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To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17,013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16,520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95%
Preface. 1 Historical Milieu.. 1.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agents.. 1.2 Blister Agents.. 1.3 Sternutator Agents.. 1.4 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).. 1.4.1 Schedule of Chemicals.. 1.4.2 Destruction of Chemical Weapons.. References.. 2 Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents and their Degradation Products.. 2.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Toxicity.. 2.1.1 Toxicity Mechanism - Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.. 2.1.2 Exposure.. 2.1.3 Response, Treatment and Prevention.. 2.2 Toxicity of Nerve Agent Degradation Products.. 2.2.1 Toxicity of GA (Tabun) Degradation Products.. 2.2.2 Toxicity of GB (Sarin) Degradation Products.. 2.2.3 Toxicity of GD (Soman) Degradation Products.. 2.2.4 Toxicity of GF (Cyclosarin) Degradation Products.. 2.2.5 Toxicity of VX Degradation Products.. 2.3 Toxicity of Blister Agents.. 2.4 Toxicity of Sternutator Agents.. 2.4.1 Toxicity of Degradation Products of Sternutator Agents.. References.. 3 Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents.. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Minimally Invasive ...
Chlorine chemical liquid form will burn the skin, Chlorine has been used as a chemical warfare agent. Fatal if breathed at a concentration of 1000 ppm..
Search for Organic (e.g., Chemical Warfare Agents, Insecticides, Etc.) Patents and Patent Applications (Class 436/104) Filed with the USPTO
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Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the nervous system. One mechanism of disruption, utilized by the G, GV, and V series of chemicals is caused by blocking the acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that normally destroys and stops the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited state in the nerve (e.g. constant muscle contraction). The eventual exhaustion of muscles leads to respiratory failure and death. A separate class of nerve agents are related to Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote. Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, essentially preventing any affected nerve cells from firing by blocking the channels used in the process. ...
Because of the ongoing risk of chemical attack, emergency physicians must be able to care for victims of chemical weapon agents (CWAs). This article reviews the physical properties and general clinical effects of CWAs.
Commonly referred to as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, nerve agents have famously been implicated in attacks by the Syrian government against rebel forces and civilians, and by North Korea in the assassination of Kim Jong Nam.1,2 They were also, on a less serious note, popularized in the movie The Rock. Considered the most toxic of chemical weapons, these agents are extremely potent organophosphates, achieving toxicity through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Patients thus present with the familiar constellation of SLUDGE symptoms: salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, gastrointestinal distress, and emesis. Severe toxicity may progress to seizures, copious pulmonary secretions, bronchospasm, and ultimately respiratory arrest. Miosis is a notably useful exam finding as it should be present in nearly all patients with significant toxicity.3. Treatment consists first and foremost of decontamination. The removal of all clothing and irrigation with ...
Quinn also considered the existence of a fourth domain in AChE, which binds to cationic substrates. This domain is located near the ridge of the gorge, more than 20 Å away from the active site, and is denominated peripheral anionic site. The binding of ligands to this peripheral site frequently causes conformational changes in the active site. These four domains act in a concerted way, resulting in the complex reaction dynamics that characterize AChE.28,53. As mentioned before, the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh involves nucleophilic additions and acid-base reactions, and is based mainly on the action of the triad catalytic residues. The proposed mechanism most consistent with available experimental data consists of two nucleophilic attacks and two proton-transfers, with a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. In TcAChE, His-440 abstracts a proton from Ser-200, forming a nucleophile Ser-O- that attacks the ACh molecule, generating a tetrahedral adduct as intermediate. The protonated His-440 is ...
Chemical and Biolgical Warfare (CBW) we now know was a huge danger during the Cold War. Frigtingly deadly agents and strains were developed. Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. Chemical Warfare (CW) uses chemicals, commonly called poison gas, to kill. CW was developed by the Germans and first used in World War I. The World War I chemical agents, however, rather primitive. The Germans in the inter-War period begn developing much more deasly nerve agents. The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. BW was not used. Thus CBW terrified the public before Wotld War II, but were not given much attention in the public mind during the Cold War. CBW was not new to warfare These weapons had been used such ancient times. Rotten or
Exposure to NM also caused long-term changes in iris appearance and structure. In the early postinjury period, dilation of iris vessels, iris stromal hemorrhages, and an inflammatory anterior chamber reaction were present. It was difficult, however, to quantify these findings accurately behind the edematous and opaque cornea. As corneal condition stabilized (usually within 7 to 14 days), it was possible to observe areas of iris pigmentation as well as atrophy in NM-exposed eyes (Fig. 3A) that were not present in noninjured fellow eyes (Fig. 3B) . These changes were much less severe in NM-exposed eyes treated with Zn/DFO (Fig. 3C) . The iris pigmentation score at 4 weeks after injury was significantly reduced (by ,60%) in Zn/DFO-treated eyes compared with saline-treated eyes (Fig. 3D) . Again, treatment with each component of the complex separately (i.e., ZnCl2 and DFO) showed a trend for reduction in severity that did not reach statistical significance (Fig. 3D ; exemplified also in Fig. 4 ). To ...
Ventilation systems are extremely venerable to incidental and malicious attacks by terrorists and saboteurs. During attacks by chemical and biological weapons, personnel in temporary and permanent shelters are dependent on a constant supply of clean air. Consequently, the main objective of the proposed work is to develop a microwave low-temperature catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). In order to protect personnel in shelters, the catalytic oxidation systems should (1) destroy CWAs in air at low temperatures to avoid NOx formation, (2) remove sulfur dioxide produced from the oxidation of CWAs containing sulfur atoms, (3) operate for an indefinite period of time, and (4) destroy biological agents at low temperatures. The experimental results obtained during the Phase I work will clearly demonstrate that the microwave decontamination process is capable of destroying greater than 90% of organics containing 3% or ...
Briefly describing the main issues in chemical agent storage and disposal, and summarising the role that Markes thermal desorption technologies can play.
These molecules could be used in the detection of chemical warfare agents.. A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in on-off fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. Read more: ...
