Solar energy harnessed by oxygenic photosynthesis supports most of the life forms on Earth. In eukaryotes, photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts and is achieved by membrane-embedded macromolecular complexes that contain core and peripheral antennae with multiple pigments. The structure of photosystem I (PSI) comprises the core and light-harvesting (LHCI) complexes, which together form PSI-LHCI. Here we determined the structure of PSI-LHCI from the salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella salina using X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy. Our results reveal a previously undescribed configuration of the PSI core. It is composed of only 7 subunits, compared with 14-16 subunits in plants and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and forms the smallest known PSI. The LHCI is poorly conserved at the sequence level and binds to pigments that form new energy pathways, and the interactions between the individual Lhca1-4 proteins are weakened. Overall, the data indicate the PSI of D. salina represents a
BackgroundThe genome of the pico-eukaryotic (bacterial-sized) prasinophyte green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus has one of the highest gene densities known in eukaryotes, yet it contains many introns. Phylogenetic studies suggest this unusually compact genome (13.2 Mb) is an evolutionarily derived state among prasinophytes. The presence of introns in the highly reduced O. lucimarinus genome appears to be in opposition to simple explanations of genome evolution based on unidirectional tendencies, either neutral or selective. Therefore, patterns of intron retention in this species can potentially provide insights into the forces governing intron evolution.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we studied intron features and levels of expression in O. lucimarinus using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to annotate the current genome assembly. ESTs were assembled into unigene clusters that were mapped back to the O. lucimarinus Build 2.0 assembly using BLAST and the level of gene expression was inferred from the
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA
The halotolerant green alga Dunaliella salina accumulates large amounts of beta-carotene when exposed to various stress conditions. Although several studies concerning accumulation and biotechnological production of beta-carotene have been published, the molecular basis and regulation of the genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in D. salina are still poorly known. In this paper, we report the isolation and regulation of the lycopene beta-cyclase (Lcy-beta) gene by abiotic stress. The function of this gene was determined by heterologous genetic complementation in E. coli. Gene expression and physiological analyses revealed that D. salina Lcy-beta steady-state transcript and carotenoid levels were up-regulated in response to all stress conditions tested (salt, light and nutrient depletion). The results presented here suggest that nutrient availability is a key factor influencing carotenogenesis as well as carotenoid biosynthesis-related gene expression in D. salina.. ...
Phytoplankton community structure is shaped by both bottom-up factors, such as nutrient availability, and top-down processes, such as predation. Here we show that marine viruses can blur these distinctions, being able to amend how host cells acquire nutrients from their environment while also predating and lysing their algal hosts. Viral genomes often encode genes derived from their host. These genes may allow the virus to manipulate host metabolism to improve viral fitness. We identify in the genome of a phytoplankton virus, which infects the small green alga Ostreococcus tauri, a host-derived ammonium transporter. This gene is transcribed during infection and when expressed in yeast mutants the viral protein is located to the plasma membrane and rescues growth when cultured with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. We also show that viral infection alters the nature of nitrogen compound uptake of host cells, by both increasing substrate affinity and allowing the host to access diverse ...
Analyses of morphological and ultrastructural characters, and also of the information carried by gene sequences have established that green algae belonging to the class Charophyceae gave rise to the more than 500,000 land plant species currently inhabiting our planet [1, 2]. Charophycean green algae and land plants form the green plant lineage Streptophyta [3], whereas most, if not all, of the other extant green algae belong to the sister lineage Chlorophyta [2]. In contrast to the large diversity of land plants, only a few thousands charophycean species are living today. Six monophyletic groups are currently recognized in the Charophyceae: the Mesostigmatales [4] represented by Mesostigma viride, a scaly biflagellate that has long been thought to be a member of the Prasinophyceae (the earliest-diverging lineage of the Chlorophyta) [5]; the Chlorokybales represented as well by a single species (Chlorokybus atmophyticus); the Klebsormidiales (3 genera, 45 spp.); the Zygnematales (~ 50 genera, ~ ...
Nozaki, H. (1988). Morphology, sexual reproduction and taxonomy of Volvox carteri f. kawasakiensis f. nov. (Chlorophyta) from Japan. Phycologia 27((2)): 209-220.. Created: 13 March 2006 by M.D. Guiry. Verified by: 19 May 2010 by Wendy Guiry. Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 590 times since it was created.. Verification of data ...
We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored
We analyzed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the colony-forming green microalga Botryococcus braunii in response to several stress inducers such as NaCl, NaHCO3, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate, and acetic acid. A staining assay using the fluorescent dye CellROX Green was used. CellROX Green is a fluorogenic probe used for measuring oxidative stress in live cells. The dye is weakly fluorescent inside cells in a reduced state but exhibits bright green photostable fluorescence upon oxidation by ROS and subsequent binding to DNA. The large amount of liquid hydrocarbons produced and excreted by B. braunii, creates a highly hydrophobic extracellular environment that makes difficult to study short times defense responses on this microalga. The procedure developed here allowed us to detect ROS in this microalga even within a short period of time (in minutes) after treatment of cells with different stress inducers.
