Antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial production of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL) is a global threat to public health. ESBL resistance is most commonly hospital‐acquired; however, infections acquired outside of hospital settings have raised concerns over the role of livestock and wildlife in the zoonotic spread of ESBL‐producing bacteria. Only limited data are available on the circulation of ESBL‐producing bacteria in animals. Here, we report ESBL‐producing Escherichia coli in wild common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and livestock near Lima, Peru. Molecular analyses revealed that most of this resistance resulted from the expression of blaCTX‐M‐15 genes carried by plasmids, which are disseminating worldwide in hospital settings and have also been observed in healthy children of Peru. Multilocus sequence typing showed a diverse pool of E. coli strains carrying this resistance that were not always host species‐specific, suggesting sharing of strains between ...
There has been growing interest in the study and conservation of bats throughout the world. Declines in their absolute numbers in recent decades are due, in part, to the fact that insectivorous bats may bioaccumulate toxic pollutants. The purpose of the present study was to quantify heavy metal concentrations in kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle samples in relation to metallothionein (MT) levels. In total, 106 bats belonging to 11 European species (i.e., Myotis myotis, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis brandtii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis emarginatus, Myotis mystacinus, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus pygmaeus, Nyctalus noctulla, Eptesicus serotinus) were used for the study. The highest MT levels were found in Pipistrellus pipistrellus. High MT levels were also found in juvenile bats and aquatic-insect-foraging species. Cadmium was found only in the liver and kidney of Myotis myotis, except for a solitary finding in Pipistrellus pipistrellus. Myotis myotis juveniles had ...
Abstract Hog cholera control efforts in Belize in 1975 included the slaughter of village pigs, a primary food source for the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats then fed on secondary food sources, including humans. In 1 village, 22% of the families interviewed were exposed to attacks: 17 children and 2 adults were bit. Human depredation was not continuous as Desmodus located other hosts.
Mucins in the gastrointestinal tract of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum were investigated by histochemistry and lectin histochemistry to evaluate morphofunctional variations of different regions and their possible physiological and evolutionary implication
Microcystis aeruginosa is a type of cyanobacteria capable of producing a hepatotoxin called microcystin (MC). As toxic M. aeruginosa overwinters in the sediments of lakes, it is consumed by some mayfly larva, such as those of the Hexagenia spp., and thus MC bioaccumulates in these insects. Each summer, Hexagenia emerge from the lake to reproduce. While individual Hexagenia may only live for 48 hours, the emergence of these species can last for several weeks, providing a temporary food source for many terrestrial organisms such as birds and bats. Little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, feed opportunistically on aquatic insects. To test if microcystin is moving from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems via trophic transfer, we 1) tested the bat feces for the presence of Hexagenia mayflies; and 2) tested the bat livers and feces for microcystin. In June 2013, bat feces were collected from underneath a maternity roost near Little Traverse Lake (Leelanau County, MI). That same night, one male little brown bat was
Currently there is overwhelming evidence that bat communities are strongly affected by light pollution. To try to reduce such impacts, this summer we have been testing new eco-friendly streetlights on bat activity, particularly for the highly light sensitive greater horseshoe bat. For this, we created a phantom street in the environment erecting streetlights with either normal white LED streetlights on them or new red lights (a description of a similar project can be found here https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2017.0075). We are currently working our way through the data now and hope to have the results of this experiment very soon.. The more we learn about the impacts of anthropogenic pressures, such as lights or traffic noise, the more we can strategically plan to limit their impact on our landscape. For this, we are currently developing a predictive tool to investigate functional connectivity within the landscape for greater horseshoe bats. We hope that this tool will ...
Entwistle, A. C. 1999. Plecotus auritus. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík, and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, Academic Press, London, UK.. Gaisler, J., Hanák, V., Hanzal, V. and Jarský, V. 2003. Results of bat banding in the Czech and Slovak Republics, 1948-2000 (in Czech). Vespertilio 7: 3-61.. Horáček, I. and Dulic, B. 2004. Plecotus auritus Linnaeus, 1758 - Braunes Langohr. In: F. Krapp (ed.), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas, Band 4: Fledertiere, Teil I: Chiroptera 2: Vespertilionidae 2, Molossidae, Nycteridae, pp. 953-999. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany.. IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).. Juste, J., Ibáñez, C., Muñoz, J., Trujillo, D., Benda, P., Karataş, A. and Ruedi, M. 2004. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the long-eared bats (Plecotus) in the Mediterranean ...
