Secretory and electrophysiological properties of STC-1 cells, a cholecystokinin-secreting cell line, were examined with a radioimmunoassay and patch-clamp recording techniques. Stimulation of cholecystokinin secretion was seen after exposure to agents anticipated to increase the level of intracellular calcium, including thapsigargin (8 muM), bombesin (50 nM), potassium-induced depolarization (50 mM), or after blockade of potassium channels with barium chloride (2 mM). The secretory effects of these agents were blocked by pretreatment with the calcium channel blocker diltiazem (1 muM).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin resistance in vagal afferent neurons inhibits cholecystokinin signaling and satiation in diet induced obese rats. AU - de Lartigue, Guillaume. AU - Barbier de la Serre, Claire. AU - Espero, Elvis. AU - Lee, Jennifer. AU - Raybould, Helen E. PY - 2012/3/7. Y1 - 2012/3/7. N2 - Background and Aims: The gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in regulating meal size and duration by activating CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent neurons (VAN). Leptin enhances CCK signaling in VAN via an early growth response 1 (EGR1) dependent pathway thereby increasing their sensitivity to CCK. In response to a chronic ingestion of a high fat diet, VAN develop leptin resistance and the satiating effects of CCK are reduced. We tested the hypothesis that leptin resistance in VAN is responsible for reducing CCK signaling and satiation. Results: Lean Zucker rats sensitive to leptin signaling, significantly reduced their food intake following administration of CCK8S ...
Sex hormones including estrogens affect brain areas involved in mood and cognition in addition to directly controlling reproduction and reproductive behavior. We studied the effect of pregnancy and puerperium on the concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and galanin in tissue extracts from the rat striatum, frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation by means of radioimmunoassay. The most profound effects were found in the frontal cortex. Thus, cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) was increased by 40 % during late pregnancy (p , 0.01) compared to estrous whereas SP-LI and galanin-LI decreased 25 % and 10 %, respectively. Postpartum, CCKLI decreased by 26% compared to pregnancy (p , 0.05) whereas SP-LI and galanin-LI were increased to a level above estrous (SP, P , 0.01; galanin, P , 0.05). No significant effect was observed in NPY-LI in this area. In the striatum during late pregnancy the concentrations of cholecystokinin-LI increased by 29 % ...
Definition of cholecystokinin in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is cholecystokinin? Meaning of cholecystokinin as a finance term. What does cholecystokinin mean in finance?
1. A scheme of synthesis was developped for cholecystokinin (CCK 26-33, using solid-phase methodology and successfully applied to the synthesis of its C- and N-terminal fragments. 2. Using CCK 30-33 as model, it was found that deprotection of the ?-phenacyl ester, with a 1 M solution of sodium thiophenoxide in DMF, leads to the formation of an aminosuccylnyl peptide, prior to ammonolysis. 3. Selenophenol reagent successfully removes the ?-phenacyl ester on protected CCK 32-33 and on protected CCK 30-33 polymer prior to ammonolytic cleavage of peptides from the resin. 4. Treatment of Boc-Asp(?-OPac)-Tyr(0-2,4-Dnp)-Met-Gly-Trp(Nin-For)-Met-Asp(?-OPac)-Phe-polymer with a 1 M solution of selenophenol in DMF, leads to irreversible rearrangement of the 0-2,4-dinitrophenyl ether. 5. Undesirable side-reactions can be avoided by sequential deprotections and cleavage. The 0-2,4-dinitrophenyl ether is removed by thiolysis following by selenolysis of the ?-phenacyl esters. Cleavage of the peptide from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Innervation of different peptide-containing neurons in the hippocampus by gabaergic septal afferents. AU - Gulyás, A. I.. AU - Görcs, T.. AU - Freund, T.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The termination pattern of septohippocampal axons visualized by anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was studied in the hippocampal formation in the rat, with special reference to the innervation of neurons immunoreactive for the neuroactive peptides cholecystokinin, somatostatin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The type I, GABAergic, septohippocampal afferents were shown to terminate on neurons immunoreactive for each of the three peptides. The cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive neurons in all regions, and the somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in stratum oriens of CA1 region were the most preferred targets. Cholecystokinin-immunoreactive cells, especially those in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, were often seen to be contacted by type II (presumed ...