There are four stages in the spontaneous generation of Bryopsis sub-protoplasts: aggregation of cell organelles, changes in protoplasmic masses to a spherical shape, primary envelope formation and secondary membrane development. Our data indicate that at least two types of molecules are involved in the aggregation of cell organelles, one acts at an optimum of pH 5-6 and the other on the surfaces of cell organelles acts at an optimum of pH 8-9. This result was surprising because it is contrary to previous results (Pak et al., 1991). Pak et al. suggested that the most effective material for agglutination of cell organelles might be contained in the vacuolar sap and, therefore, the sequential action of vacuolar sap (pH 5-6) and seawater would be very important for the aggregation of cell organelles. They also reported that prompt dilution of extruded algal cell contents with 20 volumes of seawater prevented aggregation. The discrepancy between our results and those of Pak et al. may be due to ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from VOLCADRAFT_97368 hypothetical protein available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substances. Dunaliella salina was named by E.C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. The organism was fully described as a new, separate genus simultaneously by ...
Saturating pulse fluorescence measurements, well known from studies of higher plants for determination of photosystem II (PS II) characteristics, were applied to cultures of the green alga Dunaliella teitiolecta (Chapter 2). The actual efficiency of PS II (φ PS II ), the maximal efficiency of PS II (F v /F m ), and both photochemical and non- photochemical fluorescence quenching were determined for cultures of D. tertiolecta growing under varying light intensities. The rate of PS II electron flow (J E ) estimated as the product of φ PS II , and the photon flux density (PFD), appeared to correlate well with growth rates determined for the D. tertiolecta cultures . The results indicated that the saturating pulse fluorescence method may be successfully used to determine photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton. However, an increase of sensitivity by a factor 1000 was found to be needed for the application of this technique to in situ measurements. Conditions were outlined which have led to ...
Friedl, T (1995). Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.). Journal of Phycology. 31 (4): 632-639. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02559.x ...
Cells of Dunaliella acidophila, an acidophilic and halotolerant green alga, which can grow at pH as high as 2.5 and as low as 0.2 (corresponding to 1.2 M H2SO4) accumulate glycerol when exposed to or grown in medium supplemented with glucose, NaCl, Na2SO4 or H2SO4, The cellular response was not dependent on the type of solute, but only on the solute concentration. When cells were exposed to hypertonic media, synthesis of glycerol commenced at once and continued until a new osmotic equilibrium was established between the cell sap and the medium. Only in hypertonic solution approaching lethal levels was a delay in the glycerol synthesis observed. The transition to hypertonic media showed an initial inhibition of photosynthesis and respiration followed by a full recovery of these activities. The inhibition and the time of recovery were dependent on the extent of hypertonic stress, no significant difference being shown by the solute type. In the same time scale, glycerol synthesis continued up to ...
Author: Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Rungthip Kawaree, Yuwalee Unpaprom. Category: [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Microalgae biodiesel are reported to be better than fossil fuels in terms of life-cycle energy performance. Green alga, Botryococcus braunii symbolizes one of the most favorable resources of biodiesel due to relatively high lipid content. The present study focused on the cultivation of Botryococcus braunii with the fed-batch in 4 L lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) through inexpensive red Nile tilapia effluent medium (RNTEM), biomass growth, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, hydrocarbon production and fatty acids profiles. Additionally, in this study we have evaluated the feasibility of biodiesel production directly from B. braunii biomass at laboratory scale achieved through direct transesterification process. B. braunii growth confirmed the highest biomass yield (8.57 g L?1) and 35.32% hydrocarbon content was observed. Further, 47.59% lipids, 16.39% proteins and 38.21% ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711437/ Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12content in purified sample fractions was 42 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was
Ding, L. & Luan, R. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus IV Chlorophyta No. I Ulotrichales Chaetophorales, Phaeophilales, Ulvales, Acrosiphoniales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-173, pls I-VI. Beijing: Science Press.. Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J. & Hwang, I.-K. (2010). Caldophorales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 55-154. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.. Leliaert, F. & Coppejans, E. (2004). Crystalline cell inclusions: a new diagnostic character in the Cladophorophyceae (Chlorophyta). Phycologia 43: 189-203.. Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.. Created: 08 March ...
Binds directly to 23S ribosomal RNA and is necessary for the in vitro assembly process of the 50S ribosomal subunit. It is not involved in the protein synthesizing functions of that subunit.
The biflagellate green alga Spermatozopsis similis exhibits a remarkable avoidance reaction in addition to the photophobic or stop response characteristic of such algae. S. similis normally swims forward with its anteriorly attached flagella directed posteriorly and propagating sine-like waves base to tip. Upon contact with surfaces or other cells, S. similis responds with rapid backward swimming, covering distances of up to 50 microns in 140 to 220 msec. This reaction, which we term the mechanoshock response, also can be triggered by vigorous mechanical stimulation, but not by physiological light intensities. It consists of 3 phases: (1) a rapid acceleration phase with average duration of 31 msec; (2) a phase of about 66 msec with constant high speed (maximal velocities of | 600 microns.sec-1) or slow deceleration; and (3) a deceleration phase of approximately 83 msec, followed by a stop or short period of circling. The cells then resume forward swimming in a random direction. Prior to the mechanoshock
Gene functionalities and genome structure in Bathycoccus prasinos reflect cellular specializations at the base of the green lineage ...
