzyme are far less pathogenic. Its mode of action eventually results in prolonged hypersecretion in the small intestine. The diarrhea is so intense that enterocytes become fragile and begin to sluff off from the basement membrane of the villus soon after symptoms appear.. Cholera toxin attaches at the level of the crypts of Lieberkühn to enterocytes that have surface ganglioside Gm1, a special glycolipid. Internalization of the toxin-ganglioside complex then occurs. The bacterial enzyme catalyses the transfer of ADP ribose from intracellular NAD+ to the s subunit of the trimeric G protein that is normally ...
Lencer, W.I. and Madara, J.L. and Jobling, M.G. and Holmes, R.K. and Hirst, Timothy R. (1996) Proteolytic activation of cholera toxin (CT) and E-coli labile toxin (LT) by intestinal epithelia. Gastroenterology, 110 (4). A342-A342. ISSN 0016-5085. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
The transposon TnphoA was used to generate fusions between phoA, the gene for alkaline phosphatase (PhoA), and genes encoding proteins that are secreted by Vibrio cholerae. One of the PhoA+ mutants isolated showed a dramatic reduction in its ability to colonize the intestines of suckling mice. This mutant no longer produced a 20.5-kDa protein (TcpA) that we show is the major subunit of a V. cholerae pilus. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the TcpA pilus subunit showed that it shares amino acid homology with the pilins produced by several other pathogenic bacteria. The TcpA pilus was coordinately expressed with cholera toxin under various culture conditions, and this effect appeared to be dependent on the transcriptional activator encoded by the toxR gene. We conclude that the toxR gene plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of multiple virulence genes of V. cholerae.. ...
Cholera, Cell, Children, Cholera Toxin, Infection, Adults, Vaccines, Vibrio, Disease, Patients, Vibrio Cholerae, Cholera Toxin B Subunit, Igg, Water, Memory, Diarrhea, Iga, Plasma, Antibodies, Immunization
引用Abcams Anti-beta subunit Cholera Toxin抗体(ab34992)的参考文献列表。为您列举引用本产品的发表文章,并提供信息包括论文文献数据库中的检索编号以便您搜寻文章
Bacterial toxin-mediated diarrheal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this work we designed an on-bead library of protease-resistant, acid-stable peptoid molecules and screened for high affinity binding of cholera toxin. From 100 000 compounds, we discovered a single sequence of residues that can bind and retain cholera toxin at high affinity when immobilized on a solid-phase particle. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these peptoid-displaying particles can sequester active cholera toxin from cell culture media sufficient to protect intestinal cells. We foresee this work as contributory to a potential adjunct therapeutic strategy against cholera infections and other toxin-mediated diseases ...
Sublingual oral tolerance induction with antigen conjugated to cholera toxin B subunit generates regulatory T cells that induce apoptosis and depletion of eff
The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products that can retain their biological activity and immunogenicity, and can co
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Robert M Caudle, Andrew J Mannes, Jason Keller, Federico M Perez, Shelby K Suckow, John K Neubert].
1PZK: 3,5-Substituted phenyl galactosides as leads in designing effective cholera toxin antagonists; synthesis and crystallographic studies
1EEI: Exploration of the GM1 receptor-binding site of heat-labile enterotoxin and cholera toxin by phenyl-ring-containing galactose derivatives.
... : Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...
http://atcc.org/Products/All/CRL-10317.aspx#culturemethod MCF 10A] (adherent) ,, [http://bio.lonza.com/go/literature/356 MEGM BulletKit] ,u,without,/u, GA-1000 ,, 100 ng/mL cholera toxin,sup,3,/sup ...
http://atcc.org/Products/All/CRL-10317.aspx#culturemethod MCF 10A] (adherent) ,, [http://bio.lonza.com/go/literature/356 MEGM BulletKit] ,u,without,/u, GA-1000 ,, 100 ng/mL cholera toxin,sup,3,/sup ...
Zeova ti dir bann Izraelit ki zot bann sakrifis pa ti vo lapenn akoz zot move kondwit. Avek kouraz, Zeremi ti devwal pese ek lipokrizi bann Izraelit.
Testing for toxins in your nervous system There is a simple on-line test to determine if you have toxins that are affecting your nervous system. The toxins can
Do you ever think about the effect that toxins can have on your body? When your body becomes too clogged with toxins, other organs such as the skin often have to pick up the slack.
Article New proof of Arctic toxins. The Fulmars, which are one of the ordinary seabirds, is the newest proof of the widespread presence of environmental toxins in the Arctic. Investigations on Fulmar from Bjørnøya (Bear Island) indicate that the leve...
If you have ever taken a CT scan or MRI, which is most likely the case, you would know just how costly these tests are. And, do you... read more ...
Detox and body cleanse with panchakarma and purvakarma procedures - the basis to treat every disease. Success is guaranteed! We accumulate toxins all life long that make us live shorter. Ancient Indians discovered the best manner to get rid of toxins - with ayurvedic therapies.
Do you feel your body is running under par? Maybe your toxic load is too high. Read 11 signs of an overly toxic body, and what to do to reduce the load.
My Real-Time Review of DELICATE TOXINS (as continued from HERE) takes place in the comment stream below as and when I read each story.
