Define chloral hydrate. chloral hydrate synonyms, chloral hydrate pronunciation, chloral hydrate translation, English dictionary definition of chloral hydrate. n. A colorless crystalline compound, C2H3Cl3O2, used as a sedative and hypnotic drug and in the manufacture of DDT. n a colourless crystalline soluble solid...
5.1 Exposure data. Chloral is a chlorinated aldehyde that found extensive use, beginning in the 1940s, as a precursor in the production of the insecticide DDT and, to a lesser extent, of other insecticides and pharmaceuticals. This use of chloral has declined steadily since the 1960s, especially in those countries where the use of DDT has been restricted. Chloral is readily converted to chloral hydrate in the presence of water. Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical procedures and to reduce anxiety related to withdrawal from drugs. Wider exposure to chloral hydrate occurs at microgram-per-litre levels in drinking-water and swimming pools as a result of chlorination.. 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. Several studies were identified that analysed risk with respect to one or more measures of exposure to complex mixtures of disinfection by-products that are found in most chlorinated and chloraminated drinking-water. No data specifically on chloral or chloral hydrate were available to ...
This study has shown that sedation with IN DEX at a dose of 4 μg/kg was effective for ABR examinations. However, the ability to begin the examination sooner and complete the examination with a single dose suggests IN DEX may be a superior alternative to oral chloral hydrate. An additional benefit is the lower incidence of procedural hypoxemia requiring supplemental oxygen in the IN DEX group. Although the outcomes of this study may be related to the medication itself, there are several other potential explanations.. The first is the route of administration. Oral chloral hydrate is generally administered with an oral syringe and requires a semi-cooperative child. Despite the best attempts, some children may not receive the entire dose because they "spit it out" or some of the medication is lost during attempts to get the child to swallow the medication. Conversely, intranasal administration with a mucosal atomizing device is a much more reliable way to administer medications. Thus, more reliable ...
One thousand, seven hundred and three children (946 males, 757 females) with a median age of 2.5 years (range: 4 days - 9.91 years) received chloral hydrate. Moderate to deep sedation was achieved in 1,618/1,703 (95%) of the patients, 35/1,703 (2.1%) of the patients failed to achieve moderate to deep sedation, and 47/1,703 (2.8%) of the patients woke up during MRI examination. Adverse reactions were present in 31/1,703 (1.8%) of the patients. Three severe adverse reactions occurred (0.18%). A single dose of chloral hydrate (40-60 mg/kg) was administered to 1,477/1,703 patients (86.7%). An additional dose of chloral hydrate (10-20 mg/kg), given 15 min after the first dose or when the patient woke up during the MRI examination, was required in 226/1,703 patients (13.3%). The likelihood of requiring an additional dose in children older than 2 years was 2.2 times the likelihood compared to children younger than 2 years (OR = 2.2 [95%CI: 1.6-3.0]). The use of a reduced dose (,50 mg/kg) was not ...
Chloral hydrate is a sedative, also called a hypnotic. Chloral hydrate slows the activity of your central nervous system. This medicine has both fast-acting and long-lasting sedative effects. Chloral hydrate is for short-term use as a sedative or sleep medicine. It is sometimes given before a surgery to help you relax...
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of oral chloral hydrate (CH) and promethazine (PZ) for sedation during electroencephalography (EEG) in children. METHODS In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty 1-10 year old children referred to EEG Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital from January 2010 to February 2011 in Yazd, Iran, were evaluated. They were randomized to receive orally 70 mg/kg chloral hydrate or promethazine 1 mg/kg. The primary outcome was efficacy in adequate sedation and successful recording of EEG. Secondary outcome included clinical side effects, time from administration of the drug to adequate sedation, caregivers satisfaction on a Likert scale, and total stay time in EEG Unit. FINDINGS Twenty four cases with mean age 2.9±1.9 years were evaluated. Adequate sedation (Ramsay sedation score of four) was obtained in 43.3% of PZ and 100% of CH group (P=0.00001). Also in 70% of PZ and 96.7% of CH group, EEG was successfully recorded (P=0
1. Administration of dichloralphenazone, a complex of chloral hydrate and phenazone (antipyrine) caused a fall in steady-state plasma warfarin concentration and loss of anticoagulant control in five subjects.. 2. This effect of dichloralphenazone is due to stimulation of the drug-oxidizing enzymes of the liver endoplasmic reticulum by antipyrine, the non-hypnotic part of the complex. Administration of antipyrine caused a fall in steady-state plasma warfarin concentration in five subjects, a shortening of the plasma warfarin half-life, with increased urinary excretion of the metabolites of 14C-labelled warfarin in two subjects and increased urinary excretion of 6β-hydroxycortisol which is formed in the liver endoplasmic reticulum.. 3. Administration of chloral hydrate, the hypnotic part of dichloralphenazone, caused no change in anticoagulant control but a fall in steady-state plasma warfarin concentration in five subjects. This is due to the accumulation of trichloroacetic acid which displaces ...