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, most bats do not have rabies.[29] For example, even among bats submitted for rabies testing because they could be captured, were obviously weak or sick, or had been captured by a cat, only about 6% had rabies.[29] However, of the few cases of rabies reported in the United States every year, most are caused by bat bites.[29] The highest occurrence of rabies in vampire bats occurs in the large populations found in South America. The danger is not so much to the human population, but rather to livestock.[30] Dr. Joseph Lennox Pawan, a government bacteriologist in Trinidad, found the first infected vampire bat in March 1932.[31] He soon proved various species of bat, including the common vampire bat, are capable of transmitting rabies for an extended period of time without artificial infection or external symptoms.[31] Fruit bats of the genus Artibeus were later shown to demonstrate the same abilities. During this asymptomatic stage, the ...
AbeBooks.com: HISTOCHEMICAL AND MICROCHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE LIPIDS OF THE INTERSCAPULAR BROWN FAT OF THE FEMALE VESPERTILIONID BAT MYOTIS LUCIFUGUS LUCIFUGUS: NY 1958. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 72, Art. 1. Octavo, 68pp., illustrations, rebound in later wraps with original front wrap included. VG.
But so far, biologists dont have a good answer why the bats are surviving. "While they were persisting, it wasnt clear how they were coping with the disease," she said, adding that these reasons can provide clues to the long-term trajectories of these bat populations.. To uncover why the bats were persisting, Langwig and her colleagues compared the patterns of infection in little brown bats in New York to areas in Illinois and Virginia where the disease had more recently been detected and populations were declining.. As part of the study, Langwig and her team swabbed the bats skin and then conducted tests to detect the amount of the fungus they carry during winter hibernation. They used mathematical models to examine three major hypotheses for how bats were persisting with white-nose syndrome, including reduced transmission, tolerance, and resistance. The team found that bats in the New York populations seemed to reduce their fungal pathogen loads toward the end of their hibernation. However, ...
Vampire bat, (family Desmodontidae), any of three species of blood-eating bats, native to the New World tropics and subtropics. The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), together with the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus, or Desmodus, youngi) and the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata)
Among the most fascinating evolutionary adaptations has been the development of echolocation in bats. But to develop their unique sonar system for exploring caves in the dark, what evolutionary tradeoffs occurred between their other senses like smell, vision and hearing, i.e. to be blind as a bat?. There are two kinds of bats, Old World fruit bats and echolocating bats. Old World fruit bats have no laryngeal echolocating ability, and navigate largely by vision with excellent eyesight, whereas echolocating bats rely solely on echolocation for navigation. Now, using whole genome sequencing technology, a research team led by Dong Dong et al. performed a new comparative study of two sophisticated echolocating bats - the great leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros armiger) and Chinese rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus), named for their protuberances on their noses. When navigating, they are sensitive enough to distinguish their ultrasonic calls from the Doppler shifted echoes (think of the sound of a ...
Wings are the most obvious adaptation bats have for powered flight and differences in wing morphology are known to correlate with flight behaviour. However, the function(s) of ancillary structures such as the ears and tail, which may also play an important role during flight, are less well understood. Here we constructed a simplified model of a bat body with ears based upon morphological measurements of a brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) to examine the aerodynamic implications of flying with large ears. The forces and moments produced by the model were measured using a sensitive 6-component force and torque balance during wind tunnel testing. The large ears of the model bat produced positive lift as well as positive drag of the same order of magnitude. At small ears angles (0° to 10°), increasing the angle of the ears resulted in an increase of the lift-to-drag ratio. At higher ear angles (| 10°) separation of the flow occurred which caused a large decrease in the lift-to-drag ratio produced.
As part of her masters thesis, researcher Camila Sant Anna and her fellow students visited the Guapi Assu Reserve to study the reproduction period of three species of common fruit bat: the Little Yellow-shouldered Fruit Bat (Sturnira lilium), Sebas Short-tailed Fruit Bat (Carollia perspicillata), and the Great Fruit-eating Bat (Artibeus lituratus).. WLT partner organisation REGUA (Reserva Ecológica de Guapi Assu), who own and manage the reserve, sent us this report about bats from the Atlantic Rainforest:. "With a gestation period of three to five months, most Atlantic Rainforest bats have two litters each year, mainly at the beginning of the rainy period and another at the end of the rainy period.. "Born about 30 per cent of the adult size, these predominantly single babies clamber their way to their mums mammary gland that is concealed under her wings; they cling here, tucked away, even in their mums flight. They are collectively treated along with many other young, with a number of ...