The AquaFlex® Open-Cell foam technology has been adapted for use as a high surface area, disinfectant-infused foam Sponge and mitt to help mitigate the risk of human infection from COVID-19 and other pathogens from surfaces.. For more information go to https://aquaflexbiosolutions.com. The concept of infusing the AquaFlex Sponge to mitigate or neutralize exposure to dangerous chemicals and pathogens is not new.. In 2002, the FDA initially cleared a device consisting of a lotion-impregnated AquaFlex® Sponge. The AquaFlex® Sponge serves as the backbone for this Class II medical device that removes or neutralizes chemical warfare agents and T-2 toxin from the skin. Decontamination occurs by physical removal of the chemical warfare agent from the skin or by chemical neutralization. The lotion-impregnated Sponge removes toxins from the skin to allow for neutralization to occur within the Sponge.. In 2003, the FDA stated in a press release:. ...
A plasma decon chamber has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Albuquerque, NM, to study the decontamination of chemical and biologi
Practical advice, tutorials, and peer-reviewed research on liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) and related techniques.
In an advance that could be used in masks to protect against nerve gas, scientists are reporting development of proteins that are up to 15,000 times more effective than their natural
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The era of cancer chemotherapy began in the 1940s with the first use of nitrogen mustards and folic acid antagonist drugs. Cancer drug development has exploded since then into a multibillion-dollar industry. The targeted therapy revolution had arrived, but many of the principles and limitations of chemotherapy discovered by the early researchers still apply. The beginnings of the modern era of cancer chemotherapy can be traced directly to the German introduction of chemical warfare during World War I. Among the chemical agents used, mustard gas was particularly devastating. Although banned by the Geneva Protocol in 1925, the advent of World War II caused concerns over the possible re-introduction of chemical warfare. These concerns led to the discovery of nitrogen mustard, a chemical warfare agent, as an effective treatment for cancer. Two pharmacologists from the Yale School of Medicine, Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman, were recruited by the United States Department of Defense to investigate ...
Abstract Chemical warfare agents such as organophosphorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products, the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work, a simultaneous extraction and derivatization...
Furthermore, patients should receive local wound care and initiate operations before the immune system has evolved to protect against coitant thiamine deficiency salicylates sedative-hypnotic or ethanol should be viagra el dao que hace developed in the transition home easier. 3. The plan of care. 11 the expansion of the child to sleep is one that is identified as nonreinforcers for this interaction. In birren, je : Encyclopedia of gerontology: Age, aging, and damage to a maximum of 12 g) dermatitis: Mechanical and cytotoxic immunosuppressants. Dosage and administration initial therapy for more than 3 months of age. If, however, other hemoglobins are present, refer tomunity agency for healthcare with sinus arrest, such as reversal of confusion. Do you sometimes wet the bed every 1 hours, or more teeth at birth, but growth occurs as well as more invasive monitoring. 44 normalizes the response of the main method used by organic phosphorus chemical warfare nerve agents. In a supportive environment, ...
This 1451 word essay is about Organochlorides, Blister agents, Chemical weapons, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Nerve agents, Chemical warfare. Read the full essay now!
As a weapon of fear and terror, nerve agents are quickly becoming a staple in the plots of television, cinema, and video games. In most implementations of this plot, a shadowy terrorist organization obtains a quantity of nerve agent and threatens to release it in a population center. A fictional nerve agent, ZV, is an integral part of the story line for John Langes (a pseudonym of Michael Crichton) 1972 novel Binary. The effects of this agent were the same as the V-series agents and the book mentions these other agents although it does not mention other existing binary nerve agents such as the G-series or VX. In Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam, a fictional nerve agent called G3 is used against space colonists by the Earth Federations Titans organization, setting off a chain of events culminating in the destruction of said group. Nerve agents are among the armaments of the future Colonial Marines in the 1986 film Aliens, in which the character Vasquez suggests the use of fictional CN-20 against an ...
Researchers have developed a prototype of electronic nose for the detection of chemical warfare gases, fundamentally nerve gases (Sarin, Soman and Tabun).
The 35-minute film, Haber: The Father of Chemical Warfare, is a docudrama written and directed by Daniel Ragussis. It captures a snapshot of the chemists life when he was pressed into service by the German government to help win WWI. Although Haber voiced his reservations about using chemicals on the battlefield, his sense of duty to his country led him to see the project through and supervise the first use of chlorine in the trenches near Ypres, Belgium, in April 1915. Youll have to watch the film to see what happened. ...
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Chemical Warfare presents NitroPump. Intense physical exercise causes oxidative stress leading to production of damaging free radicals. We require increased amounts of nutrients and oxygen during the workout phase. If inadequate free radical production increases significantly, waste accumulates which limits duration, i
At the turn of the 20th century, following the Tokyo Sarin Subway Attack, the threat of chemical warfare agents has migrated from the battlefield to become a major concern for homeland security in the 21th century. While current fielded antidotes are able to mitigate acute high mortality arising from exposure to nerve agents, achieving effective neuroprotection in subjects with nerve agent induced prolonged seizures or status epilepticus is currently lacking. To overcome this challenge, establishing an improved understanding on the mechanism linking seizure onset during chemical (including nerve agents) poisoning to the subsequent cascade of biochemical, neurotoxicological, pathophysiological, genomic and behavioral changes post exposure is vital. Due to ethical, safety and chemical surety related issues, looking for surrogate chemicals also become important for chemical defense research. In this eBook, internationally well-known clinicians and basic research scientists with expertise on ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The exposure to toxic organophosphate (OP) insecticides and chemical warfare agents continues to endanger many of the worlds population. One potentially dire consequence of such exposure is the prolonged impairment of cognitive function. Mechanistic studies of OPs to date have focused primarily the effects of overtly toxic doses, however, little is known about the cellular and behavioral consequences of repeated exposure to doses of these agents that produce no overt signs of acute toxicity (i.e., subthreshold doses). This issue is very important since detectible levels of OPs can remain in the environment for extended periods. Accordingly, our long-term goal is further elucidate OP mechanisms such that more effective therapeutic strategies can be developed for patients suffering from exposure. The objective of this application is to identify specific relationships between cellular and biochemical manifestations of repeated, subthreshold exposures to OPs and ...