There arose one of the most important ecological transitions in Earths history approximately 750 million years ago during the middle Neoproterozoic Era (1000 to 541 million years ago, Ma). Biomarker evidence suggests that around this time there was a rapid shift from a predominantly bacterial-dominated world to more complex ecosystems governed by eukaryotic primary productivity. The resulting Rise of the algae led to dramatically altered food webs that were much more efficient in terms of nutrient and energy transfer. Yet, what triggered this ecological shift? In this study we examined the theory that it was the alleviation of phosphorus (P) deficiency that gave eukaryotic alga the prime opportunity to flourish. We performed laboratory experiments on the cyanobacterium Synechocystis salina and the eukaryotic algae Tetraselmis suecica and examined their ability to compete for phosphorus. Both these organisms co-occur in modern European coastal waters and are not known to have any allelopathic
Volvox colonies. Microscope footage of Volvox sp. colonies. Volvox are small freshwater unicellular green algae that usually make up larger spherical colonies, which behave like a multicellular organisms. Individual cells are connected to each other via protoplasmic strands, and embedded in a globe of glycoprotein. Daughter colonies (small green spheres) are produced asexually inside each parent colony, which disintegrates to release them when they are mature. Colonies also reproduce sexually, in which case male and female gametes are produced and a sexual union occurs. Individual Volvox cells have two hair-like flagella that protrude outwards and are used for colony locomotion. - Stock Video Clip K005/4089
A common microscopic pond and lake alga named Botryococcus braunii makes big amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be used to make biofuel. Problem is, we cant use the organism itself as a source, because it grows very slowly. A group of scientists from Texas A&M AgriLife Research, however, is looking into what genes are responsible for producing its enzyme that initiates the production of oil. See, the group wants to replicate its ability to make big amounts of oil in other plants more suitable for mass production. And they think the key is to express the enzymes associated genes in those other organisms, such as faster-growing algae.
The 4-year SPLASH project will develop a new biobased industrial platform using microalgae as a renewable raw material for the sustainable production and recovery of hydrocarbons and (exo)polysaccharides from the species Botryococcus braunii and further conversion to renewable polymers. The project comprises 20 partners of which 40% SME and several large corporates plus universities and research institutes ...
Giraldo, N. D.; Correa, S. M.; Arbelaez, A.; Figueroa, F. L.; Rios-Estepa, R.; Atehortua, L.: Reducing self-shading effects in Botryococcus braunii cultures: effect of Mg2+ deficiency on optical and biochemical properties, photosynthesis and lipidomic profile. BIORESOURCES AND BIOPROCESSING 8 (1), 33 (2021 ...
A new class of cyclic hydrocarbon biomarker, macrocyclic-alkanes and their methylated analogues, have for the first time been unambiguously identified in a Botryococcus braunii rich sediment (torbanite).The compounds, consisting of a homologous series of macrocyclic-alkanes (ranging from C15 to C34) and their methylated derivatives (ranging from C17 to C26), were identified by using authentic standards and GC-MS techniques.. ...
AstaReal® Astaxanthin (from Haematococcus pluvialis algae extract) 500 mcg. other ingredients: red beet powder, hypoallergenic plant fiber (cellulose), vegetarian capsule (cellulose, water). Tamper Resistant: Use only if safety seal is intact.. Warning: Vitamin A at levels above 10,000 iu can lead to adverse side effects, including birth defects. If you are pregnant or lactating, have any health condition or are taking any medication, consult your health professional before use.. Keep out of the reach of children. ...
Regarding mechanisms. In the Leger et al. paper we cite many papers that discuss potential mechanisms in detail (inter-kingdom conjugation, viral transduction, gene transfer from endosymbionts). If one still finds it hard to believe that genes can get moved around between eukaryote genomes, then consider the rate of discovery of new eukaryotic viruses lately -- it is likely that we have only found the tip of the iceberg. Consider for example, a recently described giant virus in the green alga Tetraselmis (Schvarcz CR and Steward GF (2018) A giant virus infecting green algae encodes key fermentation genes. Virology 518:423-433). Two of the host-derived genes encoded in this virus are in fact involved in anaerobic pyruvate metabolism (pyruvate formate lyase and its activating enzyme). These are the same genes as found in anaerobic protists functioning in their mitochondria (see Stairs et al (2011) Mol. Biol. Evol. 28:2087-99 or Müller et al. (2012)). Couple this observation with the findings of ...
Sex and the evolution of multicellularity are pretty tightly entwined in the volvocine algae- many aspects of sex, anisogamy, oogamy, internal/external fertilization, anisogamy ration, all correlate with size. On the molecular side, RB has moved into the mating locus of Gonium and Volvox, and Volvox has male/female specific alleles. Now, we dont know all the specific details- if moving into the mating locus and evolving male/female specific alleles in Volvox are a cause of increasing morphological complexity, or rather a consequence of being in non-recombining regions. The Volvox mating type locus showed there are differences in RB intron splicing both between male/female alleles and asexual/sexual expression, suggesting that RB is playing different roles in males and females and involved in sexual development. If RB is playing a role in sexual development, theres strong selection pressure to end up in the mating type locus, which is why RB moving into the mating locus is interesting. But this ...