Tracer or toxin injections. For tracer experiments, under chloral hydrate anesthesia (7% in saline; 350 mg/kg), a fine glass pipette containing 1.0% cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; List Biologic, Campbell, CA), 12.5% biotinylated dextran (BD), or a mixture of 1% CTB and 12.5% BD was lowered to the precalculated targets based on the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998), and 9 nl of a solution containing the tracers was injected by an air pressure system. Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin (PHA-L; 2.5%) was injected by iontophoresis with a current of 5 μA for 15 min (7 s on and 7 s off). After two additional minutes, the pipette was slowly withdrawn and the incision was closed with wound clips. Animals survived for 7 d. The coordinates for tracer injections were as follows: medial prefrontal cortex, anteroposterior (AP), 2.20 mm, medial-lateral (ML), 0.4 mm, dorsoventral (DV), 4.6 mm; midline thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0 mm, DV, 4.4 mm; intralaminar thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0.8 mm, DV, 5.6 mm; ...
In the present study, we demonstrated that clathrin and AP-1 are required for the retrograde transport from recycling endosomes to the Golgi. CTxB appeared to reach recycling endosomes in the clathrin- or AP-1-knockdown cells, similar to in control cells, suggesting that clathrin and AP-1 are not essential for the transport of CTxB from the plasma membrane through early endosomes to recycling endosomes. It has been shown that clathrin localizes to the TGN, early endosomes and the plasma membrane (Brodsky, 2012). We showed that CHC also localized to recycling endosomes. CHC colocalized with the recycling endosome proteins, Rab11, Tfn and SMAP2 in COS-1 cells (in which the Golgi, early endosomes and recycling endosomes are spatially distinct) (Lee et al., 2015; Misaki et al., 2007; Uchida et al., 2011). The recycling endosomes that were dispersed from the perinuclear region to the cytoplasm by nocodazole treatment remained positive for CHC. The localization of AP-1 to recycling endosomes (Folsch ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fuc-GM1 ganglioside mimics the receptor function of GM1 for cholera toxin. AU - Masserini, M.. AU - Freire, E.. AU - Palestini, P.. AU - Calappi, E.. AU - Tettamanti, G.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The ability of Fuc-GM1 ganglioside to mimic the receptor function of GM1 for cholera toxin (CT) has been investigated. For this purpose, rat glioma C6 cultured cells were enriched with Fuc-GM1 and the responsiveness to CT was compared with that of cells enriched with GM1 ganglioside. Fuc-GM1 was taken up by cells as rapidly and to the same extent as GM1. When comparable amounts of ganglioside were associated, the cells enriched with Fuc-GM1 bound the same amount of 125I-CT as did cells enriched with GM1. Under conditions in which GM1- and Fuc-GM1-enriched cells bound comparable amounts of CT, the Fuc-GMl-treated cells accumulated virtually the same amount of cyclic AMP as did GM1-treated cells, and activation of adenylate cyclase was also similar. The lag time preceding the CT-induced ...
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The structural genes for CT are shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXΦ), which is related to coliphage M13. The CTXΦ genome chromosomally integrated or replicated as a plasmid. CTXΦ used TCP as its receptor and infected V. cholerae cells within the gastrointestinal tracts of mice more efficiently than under laboratory conditions. Thus, the emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression. ...
FIG. 3. RPA for ctxAB transcript in various vieSAB mutant strain backgrounds. (A) Genetic organization of the V. cholerae ctxAB operon. Putative promoters are indicated by arrows. Probes designed to detect the ctxA and ctxB portions of the message are indicated by hatched bars drawn to scale. (B) RPA for ctxA message. Total RNA (1 μg) isolated from strains grown under the AKI inducing condition for 7 h as described in Materials and Methods was analyzed by using the ctxA-specific probe. A probe against rpoB was included as an internal loading control. Lanes: 1, RNA marker; 2 and 3, undigested ctxA and rpoB probes, respectively; 4 and 5, AC-V66 RNA ctxA probe only and rpoB probe only, respectively. Lanes 6 to 12 all contain both ctxA and rpoB probes. Lanes: 6, AC-V66; 7, Bah-2; 8, AC-V494; 9, AC-V752; 10, AC-V765; 11, AC-V279; 12, AC-V323b. wt, wild type. Protected bands of the expected sizes are indicated by arrows to the right. The sizes of the molecular weight markers in base pairs are given ...
Interaction of a cholera toxin derivative containing a reduced number of receptor binding sites with intact cells in culture ...
Cholera toxin animation, Welcome to viralinfections.info, we recommend viral infections related blog articles and classify them by tag.
UN efforts to tackle cholera in Haiti are "almost non-existent", a charity says, as the world body faces court action for inadvertently starting a cholera epidemic in the country.. Late last year, the UN launched a $2.2bn-appeal (£1.5bn) to improve water supplies in Haiti.. But Medecins Sans Frontieres says this has had almost no practical effect.. The UN is accused of negligently allowing peacekeeping soldiers to pollute Haitis water with cholera.. The epidemic, which is spread by infected sewage, has killed more than 8,000 people since late 2010.. Alarming situation. "There have been grand plans - a 10-year $2.2bn project," Duncan McClean, a senior manager for MSF, told the BBC.. But the UN plan had not been implemented, he added.. "I travel regularly to Haiti; the impact on the ground today is almost non-existent.". The UN plan to improve drinking water and sewage outlets - which MSF says is unfulfilled - was widely seen as the international bodys attempt to deflect calls by the victims ...