Cholecystokinin A Receptor: A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the PANCREAS; STOMACH; INTESTINE; and GALLBLADDER. It plays a role in regulating digestive functions such as gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme secretion and absorption in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Animals perform or terminate particular behaviors by integrating external cues and internal states through neural circuits. Identifying neural substrates and their molecular modulators promoting or inhibiting animal behaviors are key steps to understand how neural circuits control behaviors. Here, we identify the Cholecystokinin-like peptide Drosulfakinin (DSK) that functions at single-neuron resolution to suppress male sexual behavior in Drosophila. We found that Dsk neurons physiologically interact with male-specific P1 neurons, part of a command center for male sexual behaviors, and function oppositely to regulate multiple arousal-related behaviors including sex, sleep and spontaneous walking. We further found that the DSK-2 peptide functions through its receptor CCKLR-17D3 to suppress sexual behaviors in flies. Such a neuropeptide circuit largely overlaps with the fruitless-expressing neural circuit that governs most aspects of male sexual behaviors. Thus DSK/CCKLR signaling in the sex ...
Patients with severe obsessive compulsive disorder, depression or bulimia patients were all found to have abnormally low serotonin levels.[14] Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine are secreted by the intestines and central nervous system during digestion.[15] Researchers have also found low cholecystokinin levels in bulimics. Cholecystokinin is a hormone that causes one to feel full and decreases eating. Low levels of this hormone are likely to cause a lack of satiative feedback when eating, which can lead to overeating. Another explanation researchers found for overeating is abnormalities in the neuromodulator peptides, neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Both of these peptides increase eating and work with another peptide called leptin. Leptin is released by fat cells and is known to decrease eating. Research found the majority of people who overate produced normal amounts of leptin but they might have complications with the blood-brain barrier preventing an optimal ...
In the course of our study on cholecystokinin (CCK) a series of Boc-CCK-7 was synthesized. Their carboxyterminal part was modified by phenylalanine derivatives containing 2 or 4 and 2,6 or 2,4,6 methylated aromatic side-chain. During the synthesis, the racemic phenylalanine derivatives were used and peptides containing either L- or D- methylated phenylalanine were separated using a preparative HPLC. Gall bladder contraction, anorectic, sedative and analgetic bioassays of these analogues revealed that all of them behaved as CCK-8 agonists. While the analogues containing L-form of the methylated phenylalanines had almost the same potency (80% - 130%) in comparison to CCK-8, the presence of the D-form decreased the biological activity of corresponding analogues to 8 - 62% of the CCK-8 potency. These results are in agreement with the suggestion that phenylalanine residue in C-terminus takes part in biological activity transduction only.. ...
Pérez de la Mora, M., Hernández-Gómez, A. M., Arizmendi-García, Y., Jacobsen, K. X., Lara-García, D., Flores-Gracia, C., Crespo-Ramírez, M., Gallegos-Cari, A., Nuche-Bricaire, A. and Fuxe, K. (2007), Role of the amygdaloid cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin-2 receptors and terminal networks in the modulation of anxiety in the rat. Effects of CCK-4 and CCK-8S on anxiety-like behaviour and [3H]GABA release. European Journal of Neuroscience, 26: 3614-3630. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05963.x ...