Vampire Bats Can Donate Blood To Others Of Its Kind. A recent study has shown that female vampire bats can share blood with their friends. Bats are amazingly altruistic creatures. Bats are known for being socially sophisticated mammals, but they are probably even more generous to those in need than you are. Vampire bats have a particularly bad reputation because people think that these bats would love to drink their blood. However, vampire bats dont consume human blood, and the blood they do take from other animal-hosts is in such small amounts that the animal hosts dont even realized that they are being robbed of their blood. Female vampire bats form a tight community. During the colder months, female vampire bats will keep other bats warm with their body heat. Female vampire bats will also help other females care for their young. But only recently have experts learned that they share blood.. If a female vampire bat should be hungry, and/or does not have enough food, then other female vampire ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Between 1985 and 1987, fecal samples were collected from 71 bats representing 14 species (Desmodontidae, Molossidae, Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae) from 8 localities in 3 states (Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz) in Bolivia, South America. Of these, 2 black myotid bats (Vespertilionidae), Myotis nigricans, and 1 tent-making bat (Phyllostomidae), Uroderma magnirostrum, had oocysts in their feces that represent undescribed species of Eimeria. The new species from M. nigricans (2/4, 50%) has sporulated oocysts that are subspheroidal, 18.9 × 16.9 (17-23 × 14-20) μm, without a micropyle; oocyst residuum of 6-8 spheroidal globules and 1 highly refractile polar granule are present. The oocyst wall has 2 layers (~1.3 μm thick), with a rough outer layer. Ovoidal sporocysts are 10.1 × 7.4 (7-14 × 5-10) μm, with a Stieda body, substieda body, and a sporocyst residuum. The new eimerian species from U. magnirostrum (1/2, 50%) has sporulated oocysts that are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 23.8 × 20.8
Conflict can arise when bats roost in human dwellings and householders are affected adversely by their presence. In the United Kingdom, the exclusion of bats from roosts can be licensed under exceptional circumstances to alleviate conflict, but the fate of excluded bats and the impact on their survival and reproduction is not well understood. Using radio-tracking, we investigated the effects of exclusion on the soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus, a species that commonly roosts in buildings in Europe. Exclusions were performed under licence at five roosts in England in spring, when females were in the early stages of pregnancy. Following exclusion, all bats found alternative roosts and colonies congregated in nearby known roosts that had been used by radio-tagged bats prior to exclusion. We found no difference in roosting behaviour before and after exclusion. Both the frequency of roost switching and the type of roosts used by bats remained unchanged. We also found no change in foraging behaviour.
Research Article Ecological traits of phyllostomid bats associated with sensitivity to tropical forest fragmentation in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. José Luis García-García 1 *, Antonio Santos-Moreno 1 and
Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology
Bats are nocturnal flying mammals that leave their roosts at dusk to feed and return to secluded dark places just before daylight. Most species are active during the warmer months and hibernate and/or migrate for the winter season. However, they do not fly in rainy or unseasonably cold weather.. Big brown bats: Female big brown bats form nursery colonies in the spring and are joined by males in late summer. They leave their roost at dusk in a slow, fluttering flight to find food. They feed close to the ground on various insects including beetles, ants, wasps, flies and mosquitoes.. Little brown bats: This species forms nursery colonies in early spring, then migrates south in autumn and hibernates in irregular clusters from September through April. They feed on insects, primarily flies and moths, and alternate their feeding with rest periods during which time they hang to digest their food.. Mexican free-tailed bat: This species migrates to Mexico for the winter, usually leaving in late October ...
Espesye sa kulaknit nga una nga gihulagway ni Gray ni adtong 1838 ang Pipistrellus coromandra[2][3][4]. Ang Pipistrellus coromandra sakop sa kahenera nga Pipistrellus sa kabanay nga Vespertilionidae.[5][6] Giklaseklase sa IUCN ang espesye sa kinaminosang kalabotan.[1] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[5]. ...