Using chloral hydrate carries a risk of adverse events and compounding errors, and much of the available literature recommends using alternative sedatives for pediatric patients. But evidence regarding the efficacy of chloral hydrate and of alternative agents is conflicting.
Physician reviewed chloral hydrate rectal patient information - includes chloral hydrate rectal description, dosage and directions.
Californias Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has issued a notice of intent to list the chemicals chloral, chloral hydrate, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, and trichloroacetic acid as known to the State to cause cancer under Proposition 65. The public comment period will be open until August 26, 2013.
Metabolism of chloral hydrate (CH) by male B6C3F1 mouse liver microsomes (control-microsomes) generated free radical intermediates that resulted in endogenous lipid peroxidation, forming malondialdehyde (MDA), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (ACT), a
Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. It is noteworthy for bei...
... may be used to treat sleep disorders and insomnia. Important prescribing information on the effects, use and risk of abuse
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In article ,bucc0003.765611484 at gold,, bucc0003 at gold.tc.umn.edu (Paul A Bucciaglia) writes: ,, Ive been staining tobacco microspores (about 3-5 days post tetrad) with ,, acetocarmine to follow microspore mitosis. Using the std. 1% carmine ,, in 45% acetic acid on both fixed (ethanol/acetic acid) and unfixed antehrs ,, gives me bright red cytoplasms that obscure any sign of a nucleus. i dug ,, up a reference from 1937 (Maheshwari, Stain Tech. 12#2) which suggested ,, a few drops of chloral hydrate to clear the cytoplasm. ahh, an archaic ,, name for HCl i thought so i added a drop of 1N HCl. This did help some ,, as the nucleus was just barely visible and the cytoplasm cleared somewhat. ,, So i checked the Sigma catolog and was surprised to find that chloral ,, hydrate is a nasty chlorinated hydrocarbon that is (was?) used to make DDT. Chloral hydrate was also the active ingredient in the Mickey Finn (knockout drops added to alcohol in all the old film noir mysteries). ,, So my question: ...
The effects of modifiers (NAD+, NADH, propionaldehyde, chloral hydrate, diethylstilboestrol and p-nitrobenzaldehyde) on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl (PNP) pivalate (PNP trimethylacetate) catalysed by cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase are reported. In each case a different inhibition pattern is obtained to that observed when the substrate is PNP acetate; for example, propionaldehyde and chloral hydrate competitively inhibit the hydrolysis of PNP acetate, but are mixed inhibitors with PNP pivalate. The kinetic results can be rationalized in terms of different rate-determining steps: acylation of the enzyme in the case of the pivalate but acyl-enzyme hydrolysis for the acetate. This is confirmed by stopped-flow studies, in which a burst of p-nitrophenoxide is observed when the substrate is PNP acetate, but not when it is the pivalate. PNP pivalate inhibits the dehydrogenase activity of the enzyme competitively with the aldehyde substrate; this is most simply explained if the esterase and ...
Results A total of 6961 articles were screened and 104 were included in the review. Thirteen of these concerned paediatric ophthalmic examination, while 13 others were RCTs and were meta-analysed. CH was reported to have been administered in a total of 24 265 sedation episodes in children aged from ,1 month to 18 years. The meta-analysis showed CH had a higher OR (2.95, 95% CI 1.09 to 7.99) for successful sedation compared to other sedatives, but significant limitations apply. The commonest reported adverse events (AE) were not serious (eg, paradoxical reaction or transient vomiting) and required no intervention. Severe AE, including two deaths, were related to comorbidity, overdose or aspiration. ...
Experiments were performed in 20 adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 300-330 gm (IFFA CREDO, Les Oncins, France). Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg, i.p.; supplemented by continuous intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate delivered at a rate of 60 mg · kg -1 · hr -1 using a peristaltic pump) and fixed in a conventional stereotaxic head frame (Horsley Clarke Apparatus, Unimécanique, Epinay-sur-Seine, France). Body temperature was monitored by a rectal thermometer and maintained at 36.5°C with a homeothermic blanket (Harvard Apparatus, Kent, UK). All experiments were conducted in accordance with the Policies on the Use of Animals in Neuroscience as approved by the Society for Neuroscience.. Electrophysiological analysis. Single-unit activity of SNR cells was recorded extracellularly using glass micropipettes (6-8 MΩ) filled with a 0.6 m sodium chloride solution containing 4% Pontamine Sky Blue. Single neuron action potentials were amplified with a differential ...