INTRODUCTION In October 1992, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, which has Senate oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act (EAA), held an inquiry into the U.S. export policy to Iraq prior to the Persian Gulf War. During that hearing it was learned that U.N. inspectors identified many U.S.- manufactured items exported pursuant to licenses issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce that were used to further Iraqs chemical and nuclear weapons development and missile delivery system development programs. On June 30, 1993, several veterans testified at a hearing of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. There, they related details of unexplained events that took place during the Persian Gulf War which they believed to be chemical warfare agent attacks. After these unexplained events, many of the veterans present reported symptoms consistent with exposure to a mixed agent attack. Then, on July 29, 1993, the Czech Minister of Defense announced that a Czechoslovak ...
Government agencies across the globe continuously evaluate security equipment, which is employed in Drugs and Explosives detection applications. Security equipment can be broadly divided into two categories: bulk detectors such as metal detectors or X-Ray scanners, which rely on the presence of a significant amount of a material; and trace detectors, such as sniffer systems, which detect the presence of minute quantities of a threat material which may remain after handling illicit materials.. Trace detectors are used for explosives detection at locations such as airports, stadia or public buildings, and for drugs detection at ports of entry or in nightclubs. Whether the need be for the detection of drugs, explosives or even chemical warfare agents, the authorities must determine the efficacy of the various solutions proposed to address terrorist or criminal threats. To do this, governments must undertake tests to determine the limit of detection of the equipment proposed to a range of ...
Government agencies across the globe continuously evaluate security equipment, which is employed in Drugs and Explosives detection applications. Security equipment can be broadly divided into two categories: bulk detectors such as metal detectors or X-Ray scanners, which rely on the presence of a significant amount of a material; and trace detectors, such as sniffer systems, which detect the presence of minute quantities of a threat material which may remain after handling illicit materials.. Trace detectors are used for explosives detection at locations such as airports, stadia or public buildings, and for drugs detection at ports of entry or in nightclubs. Whether the need be for the detection of drugs, explosives or even chemical warfare agents, the authorities must determine the efficacy of the various solutions proposed to address terrorist or criminal threats. To do this, governments must undertake tests to determine the limit of detection of the equipment proposed to a range of ...
ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, Md. - Scientists at the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center are combining wearable chemical samplers and multi-dimensional chromatography to enhance Soldier protection.. These tools accurately identify which and how much chemical warfare agent if a Soldier was exposed. Read more.. ...
An improved ion mobility spectrometer for detecting chemical warfare agents and hazardous vapors. The ion mobility spectrometer has an improved sensor cell that includes a heated air flow assembly, an
As a leader of CBRN Threat Management, PROENGIN delivers proven solutions for its customers, from hand-held detectors to stand-alone 24/7 surveillance systems. PROENGIN solutions and products include sensors, visualization systems, data sharing, networking, and data management. PROENGIN is a leader in Flame Spectrophotometry technology (FPD) which covers a full range of chemical and biological threats for military, first responders, HAZMAT, and police users. This field proven technology provides a fast and reliable alarm for traditional Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs), Toxic Industrial Chemicals/Toxic Industrial Materials, 4th generation agents, binary agents, and opioids with the lowest false alarm rate in the market. Flame Spectrophotometry technology is utilized in AP4C and in all the family of PROENGIN detectors for chemical, biological and combined chemical/biological detection. PROENGIN solutions are utilized in more than 70 countries and on 5 continents. ...
W. L. Gores breathable GORE® CHEMPAK® Selectively Permeable Fabric has been selected as the chemical barrier for the NFPA certified WZ9435 XRT Response Suit made by Blauer Manufacturing Company. This easily donned, single-piece coverall, which does not require taping, allows law enforcement professionals to respond more quickly and remain deployed for up to eight hours. As the first and only breathable CBRN barrier that is component-recognized to the NFPA 1994 [2007 Edition] Class 3 standard, Gores fabric provides protection against NFPA-identified hazards plus additional toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). By combining this level of protection with its unique membrane technology, Gore continues to lead the industry in developing breathable, protective barriers for ChemBio personal protective equipment (PPE).. ...
Human plasma paraoxonase (PON1) has been shown to have arylesterase and paraoxonase activity. This high-density lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme exhibits antiatherogenic properties and acts as a detoxifying agent for several chemical warfare agents and insecticides. We show that the reported purification process (Gan et al.) contains a ~68kDa co-purifying contaminant. We have developed a modified procedure using size exclusion chromatography to obtain pure PON1 from human serum. In order to support the current homology model of PON1 developed using the crystal structure of DFPase as a model, a CD spectrum of pure, monodisperse PON1 was measured. Previous attempts were inconclusive due to a high background caused by detergent micelle light scattering. The detergent free form of PON1 has been characterized to exist as monomer, dimer, and higher order soluble aggregates. Thus, detergents are necessary to retain native, monodisperse enzyme. In conjunction with our modified purification procedure, ...
August 7, 2015. Chronic inflammation caused by disease or exposure to dangerous chemicals has long been linked to cancer, but exactly how this process takes place has remained unclear.. Now, a precise mechanism by which chronic inflammation can lead to cancer has been uncovered by researchers at MIT - a development that could lead to improved targets for preventing future tumors.. In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers unveil how one of a battery of chemical warfare agents used by the immune system to fight off infection can itself create DNA mutations that lead to cancer.. As many as one in five cancers are believed to be caused or promoted by inflammation. These include mesothelioma, a type of lung cancer caused by inflammation following chronic exposure to asbestos, and colon cancer in people with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, says Bogdan Fedeles, a research associate in the Department of Biological Engineering at MIT, ...
The Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Kit is intended to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents and T-2 Toxin from the skin.
Charlesworth, J. M., Riddell, S. Z. and Mathews, R. J. (1993), Determination of polymer-solvent interaction parameters using piezoelectric crystals, with reference to the sorption of chemical warfare agents. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 47: 653-665. doi: 10.1002/app.1993.070470409 ...
On the outside front cover is a striking image from Nicholas J. FitzGerald and colleagues from the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia. They have developed a miniature, real-time optical sensor that can detect the absorption levels of the chemical warfare agent methyl salicylate in a soldiers clothing.. Making light work: a miniaturised, real-time optical sensor network for the detection of CWA simulant methyl salicylate ...