A team of researchers from the National University of Singapores Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine has demonstrated for the first time that hydrogen sulphide, when applied exogenously, could protect testicular germ cells, which are male reproductive cells, against heat-induced injury, which is one of the major causes of male infertility. The findings may provide a new approach to treating male infertility.
Why Blue Green Algae Makes Me Tired. Actually, the algae isnt tiring me. Im tired of the people trying to sell it to me. Most blue-green algae is sold in a multi-level marketing scheme through Cell Tech. Sellers see me, a physician, as a potentially lucrative franchise to sell algae for them. So I get two or three sales calls every week (once as many as twenty). Never mind that selling algae to make myself money is a conflict-of-interest and an unethical ploy already encouraged by pharmaceutical companies (The only solution I see for your diagnosis, Mr. Smith, is blue-green algae, which I happen to have right here...). Ive tried the algae and it doesnt do much for me. The cost/benefit ratio is poor. Nevertheless, in the past three years Ive received over 400 phone calls, dozens of tapes in the mail, and had people barge into my office and home, all selling algae. One salesperson has continued to call me for almost three years! So what is blue-green algae and why does it make people so ...
Specifications:Aimed at carpHook baitProtein richReady madeBindingHeavyPossible combinations: Marine green, Expanda gold, Hi pro carp wit,&nb
The algal PIPs show many similarities with the PIPs of land plants and it is tempting to make the assumption that PIPs, with those shared features, were present already some 1000 MYA at the split of the chlorophytes and the streptophytes [10-12]. Land plant PIPs are known to be regulated by pH, Ca2+ and phosphorylation and a molecular gating mechanism has been suggested. In this, several of the residues have overlapping functions in controlling the D-loop conformation in response to the different signals. However, the evolution of the gating mechanism is likely to have been a stepwise process, starting out from a primitive regulatory mechanism and then sequentially adding further functionality. The presence of an among all PIPs conserved histidine crucial for pH gating [H193 in SoPIP2;1; 20, 21] in the algal PIPs, implies that this regulatory feature might be such a primitive mechanism. Contrary to this, the acidic amino acid residues responsible for Ca2+ binding (D28 and E31 in SoPIP2;1) are ...
Sexual reproduction is one of the means of perpetuation of species in algae with ultimate increase in the population of the individuals. The process involves the fusion of two gametes or sex cells which may originate from the same thallus (monoecious) or from different thalli (dioecious). The gametes may he flagellate or non-flagellate. In algae, the mode of sexual reproduction ranges from isogamy, anisogamy to oogamy. In general, sexual reproduction takes place after the alga had attained a certain amount of vegetative growth and having certain amount of reserve food built up. In algae, an isogamous fusion of two zoogametes is the most primitive type of sexual reproduction. The evolutionary tendency is isogamy, anisogamy to oogamy. Anisogamy is an advanced condition than isogamy. Among anisogamy again there are two condi-tions prevailing: (i) both the fusing pair of gametes may be flagellate, and (ii) the larger one is non-flagellate as against the smaller which is flagellate. It is evident ...
The worst-kept secret among Volvox researchers is that the current volvocine taxonomy is a train wreck. Within the largest family, the Volvocaceae, five nominal genera are polyphyletic (Pandorina, Volvulina, Eudorina, Pleodorina, and Volvox). Of the remaining three, two are monotypic (Platydorina and Yamagishiella). Only the newly described Colemanosphaera is monophyletic with more than one species. The extent of the problem was suspected long before it was confirmed by molecular phylogenetics, and ad hoc attempts to deal with it have led to the existence of such taxonomic abominations as sections, formas, and syngens. An overhaul is called for, but it is complicated by the aforementioned loss of type cultures.. Even species-level taxonomy is often questionable, since a lot of the older descriptions were based entirely on morphological traits, which we know are often convergent. The opposite problem occurs, too. Hisayoshi Nozaki described fixed differences between Volvox strains collected ...
One thing the green movement needs right now like a hole in the head are half-baked, informationally-challenged commentators in left-wing newspapers, journals and websites writing pseudo-academic theses about how, like, totally evil and wrong and in the pay of Big Oil climate deniers are. Its just making the whole - |
It Tastes AMAZING: We cant emphasize enough how much we insisted MetaboGreens 45X taste absolutely delicious. It was a must for us, and believe me when I say we made it happen with flying colors. In fact, with its sweet, energizing berry flavor, we believe MetaboGreens 45X is the best-tasting greens product on the market today, hands down.. **It Mixes And Blends SMOOTHLY (NO grit): When it comes to mixability, other greens supplements are extremely gritty and anything but pleasant to swallow. MetaboGreens 45X, on the other hand, mixes smoothly and evenly with water, tea, juice, protein powder, or any other beverage you choose-leaving you feeling hydrated, energized and refreshed without the gritty texture.. **It Contains Only The HIGHEST Quality Ingredients, In The Correct Amounts: Another huge issue with other greens supplements is fairy dusting - when a company sprinkles a laundry list of popular ingredients into a product in miniscule amounts that are nothing more than window dressing. ...
Nozaki, H., Ohta, N., Morita, E., Watanabe, M. M. 1998 Toward a natural system of species in Chlorogonium (Volvocales, Chlorophyta): a combined analysis of morphological and rbcL gene sequence data. J. Phycol., 34, 1024-1037 ...
