TY - JOUR. T1 - Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones. AU - Thoreson, Wallace B. AU - Bryson, Eric J.. PY - 2004/12/5. Y1 - 2004/12/5. N2 - Background: GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results: Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)) and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- ...
Congenital Chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an intestinal transport defect of chloride ions. Retention of intestinal chloride causes water retention, which leads to watery diarrhea with an abnormally high chloride concentration. This defect presents in utero, with hydramnion presumably due to intrauterine diarrhea. The gestational period is shortened, and newborn babies have abdominal distension and chronic watery diarrhea. If untreated the condition leads to severe electrolyte changes with a fatal outcome, or to permanent damage of kidneys and brain. Treatment with chloride substitution and control of electrolyte balance is effective and patients can live an almost normal life complicated only by relatively loose stools.
Common causes of hypochloremia, or low chloride levels, include congestive heart failure, dehydration, excessive sweating and dehydration. Hyponatremia, or low sodium levels in the blood or urine,...
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An improved process is disclosed of preparing a high chloride tabular grain emulsion. The concentration of thiocyanate ion in the dispersing medium at nucleation and during grain growth is relied upon a favor the formation of {111} crystal faces. The concentration of chloride ion in the thiocyanate ion containing dispersing medium is relied upon to produce the grain twinning necessary for tabular grain formation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apical membrane chloride channels in a colonic cell line activated by secretory agonists. AU - Halm, D. R.. AU - Rechkemmer, G. R.. AU - Schoumacher, Robert. AU - Frizzell, R. A.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - We characterized the anion channel responsible for the increase in apical membrane Cl secretion using a model salt-secreting epithelium, the T84 colonic cell line. The adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated secretagogues, prostaglandin E2, forskolin, and 8-bromo-cAMP, evoked activity of an outwardly rectifying Cl channel in previously quiet cell-attached membrane patches. The channel remained active in excised, inside-out membranes, where its single-channel conductance was 40-45 pS at 0 mV with 160 mM NaCl in pipette and bath. Selectivities were P(Cl)/P(Na) = 50 and for halides I(1.8)/Br(1.4)/Cl(1.0)/F(0.4). This halide sequence illustrates that the ability of various anions to undergo transepithelial secretion is determined by the selectivity of the ...
Chloride flux at corneal wounds A.Cl− concentration. Unwounded cornea had a slighly higher Cl− concentration than background. Upon wounding, the Cl− conce
Read "Glucose enhances rotavirus enterotoxin-induced intestinal chloride secretion, Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiologyl of Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
We have shown that XE991 can reduce electrogenic chloride secretion in the murine colon when it is added basolaterally. This result supports the general thesis that hyperpolarization increases chloride efflux through the apical membrane by increasing the electrical gradient. Conversely, blockade of basolateral K+-channels, by causing depolarization, will reduce chloride secretion. Because XE991 reduces the basal SCC without prior stimulation of SCC, this suggests that some K+ channels are constitutively open, as has been argued by others (Schroeder et al., 2000).. Both forskolin and EBIO have multiple actions on chloride secretory epithelia. Both activate apically located CFTR chloride channels, either by increasing cAMP (Cuthbert et al., 1999b) or by direct action (Devor et al.,1996a,b), and both activate basolateral K+ channels, again either via cAMP or by a mixture of direct and indirect actions (Devor et al.,1996a,b; Cuthbert et al., 1999b; Syme et al., 2000). However, as shown here for the ...