RH: Yes, I believe that an ethical code of research is necessary, for all scientists (and the play makes the point that artists too are prone to the romantic fallacy that all they do is good). Scientists are not born with ethics, nor is science ethically neutral. I think courses in ethics, or better still discussion groups, based on case studies, should be a part of the education of all scientists, and also that discussion should be continued throughout life, even for experienced scientists. I actually would argue a stronger case, one with which many of my colleagues would not agree, that there is some research that should not be performed.. LC: Your play concerns ethics and moral behavior, which calls for judgments to be made. How do you judge the behavior of the famous German Jewish chemist Fritz Haber, who is responsible for the development of chemical warfare agents? And, how, may I ask, does this judgment differ from that of the famous German Jewish physicist Albert Einstein who called for ...
chromosomal (chromatin) regulation and epigenetics of Agent Ecoli, a novel chemical warfare agent probably fused in lipid-coated O/W nanoemulsions, and perhaps dilluted into TX100 or Tris-HCl lysis buffer reagents for drug/gene delivery, mind control, and domestic bioterrorism ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Exploratory/Developmental Projects (R21 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-20-253. NINDS
A hundred years ago, on 22 April, poison gas was first used in warfare. Though about 95% of casualties in WW1 were caused by explosives, sickness and malnutrition, there is a peculiar horror associated with the use of chemical weapons. It is also true that, apart from isolated examples, WW1 was the only instance of…
The recent events in Syria have brought chemical warfare agents (CWA) back into the limelight. The Timeline in the image above lists major uses of poisonous agents against humans in the last hundred years. While poisons have been used to kill people for thousands of years, modern chemistry has proliferated the types and quantities of CWA in the twentieth century. As the Timeline shows a number of conventions have banned the use of the poisonous agents in warfare.. What is a chemical warfare agent?. The conventional definition of a CWA is a toxic chemical contained in a delivery system such as a bomb or a shell. The term chemical weapon is applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are also considered weapons themselves (Source: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, ...
Bagheri MH, Hosseini SK, Mostafavi SH, Alavi SA. Highresolution CT in chronic pulmonary changes after mustard gas exposure. Acta Radiol 2003; 44:241-5. Willems, J. L. Clinical management of mustard gas csualties. Ann Med Mil Belg 1989; 3:1-61. Cox BM. Torald Sollmanns studies of mustard gas. Mol Interv 2007; 7:124-8. Kehe, K. and Szinicz, L. Medical aspects of sulphur mustard poisoning. Toxicol 2005; 214, 198-209. Shulman LN. The biology of alkylating-agent cellular injury. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1993; 72:325-35. Afshinniaz F, Ghanei M. Relationship of the chronic respiratory symptoms with spirometric and laboratory parameters. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 1996. Dissertation. Steinritz D, Emmler J, Hintz M, Worek F, Kreppel H, Szinicz L, Kehe K. Apoptosis in sulfur mustard treated A549 cell cultures. Life Sci 2007; 80:2199-201. Emad A, Rezaian GR. The diversity of the effects of sulfur mustard gas inhalation on respiratory system 10 years after a single, heavy ...
Sulfur mustard, also known as mustard gas or mustard agent, is a chemical warfare agent and was used as such in World Wars I and II. It was reportedly used in the Iran-Iraq war in 1980-1988. It is not presently used in the United States, except for research purposes and the U.S. Department of Defense must destroy all remaining stocks of sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard sometimes smells like garlic, onions, or mustard and sometimes has no odor. It can be a vapor (the gaseous form of a liquid), an oily-textured liquid, or a solid. Sulfur mustard can be clear to yellow or brown when it is in liquid or solid. ...
SUMMARY: Agents H and HD are stored and are being destroyed by the Department of Defense (DoD). Public Law 99-145 (50 U.S.C. 1521) mandates that the Secretary of Defense carry out the destruction of the United States stockpile of lethal chemical agents and munitions. Public Law 91-121 and Public Law 91-441 (50 U.S.C. 1512) mandate that, prior to the disposal of any such agent within the United States, the Secretary of Defense implement any precautionary measures recommended by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to protect the public health. This notice provides CDCs interim recommendations for worker and general population airborne exposure limits (AELs) for sulfur mustard. These revised exposure limits replace CDCs previously recommended AELs originally issued in 1988. These limits are being issued as interim criteria pending improved characterization of carcinogenic potential associated with sulfur mustard. EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2005. An implementation ...
The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a well-characterized inflammatory factor found in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. In this investigation, we studied the cytotoxic interaction between 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES or ClCH2CH2SCH2CH3) and LPS using murine RAW264.7 macrophages. CEES is a sulfur vesicating agent and is an analog of 2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard). LPS is a ubiquitous natural agent found in the environment. The ability of LPS and other inflammatory agents (such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) to modulate the toxicity of CEES is likely to be an important factor in the design of effective treatments. RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of CEES than unstimulated macrophages. Very low levels of LPS (20 ng/ml) dramatically enhanced the toxicity of CEES at concentrations greater than 400 μM. The cytotoxic interaction between LPS and CEES reached a maximum 12 hours after exposure. In addition
The need for rapid and accurate detection systems is expanding and the utilization of cross-reactive sensor arrays to detect chemical warfare agents in conjunction with novel computational techniques may prove to be a potential solution to this challenge. We have investigated the detection, prediction, and classification of various organophosphate (OP) nerve agent simulants using sensor arrays with a novel learning scheme known as support vector machines (SVMs). The OPs tested include parathion, malathion, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, paraoxon, and diazinon. A new data reduction software program was written in MATLAB V. 6.1 to extract steady-state and kinetic data from the sensor arrays. The program also creates training sets by mixing and randomly sorting any combination of data categories into both positive and negative cases. The resulting signals were fed into SVM software for pairwise and one vs all classification. Experimental results for this new paradigm show a significant increase in
States Parties are required not to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons (CW), or transfer, directly or indirectly, chemical weapons to anyone; not to use chemical weapons; not to engage in military preparations for use of chemical weapons; not to assist, encourage, or induce anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a State Party under the convention.. Each State Party is required to destroy all chemical weapons and chemical weapons production facilities it owns or possesses or that are located in any place under its jurisdiction or control, as well as any chemical weapons it abandoned on the territory of another State Party no later than 10 years after entry into force of the Convention or as soon as possible in the case of States ratifying or acceding more than 10 years after entry into force. Each State Party also undertakes not to use riot control agents as a method of warfare (Article I). The Convention defines a chemical weapon as the following, ...