On the day of her death, Marilyn Monroe was in the company of many people, none of who reported any immediately implied threat or perceived action from Monroe that suggested an imminent danger of suicide, nor any behavior that was outside of her already troubled mental state of manic highs and depressive lows. Shed a history of emotional instability that, today, would likely be classified as Bipolar II Disorder and she was under the continual care of a general physician and a psychiatrist. Monroe was no stranger to prescription pharmaceuticals, specifically anti-depressants and sleeping pills, but she was a relatively light alcohol drinker.. Marilyn Monroe had a difficult year in 1961. She worked very little due to health issues. Besides her emotional imbalance and substance dependency, she underwent surgery for endometriosis (uterus ailment) and a cholecystectomy (gall bladder removal), then suffered a painful attack of sinusitis. Her stress level soared from a lawsuit with 20th Century Fox ...
Dr. Pollard responded: Not Recommended. This drug is a schedule IV drug. Meaning it can only be obtained by prescription from a doctor. Please talk to your local healthcare provider to discuss whether this drug is right for you.
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
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not) funny (2) anniversary greeting (1) Asexual fragmentation (1) awards (5) Books (13) Bryological Times (8) bryophyte flora (2) Bryophyte photo of the week (16) bryophytes and herbicides (9) BT (1) celebrations (1) Classification (19) Courses (4) Crum workshop (1) Evolutionary biology (1) Extreme bryophytes (22) Field trips (3) Forays (3) Grants (1) IAB blog (7) IAB BT (1) IAB meetings (9) Job offers (3) Journals (5) meetings (2) Metzgeria (1) mitochondrial markers (1) Monophyly (62) morphology (4) moss culture (70) Moss gardens (3) Moss Horticulture (2) Most important bryophyte (5) moulds (1) News (9) newsletters (1) nominees (1) Paraphyly (15) Phylocode (3) pictures (3) polls (2) Recent literature (2) seminars (2) Species concepts (11) The Bryological Times (1) Websites (18) what is bryology? (5) Workshops (10) ...
AIM: Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. METHODS: We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate stimulation and, in one case, nontissue damaging pinprick stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot. Initial whole brain analysis was followed by region of interest analysis of specific brain areas. RESULTS: Distinct patterns of functional brain activation were evoked by brush and vFh punctate stimulation, which were reduced, but still present, under chloral hydrate sedation. Brain activation increased with increasing stimulus intensity. The feasibility of using pinprick stimulation in fMRI studies was
The global inventory of carbon in gas hydrate at present day is comparable to that in oil & coal reserve, therefore, gas hydrate could have played an important role in earth carbon cycle, e.g., during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event. However, ocean floor temperatures were ~6°C higher than today, so the hydrate abundance under warmer conditions was a question to be clarified. By using numeric simulations, this work showed that gas hydrate abundance is not only affected by ocean floor temperature, but, more essentially, greatly dominated by the organic carbon buried into sediment. During PETM, higher organic carbon contents due to less dissolved oxygen at seafloor and increased methanogenesis rates, both resulted from higher ocean temperatures, enhanced hydrate accumulation. Therefore, though hydrate stability zone would be thinner and shallower than present-day, depending on water depth and sedimentation rate, gas hydrate abundance could be still higher in some marine sediment ...
Thin (A) and thickly veined (B) sediment-displacing gas hydrates (white) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (C) pore-filling gas hydrates in sand; (D) gas hydrate mounds on the sea floor (hydrate has an orange coating from oil and is draped with grey sediment); (E) disseminated gas hydrates (white specks) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (F) gas hydrates (white) in coarse sands (grey). For any form of publication, please include the link to this page: www.grida.no/resources/6615
0041]Dispersible gas stream 22 and pressurized pump exit stream 12 are injected into HSD inlet stream 13 for processing by high shear device 40. HSD inlet stream 13 is in fluid communication with HSD 40. As discussed in detail above, high shear device 40 is a mechanical device that utilizes, for example, a stator rotor mixing head with a fixed gap between the stator and rotor. Dispersible gas stream 22 comprising chlorine is dispersed in pump exit stream 12 comprising aldehydes for the production of chloral. In high shear device 40, chlorine gas and liquid stream 12 are mixed to form an emulsion comprising microbubbles and nanobubbles of chlorine gas. In embodiments, the resultant dispersion comprises bubbles in the submicron size. In embodiments, the resultant dispersion has an average bubble size less than about 1.5 μm. In embodiments, the mean bubble size is less than from about 0.1 μm to about 1.5 μm. Not to be limited by a specific method, it is known in emulsion chemistry that submicron ...