A detailed study of the anodic behaviour of synthetic covellite in acidic chloride solutions has been conducted as part of an overall program on the fundamental aspects of the heap leaching of copper sulfide minerals.. The anodic behaviour in chloride solutions is characterized by active (but slow) dissolution at low potentials below about 0.65 V, passivation at potentials above 0.70 V that continues to potentials greater than 1.4 V above which rapid transpassive dissolution occurs. These characteristics are also typical of chalcopyrite under similar conditions.. The anodic characteristics at potentials in the region of the measured mixed potentials in the presence of copper(II) show that there are two peaks in the voltammetric sweeps at about 0.65 V and 0.75 V, the magnitude of which increase with increasing chloride concentration. The two peaks merge into a single peak at very high chloride concentrations.. Potentiostatic current-time transients at various potentials in the region of the mixed ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that transports chloride ions across the cell membrane in exchange for bicarbonate ions. It is localized to the mucosa of the lower intestinal tract, particularly to the apical membrane of columnar epithelium and some goblet cells. The protein is essential for intestinal chloride absorption, and mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital chloride diarrhea. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Descending rabbit colon, stripped ofmuscularis externa, absorbs Na and Cl under short-circuit conditions and exhibits a residual ion flux, consistent with HCO3 secretion, whose magnitude is approximately equal to the rate of active Cl absorption. Net K transport was not observed under short-circuit conditions. The results of ion replacement studies and of treatment with ouabain or amiloride suggest that the short-circuit currentI sc is determined solely by the rate of active Na transport and that the net movements of Cl and HCO3 are mediated by a Na-independent, electrically-neutral, anion exchange process. Cyclic AMP stimulates an electrogenic Cl secretion, abolishes HCO3 secretion but does not affect the rate of Na absorption under short-circuit conditions. Studies of the effect of transepithelial potential difference on the serosa-to-mucosa fluxesJ sm i of Na, K and Cl suggest thatJ sm Na ,J sm K and one-third ofJ sm Cl may be attributed to ionic diffusion. The permeabilities of the passive
Supporting transcellular Cl absorption, apical membranes of both amphibian and mammalian proximal tubules bring Cl into the cell from the tubule lumen in exchange for organic anions such as oxalate and formate via isoforms of the SLC family of multifunctional anion exchangers (6, 7, 24, 81, 87, 152, 179, 181), and the basolateral membrane offers Cl channels that permit the exit of intracellular Cl into the renal interstitium (7, 149, 151). Supporting transcellular Cl secretion, same cells employ Cl/HCO3 exchange to bring Cl into the cell from the renal interstitium (2, 90, 117, 141, 193), and the apical membrane offers Cl channels that allow the efflux of Cl into the tubule lumen (1, 31, 99, 182). Thus amphibian and mammalian proximal tubules express the transporters for absorptive as well as secretory Cl transport (Fig. 10). Whether net transcellular Cl transport proceeds in the direction of absorption or secretion depends on many variables, among them 1) the relative number and activity of ...
History/Goals: Even though the Cl- efflux assays are relatively straightforward, their capability to assess the efficiency of phenotypic modification in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues or cells might end up being small. wild-type (wt), the 36Cl efflux assay was no reliable much longer. 115256-11-6 manufacture Polarized CFBE41o-cells, homozygous for the Y508 mutation also, had been utilized in the Ussing step research. Ussing evaluation discovered cAMP-dependent Cl- currents in blends with 1% wild-type cells suggesting that Ussing evaluation is normally even more delicate than 36Cd efflux evaluation for recognition of useful CFTR. A conclusion: Evaluation of CFTR function by Ussing evaluation is definitely more sensitive than 36Cl efflux analysis. Ussing analysis shows that cell mixes comprising 10% 16HBecome14o- cells showed 40C50% of normal cAMP-dependent Cl- transport that drops off exponentially between 10-1% wild-type cells. cell systems. Materials and Methods Cell tradition and cell lines The ...
The cognitive enhancer XE991 interacts with K(+) channels consisting of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 heteromultimers to block the M-current. XE991 can also block KCNQ1 K(+) channels expressed in oocytes, but sensitivity is reduced when the channels are coexpressed with minK (KCNE1). The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction of XE991 with other types of K(+) channel, especially those in the basolateral membranes of murine epithelia. K(+) channel blockade was measured by the inhibition of chloride secretion resulting from depolarization. XE991 inhibited the chloride secretory current in colonic epithelia by an interaction with basolateral K(+) channels when forskolin was used as the stimulus. However, when 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (EBIO) was used to stimulate chloride secretion, XE991 was ineffective unless charybdotoxin was also present. Because EBIO also activates Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels, whereas forskolin activates only cAMP-sensitive K(+) channels, it is concluded that the latter ...