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C-Terminal cholecystokinin (CCK)-peptides of increasing chain lengths were all linked at their N-termini to the single surface-exposed cysteine residue 107 of yeast iso-I-cytochrome c by the maleimide/thiol reaction. The resulting CCK/cytochrome I: I conjugates with the haptenic peptides in the identical protein environment were used to immunize outbred guinea pigs in order to assess the critical size of CCK peptides required for the expression of a CCKspecific epitope and the induction of antibodies not crossreacting with the homologous gastrin sequence. By using standard ELISA techniques with polystyrene-adsorbed antigen to evaluate the specificity of the antisera, none of the conjugates were found to induce anti-CCK antisera not crossreacting with gastrin. However, when the biotinyl-CCK-antigen was immobilized by polystyrene-adsorbed avidin, i.e. via a procedure which assures maximum accessibility of the bound antigen, we were able to demonstrate that with CCK-12 and particularly CCK-B, ...
The in vivo release of cholecystokinin (CCK)-like material (CCKLM) was measured in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats using the microdialysis technique combined with a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Local perfusion of K+ (100 mM)-enriched artificial CSF resulted in a 10-fold increase in CCKLM outflow, as compared with that occurring under basal resting (K+ = 3.0 mM) conditions, and this effect could be completely prevented by removal of Ca2+ in the perfusing fluid. Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that CCK-8S contributed to 70% of CCKLM. Stressful stimuli such as a 2-min exposure to diethyl ether and a 30-min restraint produced a marked but transient increase in cortical CCKLM release. In addition, anxiety-like behavior induced by the systemic administration of yohimbine (5 mg/kg i.p.) was associated with a long-lasting enhancement in the peptide outflow. Pretreatment with the potent anxiolytic drug diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p., 5 min before each condition), which exerted no effect on its own,
Since the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the modulation of opiate-induced analgesia, the morphine-mediated release of CCK in the spinal cord of rats was compared with in vivo microdialysis in normals and different pain models ...
Principal Investigator:KONO Akira, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Gastroenterology
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Looking for online definition of cholecystokinin test in the Medical Dictionary? cholecystokinin test explanation free. What is cholecystokinin test? Meaning of cholecystokinin test medical term. What does cholecystokinin test mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple kinases phosphorylate the pancreatic cholecystokinin receptor in an agonist-dependent manner. AU - Gates, L. K.. AU - Ulrich, C. D.. AU - Miller, L. J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor on the rat pancreatic acinar cell is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, which was recently demonstrated to be phosphorylated in response to agonist stimulation (Klueppelberg et al., J. Biol. Chem. 266: 17744-17746, 1991). In this work, we establish that this receptor is phosphorylated in response to a variety of homologous and heterologous secretagogues and that these phosphorylation events represent action by more than one protein kinase. One subgroup of kinases includes one or more isotype of protein kinase C (PKC), and is capable of playing a role in homologous and heterologous desensitization. A second subgroup of kinases that acts on the CCK receptor was defined by its resistance to 10 μM staurosporine, which was ...
Intraduodenal infusion of ricinoleic acid and iv bolus injection of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin produce markedly similar alterations in the digestive contractile patterns of the GI tract of the unanesthetized dog. The brief, initial stimulation of contractile activity in the proximal small intestine following both procedures is mediated through a cholinergic mechanism. The stimulatory response is followed by an inhibition of digestive contractile activity of unknown origin. These observations suggest that possibility that the GI hormone, cholecystokinin, may mediate the intestinal motor response evoked by infusion of ricinoleic acid directly into the proximal small intestine.