71073-93-3 - 2-Propenoic acid, telomer with trichloroacetaldehyde - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Hydrate formation and its attendant problems are well known in the oil and gas industry. The desire to reduce the costs and environmental impact of traditional hydrate inhibitors has led to a focus on the design, development and evaluation of novel and environmentally friendly low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs). In this study, two LDHIs, namely Luvicap® EG and Gaffix® VC-713, were tested using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a hydrate promoter and a ball-stop rig. The ball stop-time was used to determine the inhibition efficiency. The concentration effect of inhibitors, salts and solvents on the ball-stop time was investigated. Results indicated that the inhibition efficiency of an inhibitor is sensitive to the micro-environment of the THF-hydrates activities which includes the concentration and types of these additives. The reproducibility and consistency of the test results were also largely dependent on the concentration of inhibitors. Reliable information was provided only if the concentration ...
September 28, 2001 A final settlement was reached Thursday in the wrongful death lawsuit a couple filed against a dentist after their 3-year-old son died after being given anesthesia at a Houston dental clinic. Kenny Huynh and Tracy Phan of Houston, parents of Daniel Huynh, contend their son was given a dangerous sedative cocktail that proved fatal, given his size. An autopsy showed Daniel died from the drugs toxic effect. The toddler was given a drink containing Demerol, Phenergan and chloral hydrate when he went in for a root canal and fillings. "They gave (Daniel) three drugs that an cause problems with breathing, two of which they gave him in excessive amounts" said lawyer Steve P. McCarthy today. McCarthy, who represented Daniels parents, said court records also show that the clinic staff failed to monitor the toddlers condition after he was sedated. When the staff finally noticed the child was in distress, they did not have the equipment on hand to attempt to revive him as required by ...
Implantation of Microdialysis Guide Cannulae and Probe Insertions in the Hippocampus. Seven days before being used in microdialysis experiments, rats were anesthetized with a mixture of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital (170 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, in 30% propylene glycol and 14% ethanol), placed in a stereotaxic apparatus, and implanted unilaterally with guide cannulae (Bioanalytical Systems, Inc., West Lafayette, IN) in the hippocampus (coordinates: anteroposterior, -5.2; mediolateral, 5.2; dorsoventral, -3.8) according to the stereotaxic atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998). Twenty-four hours before testing, a 4-mm concentric microdialysis probe (BAS Bioanalytical Systems, West Lafayette, IN) was inserted through the guide cannula.. Likewise, for mice, 2-mm microdialysis probes (CMA/Microdialysis, Solna, Sweden) were implanted unilaterally in the hippocampus (mediolateral, +3.1; anteroposterior, -3.3; dorsoventral, -4.2, based on the stereotaxic atlas of Franklin and Paxinos, 1997) under ...
Today, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is recognized as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS comprising 40% of inhibitory synaptic processing. As its receptor GABAA is largely responsible for effects of alcohol, it can be argued that it is one of the oldest drug targets known.. In the 1870s, chloral hydrate, whose metabolite modulates the GABA receptor complex, was widely used as a sedative and as a treatment for insomnia. Although effective, abuse and dependence were major issues and by the 1920s its use had been almost entirely supplanted by the barbiturates which work on the GABAA receptor.. Unfortunately, it soon became apparent that barbiturates also carry the risk of abuse, dependence, severe withdrawal symptoms, and lethal overdose. Although still used in some situations, the barbiturates were replaced by benzodiazepines with the advent of Librium in 1960. By the late 1970s, benzodiazepines were the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world.. ...
Extracellular levels of serotonin (5-HT) and the regulation of 5-HT release by the 5-HT1A receptor were examined after single and repeated treatment with different types of antidepressant drugs: the selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitor desipramine and the 5-HT2A/2C/alpha 2 receptor antagonist mianserin (each at 15.0 mg/kg). Extracellular levels of 5-HT were measured using in vivo microdialysis in the striatum and hippocampus of rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate. Acute administration of fluoxetine transiently elevated the levels of 5-HT in the striatum and hippocampus; desipramine did not change 5-HT levels, and mianserin slightly decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Rats were administered these antidepressant drugs for either 1 or 14 days and studied 48 hr after the final injection. Repeated treatment with fluoxetine increased base-line levels of 5-HT in the striatum and hippocampus; repeated treatment with desipramine increased ...