Objective: We investigated the relationship between a body mass index and tooth conditions in the black flying-fox to provide guidance on management of edentulous flying-foxes by bat carers and veterinarians.. Methods: Flying-foxes brought into care through injury were weighed, their forearms measured and the state of their teeth evaluated. Measurements were subjected to Chi-square, ANOVA, t-tests and regressions to tease out any relationship between body mass index and condition of canines and molar teeth, as well as in relation to gender and season. Results: There is no statistically significant relationship between the state of a bats dentition and its body mass index.. Conclusions: The black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) in Townsville appears to experience a rapid decline in dental condition through time. Despite this, there is little indication that loss of teeth results in a decline in body mass index. We attribute the lack of effect of tooth loss on body condition to the dominance of ...
Miniopterus mahafaliensis is a bat in the genus Miniopterus that occurs in southwestern Madagascar. Populations of this species have historically been included in Miniopterus manavi, but molecular data published in 2008 and 2009 indicate that this supposed species in fact consists of five separate species, including the newly described M. mahafaliensis. The species has been found in dry, spiny, and gallery forest, as well as more open habitats, in southwestern Madagascar. Miniopterus mahafaliensis is a small, brown Miniopterus; its forearm length is 35 to 40 mm (1.4 to 1.6 in). The hairs of the underparts have gray tips. The tragus (a projection in the outer ear) is thick and blunt-tipped. The uropatagium (tail membrane) is well-furred and the palate is concave. During the 2000s, molecular studies have revealed that the widely distributed African, Eurasian, and Australian genus Miniopterus is much more species-rich than previously thought. In a 1995 contribution to Faune de Madagascar on ...
Insectivorous bats are integral components of terrestrial ecosystems. Despite this, a growing number of factors causing world-wide declines in bat populations have been identified. Relatively abundant species are important for bat conservation because of their role in ecosystems and the research opportunities they offer. In addition, species that have been well-studied present unique opportunities to synthesize information and highlight important areas of focus for conservation and research. This paper focuses on a well-studied abundant bat, Eptesicus fuscus. I review the relevant literature on habitat use, diet and roost selection by E. fuscus in North America, and highlight important areas of conservation and research for this species, including the effects of roost disturbance, control of economically important insect pests, exposure to pesticides, long-term monitoring of populations, and the potential consequences of expanding populations. These issues have broad implications for other ...
Rabies is among the most important zoonoses for human and animal health in Latin America. The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is the principle reservoir, and the main prevention methods are culling of bats and vaccination of humans and livestock. In Peru, recent geographic expansion of vampire bat rabies (VBR) has raised public health concerns, but the true incidence of VBR and the rate of under-reporting of cases is unknown.. In the new work, Julio Benavides, of the University of Glasgow, Scotland, and colleagues focused on a region in the southern Peruvian Andes where VBR remains poorly controlled. They studied questionnaires on livestock health and VBR knowledge completed by farmers in 40 communities, as well as passive national surveillance data on 11 years of VBR outbreaks.. Their models calculated that there are 4.6 VBR cases per reported case, leading to between 505 and 724 cattle deaths in 2014 in the study area and costing US$121,797- US$171,992. Together, animal mortality costs ...
We report the first confirmed fossil bats from North Dakota, including a new species referable to the Vespertilionidae represented by a maxilla with P4-M3 from the Brule Formation, Fitterer Ranch local fauna, early Oligocene, Whitneyan North American Land Mammal Age. Unassociated postcranial fragments of the humerus and femur also represent a vespertilionoid, but appear to reflect a different, unidentified species. The new taxon, Quinetia frigidaria sp. nov., is referred to the genus Quinetia, previously known only from approximately contemporaneous deposits in Europe. The new species is larger than Quinetia misonnei from the early Oligocene of Belgium. It is similar in some morphological characters to Chadronycteris rabenae (Chiroptera incertae sedis) of the late Eocene (Chadronian) of northwestern Nebraska and to Stehlinia species (?Palaeochiropterygidae) from the Eocene and Oligocene of Europe, but differs from each in morphological details of the dentition and maxilla. An unassociated ...
Bats Classification, random amplified polymorphic, DNA, bats, cynopterus, genetic variation, diagnostic marker, unimas, university, universiti, Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Kuching, Samarahan, ipta, education, undergraduate, research, Universiti Malaysia ...