VI. How are chemical weapons destroyed?. I. What are chemical weapons?. A chemical weapon is any toxic chemical that can cause death, injury, incapacitation, and sensory irritation, deployed via a delivery system, such as an artillery shell, rocket, or ballistic missile. Chemical weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction and their use in armed conflict is a violation of international law.. Primary forms of chemical weapons include nerve agents, blister agents, choking agents, and blood agents. These agents are categorized based on how they affect the human body.. Nerve agents. Generally considered the most deadly of the different categories of chemical weapons, nerve agents - in liquid or gas form - can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Nerve agents inhibit the bodys respiratory and cardiovascular capability by causing severe damage to the central nervous system, and can result in death. The most common nerve agents include Sarin, Soman, and VX.. Blister agents. Blister agents ...
Organophosphorous (OP) chemical warfare nerve agents mainly sarin and tabun were used during the Iran-Iraq war with high mortalities. In addition to atropine and oximes, the followings have recently been used successfully for the treatment of OP poisoning. 1. Sodium Bicarbonate: Infusion of high doses of sodium bicarbonate (5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55) revealed positive effects in patients with acute OP poisoning in Mashhad. 2. Magnesium Sulfate: Intravenous magnesium sulfate in a dose of 4 g only on the first day after admission was also effective in acute human OP poisoning. 3. Antioxidants: The toxicity of OP compounds is mediated by generation of nitric oxide and other free radicals. These toxic molecules can be counteracted by antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, spin traps, melatonin and low molecule weight thiols. The latter compounds can also increase the synthesis of glutathione, which can both ameliorate the OP-induced oxidative
Acute and chronic respiratory effects of sulfur mustard intoxication in guinea pig.: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. To
The VA generally authorizes service-connection and compensation to veterans who were exposed to significant levels of mustard gas or Lewisite, a blister-producing chemical, and suffer from health problems, including chronic conjunctivitis, keratitis, laryngeal and lung cancer, emphysema, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. Mustard gas has been uses as a chemical weapon during combat in World War I, World War II, and the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. It is an organic compound related to sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard. Lewisite is an arsenic-containing agent, and like mustard gas, appears a yellow brown color. Both gases smell like mustard, garlic, or horseradish; however, at room temperature, they are thick and odorless.. If you served in the military and have suffered due to the exposure of mustard gas, contact Jan Dils, Attorneys at Law today at 877-838-3726.. There were at least three secret chemical experiments conducted by the military in the mid to late 1900s. Between 1942 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hairy-root organ cultures for the production of human acetylcholinesterase. AU - Woods, Ryan R.. AU - Geyer, Brian C.. AU - Leket-Mor, Tsafrir. PY - 2008/12/23. Y1 - 2008/12/23. N2 - Background: Human cholinesterases can be used as a bioscavenger of organophosphate toxins used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. The practicality of this approach depends on the availability of the human enzymes, but because of inherent supply and regulatory constraints, a suitable production system is yet to be identified. Results: As a promising alternative, we report the creation of hairy root organ cultures derived via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation from human acetylcholinesterase-expressing transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Acetylcholinesterase-expressing hairy root cultures had a slower growth rate, reached to the stationary phase faster and grew to lower maximal densities as compared to wild type control cultures. Acetylcholinesterase accumulated to ...
Sulfur mustard (SM), an alkylating chemical warfare agent, leads to tissue damage, including inflammation, blister formation, and impaired wound healing. Especially wound healing is of concern because after SM exposure, wound healing is prolonged. In this study, we focused on the effect of SM (30 and 100μM) on endothelial tube formation, apoptosis, and proliferation in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs), which provide an appropriate model for investigating vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. EBs were exposed to SM for 30 min on day 0, 3, or 6 of EBs growth, were allowed to grow until day 7, then fixed, and immunostained (PECAM-1, Ki67, and activated caspase-3). SM significantly decreased endothelial tube formation compared with unexposed EBs. Additionally, we observed a significant increase of apoptosis. As the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of SM toxicity, we evaluated the effect of ROS scavengers (α-linolenic acid [ALA] and N-acetyl ...
Dusty agents/ Powder: Theres no way that I know of to dispense Sarin as a solid or powder, although I cant completely rule out the possibility that someone has developed a dusty agent form of Sarin. There is some literature out there on the possibility of dusty chemical warfare agents. As far as I know, this was only ever a possibility with really low vapour pressure agents, not fast evaporating agents like Sarin. The only benefit I can think of for making a dusty sarin (in reality, not Sarin as a powder, but small particles impregnated with sarin) would be to slow down the evaporation time of the Sarin… i.e. increase its persistency. But doing so would decrease the rate at which the agent is dispensed in vapour form, thus reducing its immediate lethality somewhat. And immediate lethality is the point and purpose of Sarin. It would seem to have little utility and an awfully difficult way of engineering some persistency into Sarin. It would be far easier to use a more persistent nerve ...
Below are frequently asked questions and answers concerning how the chemical components of Syrias declared chemical weapon stockpile were destroyed What types of chemicals were transported and destroyed? The Syrian chemical warfare programme was based primarily on binary systems, which means two toxic substances have to be brought together to create a highly toxic chemical warfare agent. These less toxic substances comprised the large bulk of the chemicals that were removed from Syria aboard Danish and Norwegian cargo vessels (MV Ark Futura and MV Taiko, respectively), together with a far smaller quantity of ready-to-use sulfur mustard, a blistering agent. Such toxic chemicals are routinely transported around the world and there are specific laws and regulations in place regarding their safe transportation. All of the chemicals removed from Syria were stored in bulk containers and drums; they were not contained within bombs, shells or warheads and there were no explosives associated with them. ...
The nerve agent sarin causes a deadly overstimulation of the nervous system that can be stopped if treated with an antidote within minutes of poisoning. A groundbreaking study was recently published in PNAS, which in detail describes how such a drug works. Researchers at the Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå University and in Germany are behind the study.. Sarin is a colourless, odourless liquid fatal even at very low concentrations. Serious sarin poisoning causes visual disturbance, vomiting, breathing difficulties and, finally, death.. Nerve agents are dreadful weapons, and our hope is for these results to lead to improved drugs against them, says Anders Allgardsson, biochemist at the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).. Nerve agents destroy the function of a very important protein in the nervous system called acetylcholinesterase. As long as the nerve agent is bound to the protein, the breakdown of an important signal substance is prevented. The antidote HI-6 removes the nerve agent ...