Sprague Dawley rats (21-29 d old) of either sex were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and decapitated in accordance with Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and National Institutes of Health guidelines. The olfactory bulbs were removed and immersed in sucrose-artificial CSF (sucrose-aCSF) equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2, pH 7.38. The sucrose-aCSF had the following composition (in mm): 26 NaHCO3, 1 NaH2PO4, 2 KCl, 5 MgSO4, 0.5 CaCl2, 10 glucose, and 248 sucrose. Horizontal slices (400 μm thick) were cut with a microslicer (Ted Pella, Redding, CA). After a period of recovery at 30°C for 15 min, slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) in aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2 (composition in mm: 124 NaCl, 26 NaHCO3, 3 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 2 MgSO4, 2 CaCl2, and 10 glucose) until used. For recording, a single slice was placed in a recording chamber and perfused continuously at the rate of 1.5 ml/min with normal aCSF equilibrated with 95% O2/5% CO2. All recordings were performed ...
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contractile activity that occurs in the bladder during the filling phase of the micturition cycle (non-micturition contractions, NMCs), which generate transient rises in intravesical pressure not associated with urine flow.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were conducted using anaesthetized (chloral hydrate) and un-anaesthetized rats. In un-anaesthetized rats bladder contractile activity was measured using an intravesical cannula implanted under full surgical anaesthesia 3 days previously. In the anaesthetized rats the bladder was exteriorized and a cannula inserted through the dome. In these experiments electrical activity within the detrusor was also measured with a suction electrode on the bladder surface. For each rat, the experimental protocol involved filling the bladder at a constant rate (10 mL/h) to evoke micturition cycles, or infusion of a fixed volume and recording made under effective isovolumetric conditions.. RESULTS: In both anaesthetized and ...
The procedures followed were in accordance with institutional guidelines. Twenty-one male Fisher rats of 22 months of age weighing between 350 and 450 g were used. Rats were anesthetized with 4.5% chloral hydrate by intraperitoneal injection. The initial dose of 8 mg/kg was supplemented as needed. The surgical areas were shaved and washed three times with 2% iodine solution, and aseptic procedures were used. Seven animals underwent attempted suture occlusion of the right MCA, and 14 animals underwent intracranial occlusion of the right MCA. A rectal thermometer and heating unit were used to constantly maintain the body temperature at 37±0.5°C.. The method of Longa et al14 was used for attempted suture occlusion of the MCA in 7 animals. A 2-cm ventral midline incision was made in the neck. The right CCA was isolated and dissected distally to the bifurcation of the right ICA and ECA. The superior thyroid artery and the ascending pharyngeal artery, both branches of the ECA, were dissected and ...
Background== *Normal protein excretion 150mg/24 hours or 10mg/100mL *>3.5g/24h considered nephrotic range *Dipstick: more sensitive to albumin, less sensitive to Bence-Jones protein and globulins **"Trace" protein ≈ 10mg/100mL (i.e. upper limit of normal) ==Causes/Differential Diagnosis== ===Functional=== *Benign: [[fever]]/acute illness, cold exposure, orthostatic proteinuria, strenuous exercise, [[hypertension]] *[[CHF]], [[shock]] *[[Preeclampsia]]/[[eclampsia]]/[[HELLP]], [[acute fatty liver of pregnancy ===Renal=== *Tubular dysfunction *Glomerular disease (e.g. [[glomerulonephritis]], [[diabetes]], [[HIV]], [[SLE]], [[amyloidosis]], [[IgA nephropathy]] or membranous nephropathy) *[[Nephrotic syndrome]] *[[Pyelonephritis]] *[[Malignant hypertension]] *[[Alport syndrome]] ===Drugs=== *[[Aminoglycosides]], [[penicillin]s, [[amphotericin]], [[penicillamine]], [[deferasirox]] *[[NSAIDs]], gold *[[Chloral hydrate toxicity]] *[[Lead toxicity]] ===Protein overload=== Note: bence-jones globulins ...
Make sure your doctor knows if you are also using aspirin, bepridil (Vascor®), chloral hydrate (Noctec®), cisplatin (Platinol®), cyclosporine (Gengraf®, Neoral®, Sandimmune®), digoxin (Lanoxin®), indomethacin (Indocin®), lithium (Eskalith®, Lithobid®), methotrexate (Folex®, Rheumatrex®), norepinephrine, phenytoin (Dilantin®), succinylcholine (Anectine®, Quelicin®), tubocurarine, a blood thinner (such as warfarin, Coumadin®), medicine for infection (such as amikacin, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, Amikin®, Garamycin®, or Keflex®), other medicine for high blood pressure (such as candesartan, enalapril, irbesartan, lisinopril, losartan, olmesartan, valsartan, Accupril®, Atacand®, Avapro®, Benicar®, Cozaar®, Diovan®, Hyzaar®, Lotrel®, or Zestril®), or other diuretic or "water pill" (such as bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, hydrochlorothiazide, Edecrin®, or Zestoretic®). Tell your doctor if you are also using medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay ...