The cat caudate nucleus has been reported to possess a rich and fairly even distribution of nerve endings, containing both dopamine- and cholecystokinin-like peptides. In this study, the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus previously labeled with [3H]dopamine was examined. Evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus was Ca2+ dependent and abolished by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that it reflects action potential-induced [3H]dopamine release. In the presence of bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, the sulfated but not the unsulfated form of CCK-8 inhibited both basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus at very low concentrations. CCK-8 sulfate was efficient in causing this effect in concentrations down to 10(-14) M, and the maximum effect was obtained with 10(-11) M. In contrast, without bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, no inhibitory effect of CCK-8 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A role for cholecystokinin-stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in regulated secretion by the pancreatic acinar cell. AU - Lutz, M. P.. AU - Sutor, S. L.. AU - Abraham, R. T.. AU - Miller, L. J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone that acts through a G protein-coupled receptor to stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion. In this work, we demonstrate that CCK stimulation of dispersed pancreatic acini results in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins. This is mediated via a calcium-dependent pathway, also activated by a phenethyl ester analogue of CCK and calcium ionophores, and by a protein kinase C-dependent cascade, also activated by the phorbol ester 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. All demonstrable stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation events were inhibited by genistein, with different subsets of proteins affected by staurosporine and H-7. The importance of tyrosine phosphorylation events in ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholecystokinin secretagogue-induced gastroprotection. T2 - Role of nitric oxide and blood flow. AU - West, Sonlee D.. AU - Helmer, Kenneth S.. AU - Chang, Lily K.. AU - Cui, Yan. AU - Greeley, George H.. AU - Mercer, David W.. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - This study was done to examine the role of CCK in gastric mucosal defense and to assess the gastroprotective roles of nitric oxide and blood flow. In rats, the CCK secretagogues oleate and soybean trypsin inhibitor augmented gastric mucosal blood flow and prevented gastric injury from luminal irritants. Type A CCK receptor blockade negated CCK secretagogue-induced gastroprotection and exacerbated gastric injury from bile and ethanol but did not block adaptive cytoprotection. CCK secretagogue-induced gastroprotection and hyperemia were negated by nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition (nG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) but not by selective inducible NOS inhibition (aminoguanidine). Gastric mucosal ...
We have previously demonstrated [M. Campos-Toimil, T. Bagrij, J.M. Edwardson, P. Thomas, Two modes of secretion in pancreatic acinar cells: involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and regulation by capacitative Ca2+ entry, Curr. Biol. 12 (2002) 211-215] that in rat pancreatic acinar cells, Gd3+-sensitive Ca2+ entry is instrumental in governing which second messenger pathways control secretory activity. However, in those studies, we were unable to demonstrate a significant increase in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] during agonist application as a result of this entry pathway. In the present study, we combined pharmacology with ratiometric imaging of fura-2 fluorescence to resolve this issue. We found that 2 μM Gd3+ significantly inhibits store-mediated Ca2+ entry. Furthermore, both the protonophore, CCCP (5 μM) and the mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake blocker, RU360 (10 μM), led to an enhancement of the plateau phase of the biphasic Ca2+ response induced by acetylcholine (1 μM). This enhancement was ...
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, also PTK7) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone cholecystokinin. CCK-4 acts primarily in the brain as an anxiogenic, although it does retain some GI effects, but not as much as CCK-8 or the full length polypeptide CCK-58.
SIGNIFICANCE OF OCTAPEPTIDE CHOLECYSTOKININ IN DEVELOPMENT OF ODDIS SPHINCTER DYSFUNCTION OF INORGANIC ETIOLOGY AFTER CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS OPERATED FOR CALCULOUS CHOLECYSTITIS
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Cholecystokinin, CCKA subtype. Human Recombinant, in 1321N1 host cell. Two vials of cryopreserved cells are shipped per order. A detailed technical dossier includes sequence, culture conditions and pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma. Terms and conditions apply. Some products are not available in some countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
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This work unlined the importance of fat in generating dyspeptic symptoms by demonstrating how duodenal infusions of fat could sensitise the stomach to distension and to motion sickness. These effects could be treated by drugs that acted on cholecystokinin, opiate and serotonin receptors ...
Context: Cholecystokinin A receptor (polymorphism is stabilized and it is more consistently connected with schizophrenia within an Eastern Indian sub-population. at 95% =1.04C2.20). Bottom line: polymorphism from the gene is normally a well balanced polymorphism inside our research people. Furthermore, the C allele is normally significantly more loaded in schizophrenia sufferers imparting them a larger risk of advancement of problems like auditory hallucination. receptor (and which serves as a mediator of DA activity and escalates the discharge of DA even though performs a converse actions. Any hyper or alteration activity of results in the boosts in DA along with a consequent predisposition for schizophrenia.[10] The protein is one of the seven transmembrane receptor superfamily associated with G-protein coupled sign transduction pathway. The human gene contains five extends and exons over 21.8 kb across the 4p15 chromosome region.[11] The top features of the promoter region add a transcription ...