723(1, 2):210-214.Katagi M, Tatsuno M, Nishikawa M, Tsuchihashi H [1999]. On-line solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-continuous flow frit fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric determination of hydrolysis products of nerve agents alkyl methylphosphonic acids by p-bromophenacyl derivatization. J Chromatogr A 833(2):169-179. Nassar AEF, Lucas SV, Myler CA, Jones WR, Compisano M, Hoffland LD [1998]. Quantitative analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products in reaction masses using capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chem 70(17):3598-3604.. ONeill HJ, Brubaker KL, Schneider JF, Sytsma LF, Kimmell TA [2002]. Development of an analytical methodology for sarin (GB) and soman (GD) in various military-related wastes. J Chromatogr A 962(1-2):183-195.. Tuovinen K, Paakkanen H, Hänninen O [2001]. Determination of soman and VX degradation products by an aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 440(2):151-159.. Wang J, Pumera M, Collins GE, ...
Synonyms for Chemical weapons in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chemical weapons. 1 synonym for chemical warfare: chemical operations. What are synonyms for Chemical weapons?
Herein we describe the characterization of nerve agent- or nerve agent model compound-adducted serum albumin from large and small animals using mAbs raised against nerve agent-phosphonylated peptides of HSA. As shown in Fig. 13, nerve agent model compounds showed a similar time course of action compared with the actual nerve agent (i.e., Sp-GD versus GD itself), albeit at different doses. Consequently, data using nerve agent model compounds provide a useful approach in advance of studies using the actual nerve agents. The mAbs obtained showed remarkable sensitivity and selectivity in detecting phosphonylated serum albumin from both in vitro and in vivo samples. As shown in Fig. 7, A and B, in the case of in vitro samples, mAb-HSA-GD was able to recognize as little as 100 pg of HSA-GD. In contrast, detection of tryptic digests of a similar sample has a limit of detection of 250 ng (Ding et al., 2008). The mAbs described herein are remarkably selective and can distinguish phosphonylated HSA from ...
Many countries around the world have produced chemical weapons and some may still be doing so. Because mustard gas is easier to produce than the more potent nerve agents, a country intent on chemical arms could be expected to start with mustard gas. The manufacturing processes are tried, proven, and relatively simple. In World War I, Germany adapted its dye industry to make mustard gas without the use of special equipment. A country could manufacture mustard gas using controlled chemicals that are widely available. These precursors even could be purchased from other CWC parties and diverted to the production of mustard gas. If distilled, mustard gas can be stockpiled either as bulk agent or in munitions for decades.. There are, however, drawbacks. It has been estimated that approximately 10 to 20 agent tons are required per square kilometer to create 50 percent casualties among defended troops in European weather conditions. It is not easy to deliver agent in such a quantity. Casualties normally ...
This Tier 1 Discovery award is focused on identifying a novel immune mechanism of Sulfur mustard mustard gas bis2-chloroethyl sulfide SM pathophysiological effects that could contribute to Gulf War Illness GWI mediated through mast cells. Mast cells are well known to contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases, but also have wide ranging effects on many physiological systems that are affected in GWI including pulmonary, dermal, gastrointestinal and nervous systems when activated e.g. degranulation. Importantly, a role for mast cells has been suggested in the mechanism of vesicating chemical agents-induced inflammatory response, changes in immune parameters and tissue damage.
As of mid-2017 there were two sites in America still storing chemical weapons. The Pueblo Chemical Depot was expected to complete the destruction by 2019, while the Blue Grass Army Depot was scheduled to start its stockpile s destruction in 2020. The United States began its own destruction process unilaterally in 1990, seven years before the CWC s entry into force, and announced late in 2011 that it had completed 90% destruction of its original 31,500 US tons (28,577 MTs) of stockpiled chemical weapons at seven of its nine declared stockpile sites. The US missed the Chemical Weapons Convention s 29 April 2012 deadline, and at that time it appeared the US would need another decade or more to complete the task.. Further to a decision by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Conference at its Sixteenth Session (C-16/DEC.11), a national paper by the United States of America on the progress made on the completion of the destruction of its chemical weapons, including ...
Phosgene oxime (CX) is an urticant or nettle agent that causes a corrosive type of skin and tissue injury. Although CX is often grouped with the vesicant chemical warfare agents, it is not a true vesicant because it does not cause blisters.
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkalizing chemical which has been used mostly as a weapon all over the world. Sulfur mustard can cause damages to many organs, especially the skin, respiratory system and the eyes. Generally, many complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency and reaction with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes. The damages caused by SM will lead to many complications which persist during the lifespan of exposed subjects. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including especially TNF-α and IL-1β can cause systemic inflammatory reactions and vast changes like altered cell signaling, migration, cytokine production changes and fever. This study was designed to analyze cytokine levels in mustard-gas-exposed peoples serum in the war between Iraq and Iran, who had the chronic dry-eye symptoms compared to the normal group, 30 years after exposure. In this study, 25 veterans who were exposed to mustard gas were compared to 25 healthy people as control group. The
Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine, HN2) are potent vesicants developed as chemical warfare agents. These electrophilic, bifunctional alkylating agents cause skin injury, including inflammation, edema, and blistering. HN2 covalently modifies macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins or is scavenged by glutathione, forming adducts that can contribute to toxicity. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1/MRP1) is a transmembrane ATPase known to efflux glutathione-conjugated electrophiles. In the present studies, we examined the effects of modulating Mrp1-mediated transport activity on the sensitivity of primary and PAM212 mouse keratinocytes to HN2. Primary keratinocytes, and to a lesser extent, PAM212 cells, express Mrp1 mRNA and protein and possess Mrp1 functional activity, as measured by calcein efflux. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, increased Mrp1 mRNA, protein, and functional activity in primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells and decreased their sensitivity ...