Bat control is of the many pest control services we provide the commercial and residential customers of Greater Cleveland, Northeast, and Northwest areas of Ohio areas. Bats in Ohio are mammals highly capable of flight. The big brown bat is one of the most common species found in the area, with 14 species being found in our local area; big brown, little brown, Eastern red, hoary, tri-colored, Eastern small-footed, silver haired, Indiana, evening, Northern long-eared, grey myotis, Rafinesques big-eared, Townsends big-eared & Mexican free-tailed bats. While all of these species eat insects exclusively, they are unnerving to have around your home, cause property damage and pose a risk to your health if left checked.. ...
Background Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. Methodology and Principal Findings Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South
R. hipposideros are very agile, which allows them to quickly narrow the distance between them and their prey. While in flight, they are able to glean crane-flies, lacewings, moths and spiders from branches. Similarly to other Rhinolophidae, the Lesser Horseshoe bat is rather sedentary and the average distance between its roosts ranges from 5-50 km. Longer migrations have also been recorded ...
Aguiar, L.M.S.; Camargo, W.R.; Portella, A.S. 2006. Ocurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera), in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 23: 893-896.. Avilla, L.S.; Rozensztranch, A.M.S.; Abrantes, E.A.L. 2001. First record of the South American Flat-Headed Bat Neoplatymops mattogrossensis (Vieira, 1942) in southeastern Brazil (Chiroptera, Molossidae). Boletim do Museu Nacional, 463: 1-6.. Bergallo, H.J.; Martins-Hatano, F.; Raíces, D.S.L.; Ribeiro, T.T.L.; Alves, A.G.; Luz, J. L.; Mangolin, R.; Mello, M.A.R. 2004. Os mamíferos da Restinga de Jurubatiba. In: Rocha, C.F.D.; Esteves, F.A.; Scarano, F.R. (Eds). Pesquisas de longa duração na Restinga de Jurubatiba - Ecologia, história natural e conservação. Rima Editora, São Carlos, São Paulo, p.215-230.. Bernard, E. 2001. Vertical stratification of bat communities in primary forests of Central Amazon, Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17: 115-126.. Carvalho, W.D.; ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Moeller on how do i get rid of these little brown dots i have on my arms and cheeks: To figure out the best treatment of the little brown dots on your arms and cheeks, it will be important to find out what the cause is. Freckles? Sun damage? Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation? Your skin type is important as well. You may want to start with having your primary doctor have a look at the areas and recommend treatment. A dermatologist or cosmetic surgeon can be helpful.
Jerome Beetz, Goethe University Frankfurt. Currently, I am a graduate student in the lab of Prof. Dr. Manfred Kössl. My main focus during the PhD is to investigate the echolocation behavior of the frugivorous bat Carollia perspicillata and to find out how natural echolocation sequences are processed in different brain regions. Recording the behavioral output of the animals during echolocation allows us to use natural and behaviorally relevant echolocation signals as acoustic stimuli during our electrophysiological recordings. Personally, the neuroethological investigation of orientation and navigation with multidisciplinary approaches fascinates me. Especially, the high diversity of different orientation behaviors in different animal species makes the research field highly attractive and exciting.. ...
The results of this study raise three important questions: (i) why are all bat genome sizes small relative to other mammals, (ii) why are megabat genome sizes smaller than those of microbats, and (iii) why do species of megabats differ (albeit modestly) in genome size from one another as they do?. An answer to the first question is coming into clearer focus, thanks to recent studies of all three groups of vertebrates that independently evolved powered flight. Overall, the patterns now documented in pterosaurs, birds and both major bat groups support the notion that some factor(s)-most probably including high metabolic rate-has imposed a limit on genome size in each lineage (Organ & Shedlock 2008; Andrews et al. 2009). It has recently been hypothesized that genome sizes began shrinking prior to the evolution of flight in all three groups (Organ & Shedlock 2008), which seems plausible. However, this may be difficult to test in bats (cf. dinosaurs/birds and pterosaurs; Organ et al. 2007; Organ & ...