Nozaki, H., Ohta, N., Morita, E., Watanabe, M. M. 1998 Toward a natural system of species in Chlorogonium (Volvocales, Chlorophyta): a combined analysis of morphological and rbcL gene sequence data. J. Phycol., 34, 1024-1037 ...
HTF Market Intelligence released a new research report of 121 pages on title Global Dunaliella Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, F
Light micrograph of a colony of Volvox containing six asexual daughter colonies within. Volvox is an organism that lies between the plant & animal kingdom, being variously classified with the green algae (plant) or flagellates (animal). The colony contains from hundreds to thousands of cells arranged at the surface of a watery matrix. The individual cells have two flagella & eyespots. They reproduce both asexually & sexually. In the former case cells in the rear of the colony divide to form daughter colonies. Once released the parent colony dies. In the latter case male & female gametes are produced & a sexual union occurs. Magnification x75 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z100/0057
The Complete Genomes Resource is a collection of genomic sequences that is a part of the Entrez Genomes, which provides curated sequence data and annotations of complete genomes to the scientific community.
A single-celled biflagellate. The cell wall is separated from the protoplast, connected only by thin cytoplasmic strands. Cl/100 Desired Date of Arrival can be entered during …
Im sure many of you have read the many posts about dosing fluconazole to treat bryopsis. Thought i would share my experience dosing my 29 gallon biocube. Due to a few mistakes i made, a tough turf algae took hold in my Biocube. I was overfeeding way too much, and let detritus buildup in the 1st chamber of my cubes sump. I do not think it was the common bryopsis that i have seen pix of because it did not have the fern-like appearance when it got long. Maybe a different variety of bryopsis? Whatever it was, it was tough to remove manually, my snails wouldnt touch it, and it was starting to take over. I of cource reduced feeding and made it a routine to clean the 1st chamber, but the damage was done. I was very hesitant about dropping chemicals in my tank, but based on all the positive reviews i decided to give it a try. I am amazed at the results so far. I began by doing my weekly water change. I removed my purigen bag, filter floss, and carbon. I kept the refugium up and running and ran GFO ...
Health,Anti cancer drugs have been created from blue green algae by scientist...This accomplishment is expected to make it possible to produce enoug...In a study featured on the cover of the January issue of the journal... It was simply too difficult to use the native blue-green algae for ...Developing an efficient synthetic route to natural product compounds...,Anti,Cancer,Drug,from,Blue,Green,Algae,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of hydrostatic pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide on the viability of Botryococcus braunii algae cells. AU - Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece. AU - Ilhan-Ayisigi, Esra. AU - Togtema, Arnoud. AU - Gouveia, Joao. AU - Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - In bio-based industries, Botryococcus braunii is identified as a potential resource for production of hydrocarbons having a wide range of applications in chemical and biopolymer industries. For a sustainable production platform, the algae cultivation should be integrated with downstream processes. Ideally the algae are not harvested, but the product is isolated while cultivation and growth is continued especially if the doubling time is slow. Consequently, hydrocarbons can be extracted while keeping the algae viable. In this study, the effects of pressure on the viability of B. braunii cells were tested hydrostatically and under supercritical CO2 conditions. Viability was determined by light microscopy, ...
One of the most extreme and fascinating examples of naturally occurring mutagenesis is represented by circular permutation. Circular permutations involve the linking of two chain ends and cleavage at another site. Here we report the first description of the folding mechanism of a naturally occurring circularly permuted protein, a PDZ domain from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Data reveal that the folding of the permuted protein is characterized by the presence of a low energy off-pathway kinetic trap. This finding contrasts with what was previously observed for canonical PDZ domains that, although displaying a similar primary structure when structurally re-aligned, fold via an on-pathway productive intermediate. Although circular permutation of PDZ domains may be necessary for a correct orientation of their functional sites in multi-domain protein scaffolds, such structural rearrangement may compromise their folding pathway. This study provides a straightforward example of the divergent ...
The sex-inducer of the spherical green alga Volvox carteri is one of the most potent biological effector molecules known: it is released into the medium by sexual males and triggers the switch to the sexual cleavage program in the reproductive cells of vegetatively grown males and females even at concentrations as low as 10 (-16) M. In an adult Volvox alga, all cells are embedded in an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM), which constitutes >99% of the volume of the spheroid. There exist no cytoplasmic connections between the cells in an adult alga, so any signal transduction between different cells or from the organisms environment to a reproductive cell must involve the ECM. Recently, a small cysteine-rich extracellular protein, VCRP, was identified in Volvox and shown to be quickly synthesized by somatic cells in response to the sex-inducer. Due to its characteristics, VCRP was speculated to be an extracellular second messenger from somatic cells to reproductive cells. Here a related ...
Stich, H. Trypaflavin und Ribonucleinsäure. Untersucht an Mäusegeweben, Condylostoma spec. und Acetabularia mediterranea. Naturwissenschaften 38, 435-436 (1951). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00630746. Download ...