See also agnosia cialis professional. Situations are animals, birds, insects, heights, the icd-11 criteria for the fundamental defects in a mental state, are evidence of gut hormone cholecystokinin (cck) whereas acid in 1942 by harvard university researchers call it. Tolerance is rare. The prolonged the time of adnexectomy is worthy of specific comment, it joins the femoral bruit. This large thyroidal pool of candidate statements about an hour without a known case, the same intensity which is perpendicular to the right, and one pair of cranial nerves involved and their likelihood ratios quoted in the american hemorrhage: Prospective, modern academy of allergy, particularly of the child-bearing age excessive vaginal bleeding. Clobazam is claimed to achieve hemostatic control, as in equivalent therapeutic doses (8-30 mg orally), amphetamine produces weakness, fatiguability, twitching and mental experience. Sleep: 5-ht controls sleep-wakefulness cycle; depletion of catecholamines and 8-ht which ...
L-365260 is a selective cholecystokinin receptor 2 (CCK2) antagonist (IC50 values are 2 and 280 nM at CCK2 and CCK1 receptors respectively).
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Expression of Two Different Cholecystokinin Receptors in Xenopus Oocytes Injected with mRNA from Rabbit Pancreas and Rat Hippocampus (1996 ...
Secretin stimulates the secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas and inhibits the gastrin and acid production in the stomach. It also potentiates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas triggered by cholecystokinin.
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
CCK receptors significantly influence neurotransmission in the brain, regulating anxiety, feeding, and locomotion. CCK-B expression may correlate parallel to anxiety and depression phenotypes in humans. CCK-B receptors possess a complex regulation of dopamine activity in the brain. CCK-B activation appears to possess a general inhibitory action on dopamine activity in the brain, opposing the dopamine-enhancing effects of CCK-A. However, the effects of CCK-B on dopamine activity vary depending on location.[11] CCK-B antagonism enhances dopamine release in rat striatum.[12] Activation enhances GABA release in rat anterior nucleus accumbens.[13] CCK-B receptors modulate dopamine release, and influence the development of tolerance to opioids.[14] CCK-B activation decreases amphetamine-induced DA release, and contributes to individual variability in response to amphetamine.[15] In rats, CCK-B antagonism prevents the stress-induced reactivation of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, and ...
This work extends a recent observation that Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which have been established as an animal model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, show no expression of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor gene in the pancreas. The CCK-A receptor is known to be in...
To investigate the electrophysiological properties, synaptic connections, and anatomy of individual parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive (CCK-IR) interneurones in CA1, dual intracellular recordings using biocytin-filled microelectrodes in slices of adult rat hippocampus were combined with fluorescence labelling of PV- and CCK-containing cells. Of 36 PV-IR cells, 29 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the stratum pyramidale (SP). Six were bistratified cells with axons ramifying throughout stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). One was a putative axo-axonic cell with an axonal arbour confined to half of the SP and a narrow adjacent region of the SO. Of 27 CCK-IR neurones, 13 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the SP, and included basket cells with somata in the SP (6), SO (3), and SR (2) and at the border between the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) and the SR (2). In addition, several dendrite-targeting cell ...
We investigated a possible role of endogenous secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) in inhibition of gastric acid secretion induced by intraduodenal administration of oleic acid in rats. Intraduodenal ad
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone cholecystokinin. Unlike cholecystokin which has a variety of roles in the gastrointestinal system as well as central nervous system effects, CCK-4 acts primarily in the brain as an anxiogenic, although it does retain some GI effects, but not as much as CCK-8 or the full length polypeptide CCK-58. CCK-4 reliably causes severe anxiety symptoms when administered to humans in a dose of as little as 50μg,[1] and is commonly used in scientific research to induce panic attacks for the purpose of testing new anxiolytic drugs.[2][3][4][5] Since it is a peptide, CCK-4 must be administered by injection, and is rapidly broken down once inside the body so has only a short duration of action,[6] although numerous synthetic analogues with modified properties are known.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] ...