Several instances of emerging diseases in humans appear to be caused by the spillover of viruses endemic to bats, either directly or through other animal intermediaries. The objective of this study was to detect, identify and characterize viruses in bats in the province of Manitoba and other regions of Canada. Bats were sampled from three sources: live-trapped Myotis lucifugus from Manitoba, rabies-negative Eptesicus fuscus, M. lucifugus, M. yumanensis, M. septentrionalis, M. californicus, M. evotis, Lasionycteris (L.) noctivagans and Lasiurus (Las.) cinereus, provided by the Centre of Expertise for Rabies of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and L. noctivagans, Las. cinereus and Las. borealis collected from a wind farm in Manitoba. We attempted to isolate viruses from fresh tissue samples taken from trapped bats in cultured cells of bat, primate, rodent, porcine, ovine and avian origin. We also screened bat tissues by PCR using primers designed to amplify nucleic acids from members of certain
The noctuid moths Agrotis segetum and Noctua pronuba show peak auditory sensitivity between 15 and 25 kHz, and a maximum sensitivity of 35 dB SPL. A. segetum shows a temporal integration time of 69 ms. It is predicted that bats using high-frequency and short-duration calls will be acoustically less apparent to these moths. Short-duration frequency-modulated (FM) calls of Plecotus auritus are not significantly less acoustically apparent than those of other FM bats with slightly longer call durations, based on their combined frequency and temporal structure alone. Long-duration, high-frequency, constant-frequency (CF) calls of Rhinolophus hipposideros at 113 kHz are significantly less apparent than those of the FM bats tested. The predicted low call apparency of the 83 kHz CF calls of R. ferrumequinum appears to be counteracted by their long duration. It is proposed that two separate mechanisms are exploited by bats to reduce their call apparency, low intensity in FM bats and high frequency in CF ...
Cape horseshoe bats are mainly nocturnal, coming out of underground caves in the evening to feed and returning to roost before sunrise. They have been known to migrate short distances to hibernation caves (hibernacula). Population densities of R. capensis were highest during winter hibernation. Cape horseshoe bats have been documented migrating up to 10 km to hibernacula (6.2 mi). (Grzimeks Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2005; McDonald, et al., 1990; Taylor, 1999). Cape horseshoe bats are gregarious, colonial roosters, with numbers in the thousands at certain roost sites. They roost singly and in small or large, loose groups of individuals, sometimes they roost in clusters. They tend to roost in cavities in the ceiling or against walls where they can hang freely. They enfold their bodies with their wings to expose the most naked skin. This is thought to allow their body temperatures to drop low enough to induce torpor. (McDonald, et al., 1990). Cape horseshoe bats are gregarious which means they ...
Define Fruit Bats. Fruit Bats synonyms, Fruit Bats pronunciation, Fruit Bats translation, English dictionary definition of Fruit Bats. n. Any of various fruit-eating bats of the suborder Megachiroptera, inhabiting tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Brown bat, any of the bats belonging to the genera Myotis (little brown bats) or Eptesicus (big brown bats). Both are vesper bats, and both are widely distributed, being found in almost all parts of the world. Both genera are insectivorous. The genus Myotis includes more than 80 species, among them
The question begs: what can we do more to prevent this spread? Obviously we can stop visiting caves. But are there steps we can take before we reach that conclusion? What do you think?. From the article:. On 11 March 2016, a moribund little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) was found in King County, WA (United States), and submitted to a local wildlife rehabilitation center. The animal presented with dried and contracted areas of crusted skin on the wings and died 2 days later. Swab samples of the wings were positive for P. destructans by real-time PCR (8), and the bat was confirmed to have WNS in accordance with defined histopathologic criteria (9). An isolate of P. destructanswas obtained by culturing a portion of wing skin on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol and gentamicin at 13°C.. In eastern North America, P. destructans appears to be spreading clonally, with all isolates exhibiting no genetic diversity at the markers examined (10). However, isolates of the fungus from Europe ...
Patterson, B. D. and C. W. Dick, and K. Dittmar. 2008. Parasitism by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) on Neotropical bats: effects of host body size, distribution and abundance. Parasitology Research 103: 1091-1100.. Dick, C. W., and B. D. Patterson. 2008. An excess of males: skewed sex ratios in bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae). Evolutionary Ecology 22: 757-769.. Patterson, B. D. and C. W. Dick, and K. Dittmar. 2008. Sex biases in parasitism of neotropical bats by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae). Journal of Tropical Ecology 24: 387-396.. Graciolli, G., and C. W. Dick. 2009. A new species of Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from Honduras, parasite of Bauerus dubiaquercus (Van Gelder) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Antrozoinae). Zootaxa 1972: 59-64.. Patterson, B. D., C. W. Dick, and K. Dittmar. 2009. Nested distributions of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) on Neotropical bats: artifact and specificity in host-parasite studies. Ecography 32: 481-487.. Dittmar, K., C. W. Dick, B. D. ...