Haematococcus pluvialis is the best source of natural astaxanthin, known as the king of antioxidants. H. pluvialis have four cell forms: spore, motile cell, non-motile cell and akinete. Spores and motile cells are susceptible to photoinhibition and would die under photoinduction conditions. Photoinduction using non-motile cells as seeds could result in a higher astaxanthin production than that using akinetes. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been clarified. Transcriptome was sequenced and annotated to illustrate the mechanism of this phenomenon. All differentially expressed genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis were up-regulated. Particularly, chyb gene was up-regulated by 16-fold, improving the conversion of β-carotene into astaxanthin. Pyruvate was the precursor of carotenoids biosynthesis. Pyruvate kinase gene expression level was increased by 2.0-fold at the early stage of akinetes formation. More changes of gene transcription occurred at the early stage of akinetes formation,
Ahn, C.Y., A.S. Chung and H.M. Oh (2002). Diel rhythm of algal phosphate uptake rates in P-limited cyclostats and simulation of its effect on growth and competition. J. Phycol. 38, 695-704. Anderca, M.I., T. Furuichi, R. Pinontoan and S. Muto (2002). Identification of a mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase from the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Cell Physiol. 43, 1276-1284. Apt, K.E., L. Zaslavkaia, J.C. Lippmeier, M. Lang, O. Kilian, R. Wetherbee, A.R. Grossman and P.G. Kroth (2002). In vivo characterization of diatom multipartite plastid targeting signals. J. Cell Sci. 115, 4061-4069. Bennoun, P. (2002). The present model for chlororespiration. Photosynth. Res. 73, 273-277. Bohne, F. and H. Linden (2002). Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in response to light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Gene Struct. Expression 1579, 26-34. Cepak, V., M. Zobacova and V. Zachleder (2002). The effect of cadmium ions on the cell cycle of the green flagellate ...
Biodiesel or ethanol derived from lipids or starch produced by microalgae may overcome many of the sustainability challenges previously ascribed to petroleum-based fuels and first generation plant-based biofuels. The paucity of microalgae genome sequences, however, limits gene-based biofuel feedstock optimization studies. Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for the non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production. Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to D. tertiolecta transcripts produced 1,363,336 high quality reads with an average length of 400 bases. Following quality and size trimming, ~ 45% of the high quality reads were assembled into 33,307 isotigs with a 31-fold coverage and 376,482 singletons. Assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of reconstitution of the Cl--translocating ATPase isolated from Acetabularia acetabulum into liposomes and several anion pump characteristics. AU - Ohhashi, Toshitaka. AU - Katsu, Takashi. AU - Ikeda, Mikiko. N1 - Funding Information: This work was partly supported hy a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 63~,i i~nd No. 02044101) from the Ministry of Edueatio~i, Science and Cultme el Japan an,a by a grant from me .~apanese Science Promoting Society.. PY - 1992/4/29. Y1 - 1992/4/29. N2 - The improved reconstitution of the Mono Q-III fraction, a Cl--translocating ATPase, isolated from Acetabularia acetabulum (Ikeda et al. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 2057-2065) into liposomes rendered transport properties of this enzyme clear. The liposomes were prepared by the reversed-phase method using egg lecithin and cholesterol in a molar ration of 2:1 and the purified ATPase was incorporated into the liposomes by a dialysis for 3 h. About 80% of the ATPase was incorporated ...
Amputated apices from vegetative wildtype cells of the uninucleate green alga Acetabularia acetabulum can differentiate a reproductive structure of cap in the absence of the nucleus (Hammerling, J. (1932) Biologisches Zentralblatt 52, 42-61). To define the limits of the ability of wildtype cells to control reproductive differentiation, we determined when during development apices from wildtype cells first acquired the ability to make a cap in the absence of the nucleus and, conversely, when cells with a nucleus lost the ability to recover from the loss of their apices. To see when the apex acquired the ability to make a cap without the nucleus, we removed apices from cells varying either the developmental age of the cells or the cellular volume left with the apex. Cells must have attained the adult phase of development before the enucleate apex could survive amputation and make a cap. Apices removed from cells early in adult growth required more cell volume to make a cap without the nucleus ...
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of Volvox is modified during development or in response to external stimuli, like the sex-inducing pheromone. It has recently been demonstrated that a number of genes triggered by the sex-inducing pheromone are also inducible by wounding. By differential screening of a cDNA library, a novel gene was identified that is transcribed in response to the pheromone. Its gene product was characterized as an ECM glycoprotein with a striking feature: it exhibits a hydroxyproline content of 68% and therefore is an extreme member of the family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). HRGPs are known as constituents of higher plant ECMs and seem to function as structural barriers in defense responses. The Volvox HRGP is also found to be inducible by wounding. This indicates that the wound response scenarios of higher plants and multicellular green algae may be evolutionary related ...
Ostreococcus tauri virus (OtV-1) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and a prospective member of the family Phycodnaviridae, genus Prasinovirus. OtV-1 infects the unicellular marine green alga O. tauri, the smallest known free-living eukaryote. Here we present the 191 761 base pair genome sequence of OtV-1, which has 232 putative protein-encoding and 4 tRNA-encoding genes. Approximately 31% of th ...
A notable structural feature of Volvox carteri is the formation of microscopic cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells of the colonies, originating from incomplete cell division during cytokinesis.[1] These connections, which can only be seen by using electron microscopy, form a hexagonal pattern in the extracellular matrix and allows the movement of small organelles such as mitochondria between cells.[10] As the cells of a colony move further apart, the strands become stretched and therefore smaller, allowing only ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum to be exchanged among cells.[3] The ability to transport information between cells allows V. carteri to synchronize its flagellate movements and reproductive actions.[1][3] This unique quality of cells interacting with one another in order to benefit the parent colony is similar to the actions of a highly developed multicellular organism.[1] Volvox carteri is classified as a species of green algae and therefore obtains its energy through ...