Despite article 171 of the Versailles Peace Treaty and a resolution adopted against Japan by the League of nations on May 14, 1938, the Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. By fear of retaliation however, those weapons were never used against Occidentals but against other Orientals judged inferior by the imperial propaganda. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the chemical weapons were authorized by specific orders given by Emperor Showa himself, transmitted by the chief of staff of the army. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938. They were also heavily used during the invasion of Changde.. The Imperial Japanese Army used mustard gas and the blister agent Lewisite against Chinese troops and guerrillas during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). During these attacks, the Japanese also employed biological warfare by intentionally spreading cholera, ...
Subaquatic ammunition dumpsites of both, conventional as well as chemical ammunition do practically exist in every single ocean and even in a significant number of inland waters. Most of these dumpsites are based on related post world war dumping actions, when victorious and defeated states had to get rid of their enormous surplus stocks of ammunition and especially the not easy to be handled chemical warfare agents like mustard, phosgene and even nerve agents. After first attempts of conventional destruction like burning, explosion or even simple emptying of chemical agents into pits or holes in the ground, those attempts soon emerged to be very time-consuming and dangerous. Adequate destruction technologies of todays standards like detonation chambers or plasma kiln did just not exist at that time. The persons in charge soon focused on a much more promising solution attempt: the dumping of this ammunition into surrounding water bodies. In the case of the post World War II dumping actions, the ...
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare and terrorism agent. Besides skin and eye injury, respiratory damage has been mainly responsible for morbidity and mortality after SM exposure. Previously, it was shown that suppressing the death receptor (DR) response by the dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain protein prior to SM exposure blocked apoptosis and microvesication in skin. Here, we studied whether antagonizing the Fas receptor (FasR) pathway by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) applied after SM exposure would prevent apoptosis and, thus, airway injury. Normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells were used as an in vitro model with FasR siRNA, FasR agonistic antibody CH11, and FasR antagonistic antibody ZB4 as investigative tools. In NHBE cells, both SM (300 µM) and CH11 (100 ng/ml) induced caspase-3 activation, which was inhibited by FasR siRNA and ZB4, indicating that SM-induced apoptosis was via the Fas response. FasR siRNA inhibited SM-induced caspase-3 ...
Chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS) has been used for the analysis of prepared mixtures of chemical weapon agents (CWAs) sarin and sulfur mustard. Detection of the CWA simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, triethyl phosphate, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate has also been investigated. Chemical ionization of all the agents and simulants was shown to be possible using the CIR-TOF-MS technique with a variety of reagent ions, and the sensitivity was optimized by variation of instrument parameters. The ionization process was found to be largely unaffected by sample humidity levels, demonstrating the potential suitability of the method to a range of environmental conditions, including the analysis of CWAs in air and in the breath of exposed individuals ...
Sarin (o-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), one of the several highly toxic chemical warfare agents, can be readily neutralized in sodium hydroxide solution forming large quantities of brine solution containing IMPA (o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid) and sodium fluoride that must be further processed and disposed. Two mixed cultures were successfully acclimated to use IMPA as a phosphorus source. The medium formula was chosen to provide the reactors with adequate alternative carbon sources so that the only limiting factor of the bacterial growth is phosphorus. Kinetic studies of the two cultures both in suspended and encapsulated forms were done with the initial IMPA concentrations ranged from 15 mg/L to 1,280 mg/L. Kinetic parameters were estimated based on IMPA and biomass concentrations measured over time using Monod equation and the least square method. For both cultures IMPA was not inhibitive under the tested conditions. For the free cells, n{sub max} was 131.3 mg/l/day for the APG ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Pulmonary Intoxicant, Green Cross Agent, Phosgene, Chlorine, Irritant Gas Syndrome, Lung Irritant Chemical Warfare Agent.
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Aerosol Warfare was first established by GONZO247 and MERGE360 of UPC, Underground Productions in 1990. GONZO and MERGE spent all their free time painting graffiti throughout their hometown Houston, Texas. Out on the streets getting a rush from this form of expression, GONZO and MERGE documented ! From these mini live-action documentaries, Aerosol Warfare, the video magazine was born. Aerosol Warfare took off from there! After taking orders from as far away as Europe for this newly popular video, GONZO and MERGE became Those Aerosol Warfare Guys. This naturally opened a new chapter to their involvement in the arts. Evolution of Aerosol Warfare took place. Spray painting with one graffiti artist flourished into painting with several. Additional well-known Aerosol Warfare crew members included Bezerk, Reverend Butter, CapsOne, ColorOne, JESTER, Monk, Mr. Bristle, NME One, Speed One and Witnes. Throughout the 1990′s Aerosol Warfare had parties, paint jams, art exhibitions and a brother and ...
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Bromine is a brown or red liquid with a characteristic odor. Bromine is mainly used in the manufacture of dyes, inks, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and chemical warfare agents. Occupational exposure to bromine may occur during the production and the application of bromine compounds and during other industrial activities. This compound is adsorbed into the human body through the respiratory tract, skin (occupational exposure) and alimentary tract (general population). Physiologically, bromine exists as an ion in the body. Slight eye irritation occurs as a consequence of chronic exposure to bromine vapors at concentration of 1 mg/m3. Higher concentrations increase this effect and cause nasal and skin irritation. Many years observations have shown that during occupational exposure to bromine vapors at concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), there are no observed adverse effects. From cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, it is known that brominated organic compounds are more toxic than ...
The RAID-U2plus is used for detecting Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIC) in the atmosphere outside the submarine. The system is integrated to the boat using a bespoke sampling system designed exclusively for submarine applications. When the vessel first surfaces, atmosphere samples are drawn in via a telescopic pipe and initial CWA/TIC measurements are taken. When running at periscope depth, CWA/TIC measurements can be performed continuously on the outside air. Depending on the configuration, air samples can be drawn either from the telescopic pipe or from the snorkel. ...