A little brown bat can consume between 600 to 1,000 mosquitoes in a single hour. A nursing little brown bat mother may consume as many as 4,500 mosquitoes in a single evening, more than her own body...
We were able to successfully simulate the foraging process of the greater horseshoe bat in the lab. This gave us full control over every prey arrival and the sensory information of prey type available to the bats, a prerequisite to test their active prey-selection ability. Their initial spontaneous attacks on the rotating propellers showed that the propeller echoes convincingly simulated those from fluttering insects. Despite the fact that each prey item was present for a very limited amount of time, bats decided whether to attack or not very promptly, which is necessary for successful perch-hunting. Although it was previously suggested that most echolocating bat species may not have enough time to make prey discriminations before the attack [9], the horseshoe bats high discrimination speed did enable them to make prey-selection decisions in time. Based on our results and previous study on the ability of these bats to discriminate echoes of natural prey [17], we predict that horseshoe bats are ...
Modifications are described which make T-1824 suitable for plasma volume determinations on small bats. An average plasma volume of 6.5 ml/100 gm body weight has been determined for the active little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; average blood volume, based on plasma volume and hematocrit, is 13.0 ml/100 gm body weight. Seasonal changes have been observed which apparently result primarily from changes in lean body weight and from pregnancy. Young bats have a proportionately greater blood volume. No significant differences have been found between sexes, nor between determinations made during day and night hours. Plasma and blood levels are changing least at the beginning and end of the hibernating period. Comparisons of previous studies suggest that, while a plasma decrease and unchanged cell volume seem generally characteristic of mammals which have entered hibernation, a concurrent drop in heart blood hematocrit of the hibernating bat suggests a redistribution of erythrocytes as well.. ...
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Bats are often renowned for forming huge colonies. In his book, Bats, Phil Richardson gives the record for most bats in a single roost as being held by the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) with an estimated 50 million individuals during the 1960s. Although the numbers of this bat have declined significantly over the last few decades, roosts can still be found in the U.S. containing some 5 million bats. Roosting in such large numbers probably provides some protection from predators and the all-important social interaction that mammals and many other species seem to appreciate. Bats also tend to opt for roosts in some of the most inaccessible places - the reason for this is probably a reflection of how bat hands have evolved into wings. Wings provide little defence against predators and, although bats have sharp claws, these cannot be used for kicking or scratching while the bat is resting, so they choose roosts that are as difficult as possible for predators to access. This ...
Overall, IgG antibodies to ZEBOV and MARV were found in 4% and 1% of bats, respectively. ZEBOV-specific antibodies were found in six bat species (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, Myonycteris torquata, Micropteropus pusillus, Mops condylurus and Rousettus aegyptiacus), while MARV-specific antibodies were only found in Rousettus aegyptiacus and Hypsignathus monstrosus. The prevalence of MARV-specific IgG was significantly higher in R. aegyptiacus members captured inside caves than elsewhere. No significant difference in prevalence was found according to age or gender. A higher prevalence of ZEBOV-specific IgG was found in pregnant females than in non pregnant females ...
Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823) and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818) from Central Amazon (North Brazil) and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil. In addition, Ag-NOR staining and FISH with 18S rDNA, telomeric, and LINE-1 probes were performed to assess the potential role that these different repetitive markers had in shaping the current architecture of heterochromatic regions. Both species presented interindividual variation of constitutive heterochromatin. In addition, in A. planirostris the centromeres of most chromosomes are enriched
Social learning describes the acquisition of knowledge from other animals. Horizontal social learning (from adult to adult) influences the foraging behavior of several animalivorous and frugivorous bat species, but there is little knowledge whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) can acquire foraging related information from conspecifics as well. Moreover, for bats in general, there is almost nothing known about the presumably important processes of vertical social learning from parents to offspring.. Nectarivorous Pallas Long-tongued Bats (Glossophaga soricina) are well suited to study mechanisms of social learning. Adult individuals visit an enormous number of flowers each night and have to make just as many foraging decisions in which they might incorporate socially gained information (i.e. when, where, what and how to feed). In addition, juvenile bats should have ample opportunities to socially learn about food during ontogeny, e.g. via maternally ...