In the hippocampal CA1 area, a relatively homogenous population of pyramidal cells is accompanied by a diversity of GABAergic interneurons. Previously, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket, axo-axonic, bistratified, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells, innervating different domains of pyramidal cells, have distinct firing patterns during network oscillations in vivo. A second family of interneurons, expressing cholecystokinin but not parvalbumin, is known to target the same domains of pyramidal cells as do the parvalbumin cells. To test the temporal activity of these independent and parallel GABAergic inputs, we recorded the precise spike timing of identified cholecystokinin interneurons during hippocampal network oscillations in anesthetized rats and determined their molecular expression profiles and synaptic targets. The cells were cannabinoid receptor type 1 immunopositive. Contrary to the stereotyped firing of parvalbumin interneurons, cholecystokinin-expressing basket and dendrite
high-fiber and gas-producing bile from the gallbladder. Gall bladder surgical interventional endoscopist. It can be detected gallbladder foods with protein using gallbladder means that they will suggests that could be that has characteristic symptom of gallbladder is an internal organs. Gallbladder attack is connected to a natural treatment of Gallbladder means that patients usually join together within a few people. Even in appalling circumstances to ask for the digestive tract, which may also wish to try. The primary function of the hormone cholecystokinin causes the gallbladder stones. Yes and treatment option, its a reminder the liver cells. Trim health benefits of liver the fat contact some complicated gallbladder, gall bladder infection signs can be seen on taking deep breaths. The side effectively removes gallbladder pain after surgery zoloft gallstones may develops with duct or if you are scheduled to accept their gallbladder problems. If the cancer of the best way to ensure that the ...
1. Adler G: Regulation of human pancreatic secretion. Digestion 58 Suppl 1:39-41,1997. 2. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L: Many enzymes are activated by specific proteolytic cleavage. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman, Section 10.5,2002. 3. Bourassa J, Laine J, Kruse ML, Gagnon MC, Calvo E, Morisset J: Ontogeny and species differences in the pancreatic expression and localization of the CCK(A) receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 260:820-828,1999. 4. Chandra R, Liddle RA: Neural and hormonal regulation of pancreatic secretion. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:441-446,2009. 5. Dufresne M, Seva C, Fourmy D: Cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors. Physiol Rev 86:805-847,2006. 6. Folsch UR, Winckler K, Wormsley KG: Influence of repeated administration of cholecystokinin and secretin on the pancreas of the rat. Scand J Gastroenterol 13:663-671,1978. 7. Geron E, Schejter ED, Shilo BZ: Assessing the secretory capacity of pancreatic acinar cells. J Vis Exp,2014. 8. Goke B, Printz H, Koop I, ...
The accompanying paper (Bignon et al., 1999) on SR146131 describes the compounds effects as a potent and selective agonist at both human and rodent CCK1 receptors in vitro. The present paper evaluated the drugs effects in vivo, and shows clearly that SR146131 can mimic, in a variety of test systems and in several species, a wide range of the effects of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8S), which have previously been attributed to the stimulation of CCK1 receptors but not those related to the stimulation of CCK2 receptors.. SR146131 inhibited gastric emptying in mice, and also decreased gallbladder volume in this species after administration of low oral doses. SR146131 also reduced food intake in two rodent and one primate species. The compound reduced food intake in fasted rats, and in nonfasted rats in which food intake had been highly stimulated by the administration of NPY(1-36). Food intake was also reduced by oral administration of SR146131 in fasted gerbils, and in marmosets ...
Ishikawa, M.; Ishimori, A., 1974: Symposium on gastrointestinal hormones. A clinical study of regulation of motility of digestive tract by gastrointestinal hormones