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Mutations in several SLC26 transporters are linked to human diseases, most of which involve epithelia dysfunction in specific organs. This indicates that SLC26 transporters play a central role in transepithelial fluid and electrolyte transport, including Cl− absorption and HCO3− secretion by the kidney, the GI tract, and secretory glands (Kunzelmann and Mall, 2002; Ko et al., 2004; Melvin et al., 2005; Steward et al., 2005). To understand the function of the SLC26 transporters in epithelial Cl− absorption and HCO3− secretion, it is essential to know their transport mechanism and Cl−/HCO3− transport stoichiometry. Two of the most studied SLC26 transporters are slc26a3 and slc26a6. Both were shown to function as Cl−/HCO3− exchangers (Melvin et al., 1999; Ko et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2002) and as electrogenic transporters (Ko et al., 2002; Xie et al., 2002) with isoform-specific stoichiometry (Ko et al., 2002). However, the electrogenicity of the transporters was called into ...
This paper reports the influence of varying curing durations on the chloride ingress resistance of slag blends. Samples were prepared by combining two slags (S1 and S2) with CEM I 52·5R cement at 30% by weight of slag. Mortar samples were cured for either 7 or 28 d, before being exposed to a 3% sodium chloride solution. Samples were subjected to two chloride exposure conditions (either complete submersion or a cyclic 6 h wetting and drying cycle). Depths of free chloride penetration as well as total and water-soluble chloride contents were measured for the exposed samples. Samples cured for 28 d before exposure showed far better resistance to chloride ingress than those cured for 7 d. The cement-slag blend with S1, having an alumina content of 12·23%, performed better than the blend with S2 (alumina content of 7·77%), especially for samples cured for 7 d. This was attributed to the higher basicity of S1. However, when the samples were cured for 28 d, the difference between the performances of ...
Durability and long-term performance of concrete exposed to deleterious ions and environmental conditions are major concerns. The rapid chloride permeability (R
Change in other NPD measures from baseline and Days 4, 7, and 14 to include baseline PD, change in amiloride, low chloride, and low chloride plus isoproterenol ...
:confused: I started to look into chloride because I know its an essential nutrient for plants but its absent from CSM+B Plantex. No problem, the...
A trial was conducted to establish a NaCl level that maximizes intake and performance while minimizing excretion of Na to the environment. Fifty-nine individually fed yearling heifers (803 lb) were fed 113 days. NaCl was added to a corn-based feedlot diet at levels of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 % of diet DM. No difference in ADG, DMI or F/G were observed with different levels of NaCl. Results suggest NaCl inclusion in the diet likely is not necessary to maintain acceptable feedlot performance.
Chloride contamination of Wichitas water-supply wells is inevitable unless actions are taken, according to U.S. Geological Survey scientists and authors of a new modeling report describing chloride movement in the areas aquifer.Possible actions include pumping to remove the plume of high-chloride groundwater, and increased artificial recharge of water into the aquifer to
Chloride: sodium and chloride are often found together, and both help regulate the bodys fluid balance. A normal chloride level is 95-105 mmol/L. This test is included in the Comprehensive Metabolic Panel-14
Synonyms for acetyl chloride in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acetyl chloride. 1 synonym for acetyl chloride: ethanoyl chloride. What are synonyms for acetyl chloride?
1HBB: HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY STUDY OF DEOXYHEMOGLOBIN ROTHSCHILD 37BETA TRP-| ARG: A MUTATION THAT CREATES AN INTERSUBUNIT CHLORIDE-BINDING SITE
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Prediction is based on a one-dimensional finite difference solution of Ficks second law of diffusion, with a variable external chloride concentration and a
An element is disclosed containing a photothermographic layer capable of providing a retained viewable image when imagewise exposed and heated. The Layer contains a high chloride {100} tabular grains.
Permeability to chloride ion - Modèle Prooveit ASTM C-1202 (). Description How easy it is to force chlorides into a concrete by applying an electrical charge, the RCPT Coulomb Test according to the standard AASHTO T 277-831: Rapid
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BioAssay record AID 861041 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 6 hr; Dose: Middle; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: CHLORIDE (Chloride); Study_ID: 275/10.
BioAssay record AID 884590 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 6 hr; Dose: Middle; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: CHLORIDE (Chloride); Study_ID: 491/10.
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This page contains information on the chemical Ammonium, dodecyldimethyl(3-hydroxypropenyl)-, chloride including: 3 synonyms/identifiers.