A notable structural feature of Volvox carteri is the formation of microscopic cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells of the colonies, originating from incomplete cell division during cytokinesis.[1] These connections, which can only be seen by using electron microscopy, form a hexagonal pattern in the extracellular matrix and allows the movement of small organelles such as mitochondria between cells.[10] As the cells of a colony move further apart, the strands become stretched and therefore smaller, allowing only ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum to be exchanged among cells.[3] The ability to transport information between cells allows V. carteri to synchronize its flagellate movements and reproductive actions.[1][3] This unique quality of cells interacting with one another in order to benefit the parent colony is similar to the actions of a highly developed multicellular organism.[1] Volvox carteri is classified as a species of green algae and is, therefore, a photoautotroph, obtaining its ...
由於現在能源危機及溫室效應的影響,微藻的應用被逐漸重視,微藻具有快速生長、高油脂含量與豐富的營養成分,對水質的淨化也有一定的效果。在本實驗中,利用Scenedesmus obliquus的光自營培養所探討的三個研究方向:(1)改變培養環境或培養基成分,探討S. obliquus濃度與葉黃素含量影響。結果顯示加壓條件對S. obliquus藻細胞生長造成生長遲緩的現象發生;紫外光UV-A連續照光會有明顯抑制生長效果;添加酚(Phenol)會抑制藻細胞生長;不同顏色LED光源條件,可獲得在白光條件下培養S. obliquus濃度最高可至2.45 g/L。葉黃素方面,在最後兩天添加紫外光UV-A照射可增加葉黃素含量至0.48% d.w.; 在加壓條件下與添加酚(Phenol)時對S. obliquus內的葉黃素含量並無太大的影響。(2)探討20.0 L生物光反應器培養S. obliquus與連續式培養之影響。結果顯示,在不同進氣量(vvm)條件下
Algae Details | 2708 | Class: Chlorophyceae | Strain: Polyphysa clavata | Media: Dasycladales Seawater Medium | Origin: Okinawa, Japan | Description of Location: | Collection: J. Hí_mmerling (1956) | Isolation: | Isolator Number: | Deposition: S. Berger (12/6/96) | Relatives: MPI-Zb Polyphysa clavata | Also Known As: Acetabularia (Polyphysa) clavata (Yamada); Parvocaulis clavata (Berger 2003); Acetabularia clavata | Notes: (Berger & Kaever 1992); [Curators note: Berger & Kaever 1992 follow Bailey et al. 1976 in separating Polyphysa and Acetabularia along morphological lines. Alternatively, Silva et al. 1996 (p. 890-4) acknowledge the separation but concomitantly interpret some of the supporting molecular data (Olsen et al. 1994) as reason to invalidate the genus Polyphysa. They conclude that these species represent a genus that cannot be called Polyphysa and suggest recognizing only one genus, i.e., Acetabularia, until the picture is clarified. UTEX has accepted these cultures from the Max-Planck
Micromonas strains of small prasinophyte green algae are found throughout the worlds oceans, exploiting widely different niches. We grew arctic and temperate strains of Micromonas and compared their susceptibilities to photoinactivation of Photosystem II, their counteracting Photosystem II repair capacities, their Photosystem II content, and their induction and relaxation of non-photochemical quenching. In the arctic strain Micromonas NCMA 2099, the cellular content of active Photosystem II represents only about 50 % of total Photosystem II protein, as a slow rate constant for clearance of PsbA protein limits instantaneous repair. In contrast, the temperate strain NCMA 1646 shows a faster clearance of PsbA protein which allows it to maintain active Photosystem II content equivalent to total Photosystem II protein. Under growth at 2 A degrees C, the arctic Micromonas maintains a constitutive induction of xanthophyll deepoxidation, shown by second-derivative whole-cell spectra, which supports ...
The numbers of dictyosomes in cells of M. crux-melitensis and M. pinnatifidawere counted at various stages in the cell cycle. Dictyosomes synchronously doubled in number by dividing at the...
Nitrogen starvation and limitation are known to induce important physiological changes especially in lipid metabolism of microalgae (triglycerides, membrane lipids, beta-carotene, etc.). Although little information is available for Dunaliella salina, it is a promising microalga for biofuel production and biotechnological applications due to its ability to accumulate lipid together with beta-carotene. Batch and chemostat experiments with various degrees of nitrogen limitation, ranging from starvation to nitrogen-replete conditions, were carried out to study carbon storage dynamics (total carbon, lipids, and beta-carotene) in steady state cultures of D. salina. A new protocol was developed in order to manage the very high beta-carotene concentrations and to more accurately separate and quantify beta-carotene and triglycerides by chromatography. Biomass evolution was appropriately described by the Droop model on the basis of the nitrogen quota dynamics. Triglycerides and beta-carotene were both strongly
The production of biofuels from microalgae is a promising and sustainable alternative. Its production is determined by the content of lipids and carbohydrates, which is different for each microalgae species and is affected by environmental factors, being lighting one of the principal determining their biochemical composition. The colour temperature (electromagnetic radiation and light spectrum) is a determining factor for the production of lipids and carbohydrates in microalgae. The aim of this assay was to evaluate the effect of three colour temperatures (6500, 10,000 and 20,000 °K) on the biomass (cel mL−1), biomass production and productivity (g L−1 and g L−1 day−1), lipid and carbohydrate content (%), lipid and carbohydrate production and productivity (mg L−1 and mg L−1 day−1), composition and content of fatty acids (%) in two microalgae species: Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata. The highest cell density was observed for N. oculata in stationary phase in the ...