NURS 2236 Clinical Form 3: Clinical Medications Worksheet (You will need to made additional copies of these forms) Classification Dose Route Time/Frequency 2.5-10mg PO Daily for 2-4 days then adjust daily dose by results anticoagulants of prothrombin time. Peak Onset 5-7 days 36-72 hours Why is your patient taking this medication? Duration 2-5 days For IV meds, compatability with IV drips and/or solutions Mechanism of action and indications Prophylaxis and treatment of Venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrilation with embolization, Management of MIs (decreases risk of death, decreases risk of subsequent MI, and decreases risk of future thromboembolic events.) Prevention of thrombus formation and embolization after prosthetic valve placement. Prevention of thromboembolic events Interactions with other patient drugs, OTC, or herbal medicines (ask patient specifically) Abciximab, androgens, capecitabine, cefoperazone, cefotetan, chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, clopidogrel, ...
A method for the quantitative determination of chloral hydrate, chloroform and related R-C-X3 compounds in blood is described. The technic, based on the Fugiwara color reaction, avoids the simultaneous preparation of standard solutions by use of the photoelectric colorimeter and calibration curves. The introduction of alcohol to retard color fading makes the method rapid and accurate.. ...
Examine under a microscope using chloral hydrate solution R. Prepare the reference we ight using iron standard solution (20 ppm Fe) R, diluted as necessary with a 1 per cent VV solution of nitric acid R.
At the beginning of February I asked for recommendations when processing insects with a chitin skeleton. Result and many thanks, it worked a treat, chloral hydrate and phenol. The chitin just slipped over the knife producing lovely ribbons. When asked how it was done, ah, this is for the cognoscenti, a skill that takes years to develop. Again, many thanks. The original e-mails are on my laptop, youll get full recognition in my techniques book and formulary. Ian. Dr. Ian Montgomery, Histotechnology, IBLS Support Unit, Graham Kerr Building, Tel: 4652, 6644. [email protected] _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
We use core porosity, consolidation experiments, pressure core sampler data, and capillary pressure measurements to predict water pressures that are 70% of the lithostatic stress, and gas pressures that equal the lithostatic stress beneath the methane hydrate layer at Ocean Drilling Program Site 997, Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina. A 29-m-thick interconnected free-gas column is trapped beneath the low-permeability hydrate layer. We propose that lithostatic gas pressure is dilating fractures and gas is migrating through the methane hydrate layer. Overpressured gas and water within methane hydrate reservoirs limit the amount of free gas trapped and may rapidly export methane to the seafloor....
With the increase in the interest of producing natural gas from methane hydrates as well as potential risks of massive hydrate dissociation in the context of global warming, studies have recently shifted from pure hydrate crystals to hydrates in sediments. Such a research focus shift requires a series of innovative laboratory devices that are capable of investigating various properties of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). This study introduces a newly developed high pressure testing chamber, i.e., multi-property characterization chamber (MPCC), that allows simultaneous investigation of a series of fundamental properties of HBS, including small-strain stiffness (i.e., P- and S-waves), shear strength, large-strain deformation, stress-volume responses, and permeability. The peripheral coolant circulation system of the MPCC permits stable and accurate temperature control, while the core holder body, made of aluminum, enables X-ray computer tomography scanning to be easily employed for structural and ...
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Alfa Aesar™ Potassium tetracyanonickelate(II) hydrate 50g Alfa Aesar™ Potassium tetracyanonickelate(II) hydrate Inorganic Potassium Compounds
For each of the three proposed gas hydrate production methods (left frame), conditions within initially stable hydrate-bearing sediment are shifted such that hydrate at that location is no longer stable, and will begin dissociating. Right frame: Depressurization: achieved by reducing the formation pressure below equilibrium limits. Thermal stimulation: achieved by increasing the formation pressure beyond equilibrium conditions. Chemical stimulation: changes in gas hydrate equilibrium conditions are induced by inhibitor injection. For any form of publication, please include the link to this page: www.grida.no/resources/6596
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3,5-cAMP Na Hydrate 37839-81-9 MSDS report, 3,5-cAMP Na Hydrate MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3,5-cAMP Na Hydrate safety information specifications ect.