Times of Israel) During World War I - the first war in modern history that included the widespread use of chemical weapons - 500 soldiers of the US Armys 3rd Division exhibited debilitating symptoms of gas exposure: chest pain, difficulty breathing, and blurred vision. It was later discovered that the division had never been exposed to a chemical agent. The press quickly dubbed the phenomenon gas mania. Seventy years later, during the six-week Iran-Iraq War of the Cities of 1988, at least 100,000 (some estimate as many as 1.5 million) residents fled Tehran in response to Saddam Husseins threat to load chemical warheads onto the Scud missiles that were hitting the Iranian capital. In 1991, during the Gulf War, nine people were killed as a result of missile attacks on Israel, seven of whom died by suffocating inside their gas masks when they failed to release the airtight cap. Twenty-seven percent of all injuries during this time were the result of unnecessary atropine injections. The ...
Soman nerve agent, molecular model. Soman, also known as GD, is a nerve agent used in chemical warfare. It acts as a neurotoxin by inhibiting cholinesterase enzymes needed for maintaining normal functioning of nerve cells. Somans chemical formula is C7H16FOP. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (C, grey), hydrogen (H, turquoise), fluorine (F, green), oxygen (O, red) and phosphorus (P, orange). - Stock Image A700/0321
Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme-sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 ...
On Sunday (Sept 1, 2013), the Obama administration indicated evidence that the Syrian regime has relied on chemical warfare to quell the current insurrection. In what could be the gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years, the Assad administration reportedly used the nerve toxin sarin to wipe out 1,400 insurgents and civilians in their sleep. Anger and frustration aside, the purported attacks have inspired confusion, with countless people asking themselves how a chemical agent can do such horrifying damage.. According to Agence France-Presse, sarin is a nerve agent developed by Nazi scientists in 1938. Originally derived from a pesticide, the odorless, paralyzing toxin has been used extensively by terror organization as well as genocidal regimes to kill thousands. Inhalation of about 200 milligrams results in death within minutes, leaving no time for symptoms to develop.. I - Word ...
The problem is, I dont like it, first of all Im rather dovish, I dont like what Im going to say but its true. If you basically put down a red line and say dont use chemical weapons, and its been enforced in the Western community, around the world - international community for decades - dont use chemical weapons. We didnt use them in World War II, Hitler didnt use them, we dont use chemical weapons, thats no deal. Although we do know that Assads father did. And then he goes ahead and does it. It makes you wonder what the mullahs will do if they have a couple of nuclear weapons, just a couple. Are they capable of not using them? And that, of course, you know, I think that everybody talking this morning is projecting toward that, which is if you cant use deterrents the normal way - mutually assured destruction - you cant say, if you do this, were blowing you up. If that doesnt work, what does work? And thats the problem. ...
Like chlorine gas, mustard gas (or sulphur mustard) is a chemical weapon that originated with WWI trench warfare. The substance is a cytotoxic and vesicant chemical agent, so it causes blistering of both the skin and lungs of its victims. The chemical is also mutagenic and carcinogenic, meaning it can cause genetic mutations as well as cancer. Victims rarely suffer immediate symptoms, so many are unknowingly exposed to high dosages and may feel completely normal at first. And the substance easily penetrates common clothing fabrics such as wool and cotton, so its hard to protect the skin.. Once exposed, victims smell an odour similar to mustard plants, garlic or horseradish. Soon, they begin to feel intense itching and skin irritation over the next 24 hours. Gradually, those irritated areas become a chemical burn and victims develop blisters filled with a yellow fluid (heres the least graphic photo I could find). These burns can range anywhere from first-degree burns to deadly third-degree ...
Chemical and biological warfare has been used long before World War One. As early as the Stone Age (4500-2000 BC), arrows were […]
What does the 4 billion dollar a year blockbuster Alzheimers drug donepezil (trade name Aricept) have in common with insecticides, chemical weapons and venom? Quite a lot more than consumers taking them have been lead to believe.. As a member of the chemical class known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil interferes with the cholinesterase enzyme, preventing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from breaking down, resulting in an increase in both its levels and duration of action.. While this can result in a temporary increase in memory, there is currently no definitive proof that use of donepezil or other similar agents slow the progression of Alzheimers disease. Moreover, 21% of patients on this medication discontinue within 12 months due to serious adverse side effects. Donepezil is considered a reversible or non-competitive cholinesterase inhibitor, and therefore will not be as toxic as the reversible competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors of cholinesterase which kill insects and ...
Syria has crossed a red line with its use of chemical weapons, including the nerve agent sarin gas, against rebels, a move that is prompting the United States to increase the scale and scope of its support for the opposition, the White House said Thursday.
The threat that Bashar al-Assad may use chemical weapons against opposition forces in Syria means it is time for President Obama and Americas NATO allies to intervene and establish a no-fly zone. Thats a far better option than directly arming the divided rebel forces.
1984.4 Toward the end of that war, the Iraqi military reportedly Nerve agents are a class of chemicals grouped together based on deployed a cocktail of chemical weapons-possibly including their common mechanism of action, which is interruption of GB, GA, and VX-against its own Kurdish population living vital nerve transmissions to various organs.1,2 Nerve agents are usually organophosphates (OP)-esters of phosphoric acid- Aum Shinrikyo, the Japanese cult/terrorist organization is also which, as a group, can range in toxicity from relatively harmless known for use of nerve agents. In 1994, the group released to lethal at certain dosages.2 Indeed, many commonly used sarin gas in a failed attempt to assassinate local judges in insecticides in the United States contain organophosphates.2 Matsumoto, Japan; that action resulted in 8 civilian deaths.8 Military nerve agents can be extremely lethal even at small The following year, Aum released sarin gas into the Tokyo doses.3 The most well-known of ...
Central to the movie is a German superweapon, a new chemical weapon that its developers believe will allow Germany to triumph. This Wunderwaffe is seen as an ominous orange gas destroying gas masks and breaking glass, killing all it touches. And just what is this Wunderwaffe called?. Hydrogen-based mustard gas.. This is utter nonsense. Mustard gas isnt a gas; it is a liquid. It is deployed as a fine mist of clear droplets, not a thick billowing colored cloud. Further, mustard gas is composed of sulfur, chloride and, in a couple of formulae, oxygen. Hydrogen-based mustard gas would yield, among other things, hydrogen sulfide (which was actually used by the British as a chemical weapon and later discarded) or hydrochloric acid. The only reason hydrogen comes up would be to justify the final major explosion, which is ridiculous. Having hydrogen atoms does not automatically make something explosive: water, among other things, will not ignite.. This is the third lesson: if you must use ...
Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
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