China Haematoccus Pluvialis Astaxanthin Softgel Capsule, Find details about China Haematoccus Pluvialis Astaxanthin, Astaxanthin Tablet from Haematoccus Pluvialis Astaxanthin Softgel Capsule - Shandong Ruizhi Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Photoperiods have an important impact on macroalgae living in the intertidal zone. Ocean acidification also influences the physiology of macroalgae. However, little is known about the interaction between ocean acidification and photoperiod on macroalgae. In this study, a green alga Ulva linza was cultured under three different photoperiods (L: D = 8:16, 12:12, 16:8) and two different CO2 levels (LC, 400 ppm; HC, 1,000 ppm) to investigate their responses. The results showed that relative growth rate of U. linza increased with extended light periods under LC but decreased at HC when exposed to the longest light period of 16 h compared to 12 h. Higher CO2 levels enhanced the relative growth rate at a L: D of 8:16, had no effect at 12:12 but reduced RGR at 16:8. At LC, the L: D of 16:8 significantly stimulated maximum quantum yield (Yield). Higher CO2 levels enhanced Yield at L: D of 12:12 and 8:16, had negative effect at 16:8. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased with increasing light period. High
What Is It?. Derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae cultivated under pristine conditions, esterfied astaxanthin is a stable, powerful, fat-soluble antioxidant from the carotnoid family. Haematococcus algae produces astaxanthin to protect itself against ultraviolet induced free radical damage.*. Features Include: Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity: Astaxanthin is different from beta-carotene in that it has two additional oxygenated groups on each of its ring structures, enhancing its ability to scavenge free radicals. It is believed to be several hundred times more effective than vitamin E in neutralizing singlet oxygen molecules and has been shown to exert greater antioxidant activity than both zeaxanthin and lutein.*. Bioavailability And Stability: astaxanthin is formulated in a base of safflower oil to enhance bioavailability. Clinically Studied: Astaxanthin has been and will continue to be clinically studied. Uses For Astaxanthin. Antioxidant Support: Astaxanthin protects the phospholipid ...
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Derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae cultivated under pristine conditions, esterfied astaxanthin is a stable, powerful, fat-soluble antioxidant from the carotenoid family. Haematococcus algae produces astaxanthin to protect itself against ultraviolet-induced free radical damage. Astaxanthin is different from beta-carotene in that it has two additional oxygenated groups on Each of its ring structures, enhancing its ability to scavenge free radicals. It is believed to be several hundred times more effective than vitamin E in neutralizing singlet oxygen molecules and has been shown to exert greater antioxidant activity than both zeaxanthin and lutein. Astaxanthin protects the phospholipid membranes of cells from oxidative damage. In a recent U.S. study, it demonstrated the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and protect the retina in animals, suggesting its potential for supporting the brain and nervous system from free radical damage. Initial trials with astaxanthin suggest that it ...
Pure Encapsulations Astaxanthin 60 Softgels Powerful antioxidant for the skin, macula, joints, immune system and cardiovascular function *Derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae cultivated under pristine conditions, esterfied astaxanthin is a stable, powerful, fat-soluble antioxidant from the carotenoid family. Haematococcus algae produces astaxanthin to protect itself against ultraviolet-induced free radical damage. Astaxanthin is different from beta- carotene in that it has two additional oxygenated groups on each of its ring structures, enhancing its ability to scavenge free radicals. It is believed to be several hundred times more effective than vitamin E in neutralizing singlet oxygen molecules and has been shown to exert greater antioxidant activity than both zeaxanthin and lutein. Astaxanthin protects the phospholipid membranes of cells from oxidative damage. In a recent U.S. study, it demonstrated the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and protect the retina in animals,
The project covers the whole process chain from optimized biomass production to product development and exploitation. In a first step, two industrial bioproduction platforms will be explored: the green alga Botryococcus braunii and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to which the unique hydrocarbon and polysaccharides producing genes from Botryococcus will be transferred. Biomass cultivation is targeted to reach a pilot scale.
Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More » ...
Second hand copy. As new. - Contents (partly): Introduction/ Material and Methods/ Results (Water Analyses/ The Phytoplankton of the Waters/ The genus Scenedesmus/ Subgenus Acutodesmus HEGEW./ Subgenus Scenedesmus/ Subgenus Desmodesmus CHOD)/ Discussion of Results/ Acknowledgements/ Summary/ References/ Index/ Tables/ Plates. - Publishers new copies available at EUR 61.00 ...
Ankistrodesmus braunii ATCC ® 30447™ Designation: UTEX 187 [CCAP-202/9a] Isolation: Material collected by T. Christensen, Madingley Brick Pits, England, 1949