A process of manufacturing oligonucleotides includes a 5′-deblocking step in which the 5-blocking group is removed with dichloroacetic acid that is essentially free of chloral. The process is useful for making oligonucleotides that are substantially free of chloral adducts.
The pressure-temperature (P-T) melting curve of lidocaine was determined (dP/dT¼3.56MPaK 1), and the lidocaine-water system was investigated as a function of temperature and pressure. The lidocaine-water system exhibits a monotectic equilibrium at 321K (ordinary pressure) whose temperature increases as the pressure increases until the two liquids become miscible. A hydrate, unstable at ordinary pressure, was shown to form, on increasing the pressure, from about 70MPa at low temperatures (200-300 K). The thermodynamic conditions of its stability were inferred from the location of the three-phase equilibria involving the hydrate in the lidocaine-water pressure-temperature-mole fraction (P-T-x) diagram ...
Gas hydrates are crystalline inclusion compounds, where molecular cages of water trap lighter species under specific thermodynamic conditions. Hydrates play an essential role in global energy systems, as both a hinderance when formed in traditional fuel production and a substantial resource when formed by na
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A slurry containing aluminum ammonium sulfate disodium dodecahydrate (ammonium alum hydrate) at the concentration of 35 wt% is recently proposed as a promising material for latent heat transportation systems at higher temperature than 50oC. However, there exist two big problems to the ammonium alum hydrate slurry, that is, the sedimentation of the hydrate particles and low fluidity due to increase of the viscosity. In order to solve these problems, effects of drag-reducing surfactants and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the hydrate slurry were analysed. Viscosities of the hydrate solution and slurry with and without the surfactant and PVA were measured to know the formation of rod-like micelles of the surfactants. Sedimentation and particle growth of the hydrate particles in solution with and without the surfactant and PVA were also observed. From the results, it was found that PVA does not disturb the formation of rod-like micelles. On the contrary, PVA enhances the effect of surfactants on the ...
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Iron(II) sulfate hydrate 99.999% trace metals basis; CAS Number: 13463-43-9; EC Number: 231-753-5; Synonym: Green vitriol, Iron vitriol, Sulfuric acid, iron(II) salt (1:1), hydrate; Linear Formula: FeO4S · xH2O; find Sigma-Aldrich-450278 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
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YM-358 potassium hydrate is a angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist potentially for the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart. YM358 is both orally active and long-lasting. YM358 has higher efficacy than enalapril for the treatment of hypertension.
We are currently working at Southern Hydrate Ridge getting ready to install the first underwater cabled mass spectrometer at this active methane seep. The past few days have been a whirlwind of activity, diving at both the EA Oregon Offshore site and Southern Hydrate Ridge. At the Oregon Offshore site, the ship- and shore-based personnel have been working hard to trouble shoot a couple of pieces of infrastructure there, and are continuing to narrow down the issue. At Southern Hydrate Ridge, we are very far along in the completion of both cabled and uncabled instruments at this site.. Over the past few days at Southern Hydrate Ridge, we have installed the digital-still camera, upward-looking ADCP that will measure currents, and three short-period seismometers on extension cables that range from ~400 m to 600 m in length. The seismometer locations form a triangular pattern on the seafloor so that we can obtain good locations for seismic events beneath the seep site. A broadband seismometer was ...
The award-winning mathematical model created by Rice alumnus Sayantan Chatterjee, who earned his doctorate in chemical engineer George Hirasakis group, is intended to help pinpoint abundant pockets of hydrate by extrapolating data from several sources: one-dimensional core samples, seismic surveys that image the fractures as well as stratified layers of sand and clay that build up over millennia, and the geochemistry of sediment and water near the ocean floor, which offers chemical clues to what lies beneath.. ...
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Methotrexate hydrate | C20H24N8O6 | CID 165528 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
3-{1-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-isobutylpyrrolidin-3-yl}phenol hydrochloride hydrate | C22H32ClNO3 | CID 115769 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-Aldrich-N1636, β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on sodium propane-1-sulfonate hydrate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Hydrate (?), n. [Gr. y`dwr water: cf. F. hydrate.] Chemistry|Chem. (a) A compound formed by the union of water with some oth...
Hydrate your body after a long nights rest, it eliminate toxins as well as reduce uric acid from your joints. The vitamin C component acts to defy aging...
Aminoguanidine lanthanide thiodipropionate hydrates of composition [Ln(Agun)<sub>2</sub>(tdp)<sub>3</sub>&#183nH<sub>2</sub>O], Agun = Aminoguanidine, tdp = thiodipropionic acid, where Ln = La, Pr, Nd and Sm if n = 2, have been prepared and characterized by physic-chemical techniques.
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Data were analysed to determine the gas hydrate formation potential and indicators Echofacies were analysed to correlate the sedimentary deposits with...
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Creative-Proteomics offer cas 1015856-57-1 Norfloxacin-D5 hydrate. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
91417-78-6 - QHOOBIFBRLBIGF-KLSJZZFUSA-N - L-Phenylalanine, N-(1-(cyanomethyl)-2-pyrrolidinylidene)-, hydrate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
You lose tons of fluids, nutrients, and electrolytes throughout your day. Add physical activity to the mix, and your body can really be at a deficit. The advanced electrolytes in AMPED™ Hydrate are the perfect solution for daily hydration.
Before Its News). The Hydrazine Hydrate Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Hydrazine Hydrate industry.. The Hydrazine Hydrate market report provides a basic overview of the Hydrazine Hydrate market including definitions, classifications, applications and chain structure. The Hydrazine Hydrate industry analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions development status.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Hydrazine Hydrate Market Research [email protected] http://www.360marketupdates.com/10316155. Next part of the Hydrazine Hydrate market analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect to three points, viz. raw material and suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process.. After the basic information, the Hydrazine Hydrate ...
The mechanisms by which hypoxia or social isolation interact with drug action were investigated by the use of several parameters including drug-induced narcosis, convulsions, change in body temperature and various biochemical parameters. Acute Hypoxia Hypobaric hypoxia (364 mm Hg, 10% O2) enhanced. the depressant effects of barbital, pentobarbital and chloral hydrate in mice and rats. Mice were far more sensitive than rats, barbital narcosis being affected to the greatest extent. Reduced oxygen (10%) at normal pressure also potentiated pentobarbital narcosis. Hypothermia during hypoxia was greater in mice than in rats. Mice exposed to hypoxia at 30°C instead of 22°C ambient temperature did not exhibit hypothermia. Hypoxia at 22°C enhanced and prolonged the hypothermia induced by barbiturates and chloral hydrate. At 30°C hypoxia showed considerably less potentiation of barbital narcosis and hypothermia than at 22°C. These parameters were moderately reduced with chloral hydrate and unaffected with
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Examining gas outlets off the coast of Spitsbergen with the submersible JAGO. West of Spitsbergen methane gas is effervescing out of the seabed. Is this an indication that methane hydrates in the seabed are dissolving due to rising temperatures? And what would the effects be? An expedition with the German research vessel MARIA S. MERIAN and the submersible JAGO lead by GEOMAR , Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel hopes to help answer these questions. The expedition begins today in Reykjavik.. The average temperatures of the atmosphere are rising; the average temperatures of the oceans, too. Not only living organisms react sensititvely to these changes. The transitional zones between shallow shelf seas and the deep sea at continental slopes store a huge amount of methane hydrates in the sea bed. These specific, ice-like compounds only forms at low temperatures and under high pressure. When the water temperature directly above the sea bed rises, some of the methane hydrates could dissolve and ...
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Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is made by mixing calcium hydroxide (portlandite), silica and water at two calcium oxide to silica (C/S) ratios, using nanosilica and silica fume. We investigate how silica particle size influences the rate and extent of formation of C-S-H at room temperature by isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Rate of reaction increases as silica particle size decreases, and is five times greater with nanosilica than with silica fume. Final composition depends only on initial C/S ratio. Compositions at 28 days are estimated from thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction data. There is a weak maximum in the reaction rate of nanosilica pastes about 20-30 h after mixing. The overall kinetics are well described by a simple exponential (first-order) reaction model. The early-time reaction rate around the rate maximum is described by an Avrami model.. ...
Aerogel is a material with porous network structure, low density, high specific surface area, and low thermal conductivity. Aerogel has been used for thermal insulator, supercapacitor, storing medium, filter material for extremely fine particles, drug delivery systems, and drug coating. In the present study, whole biomass aerogels with high porosity, large surface area and low-density open pore 3D structure were prepared from Douglas fir without hemicellulose removal and delignification process. Lithium bromide molten hydrate was used to dissolve â?? regenerate the cellulose or biomass to form cellulosic network structure. The results indicated that the density of the aerogels prepared from Douglas fir whole biomass ranged from 4.6 to 29 mg/cm3 with porosity from 99.7% to 98.1%. The aerogel properties changes with biomass pretreatment, different reaction conditions, and biomass loading were investigated ...
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