Using a ceruloplasmin cDNA clone in RNA blot analysis, a single 3.7 kb ceruloplasmin-specific transcript was detected in rat mammary gland tissue from pregnant and lactating animals. Ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland was tissue-specific, with no evidence of expression in brain, heart or other extrahepatic tissues. Ceruloplasmin mRNA was also detected in mammary gland tissue from male, virgin female and non-pregnant/multiparous animals, and the abundance of ceruloplasmin-specific transcripts in virgin female rats was independent of their stage of oestrus. In virgin female mammary gland the content of ceruloplasmin mRNA was 20% of that in hepatic tissue from these animals and approx. 2-3-fold greater than that found in mammary gland tissue of pregnant or lactating animals. Development studies revealed ceruloplasmin gene expression in male and female mammary gland by only 2 weeks of age, prior to the onset of puberty. Biosynthetic studies indicated that the ceruloplasmin mRNA in ...
Ceruloplasmin (or caeruloplasmin) is a ferroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CP gene. Ceruloplasmin is the major copper-carrying protein in the blood, and in addition plays a role in iron metabolism. It was first described in 1948. Another protein, hephaestin, is noted for its homology to ceruloplasmin, and also participates in iron and probably copper metabolism. Ceruloplasmin is an enzyme (EC 1.16.3.1) synthesized in the liver containing 6 atoms of copper in its structure. Ceruloplasmin carries more than 95% of the total copper in healthy human plasma. The rest is accounted for by macroglobulins. Ceruloplasmin exhibits a copper-dependent oxidase activity, which is associated with possible oxidation of Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron), therefore assisting in its transport in the plasma in association with transferrin, which can carry iron only in the ferric state. The molecular weight of human ceruloplasmin is reported to be 151kDa. A cis-regulatory element called the ...
Structure of Ceruloplasmin. CP is involved in oxidative stress and in the safe handling of oxygen in some metabolic pathways of vertebrates and has been shown to be associated with reproduction. Serum levels of ceruloplasmin have been found to increase during normal pregnancy in some species and it is thought that this increase during gestation protects against oxidative stress associated with pregnancy. In dogs, the increase in serum ceruloplasmin has been coupled to the time of embryonic endometrial implantation and placentation. In 2011, Erin Willis from the Memphis Zoo published evidence that Cp activity could be correlated to pregnancy status in giant pandas1. The activity of urinary ceruloplasmin was higher during the pregnant luteal phase compared to the pseudopregnant luteal phase. In all term pregnancies examined, levels of active ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remained elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition.. Decreased concentrations occur during ...
Injection of a 2.0 mg Cd ²⁺ /kg B.W. (I.P. as CdC1 ₂ in .05 M NaAc, pH = 6.9-7.2, .15 M or p = .15 with NaCl) resulted in a decrease in ceruloplasmin (EC 1.12.3) p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity within one hour of injection. Maximal decrease (40%) occurred within six to eight hours, with levels rising slowly over the duration of the experiment (28.5 hours postinjection). Cadmium-109 (36 pCi carrier free ¹⁰⁹ CdC1 ₂ in .05 M HC1, .15 M NaC1) was injected (I.P.) into rats and plasma obtained five hours later. Purification of the ceruloplasmin using DEAE and Sephadex G-200 chromatography revealed significant cadmium-109 in the ceruloplasmin fraction. In vitro binding was not observed. Attempts were made to purify ceruloplasmin utilizing, DEAE, hydroxylapatite and Sephadex G-200 chromatography coupled with ethanol-chloroform precipitation. The product obtained was spectrophotometrically pure and deemed electrophoretically homogeneous, however antibody produced in rabbits to this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Copper-related blood indexes in kidney dialysis patients. AU - Emenaker, Nancy J.. AU - DiSilvestro, Robert A.. AU - Nahman, N. Stanley. AU - Percival, Susan. PY - 1996/11. Y1 - 1996/11. N2 - Previous work has suggested that kidney hemodialysis patients could be at risk for either moderate copper deficiency or copper toxicity. The present study examined copper-related blood indexes in subjects undergoing hemodialysis treatments with membranes that are not copper-based, in subjects undergoing chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and in control subjects. Both dialysis groups had low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin activities. This occurred despite high plasma interleukin 6 concentrations, a situation that usually elevates plasma ceruloplasmin and copper values. CAPD and hemodialysis subjects had low ratios of ceruloplasmin activity to immunoreactive protein, and low ratios of plasma copper to ceruloplasmin protein. Both are signs of copper deficiency. In contrast, ...
1. It has been suggested that low levels of serum caeruloplasmin in Wilsons disease result from the failure to switch from a fetal to an adult mode of caeruloplasmin gene expression. To investigate postnatal expression of the caeruloplasmin gene, steady-state levels of caeruloplasmin messenger RNA in adult and neonatal rat liver were measured.. 2. Copper parameters observed in neonatal rats were similar to those seen in Wilsons disease: hepatic copper concentration was significantly elevated (neonatal 164 ± 35 μg/g, adults 50 ± 8 μg/g, P , .001) and serum copper and caeruloplasmin levels were low (neonatal 0.5 ± 0.1 μg/ml, adults 1.3 ± 0.2 μg/ml, P , .001; neonatal 0.20 ± 0.04 arbitrary units, adults 0.69 ± 0.16 arbitrary units, P , .001), respectively.. 3. Caeruloplasmin messenger RNA levels were analysed by Northern and dot blotting using a 12P-labelled caeruloplasmin complementary DNA probe. A caeruloplasmin messenger RNA of approximately 4.4 kilobases was detected in both adult ...
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The LEGENDplex™ Human Acute Phase Panel 1 Mix and Match Beads are individual capture beads for 8 targets including α2-macroglobulin, α1-AGP, Haptoglobin, α1-antitrypsin, Ceruloplasmin, Fibrinogen, Prothrombin, and SAP. The beads are recommended for use with each other and the following Mix and Matc
Infobox_gene}} Ceruloplasmin (or caeruloplasmin) is a [[ferroxidase]] [[enzyme]] that in humans is encoded by the CP [[gene]].,ref name="pmid6582496">{{cite journal , vauthors = Takahashi N, Ortel TL, Putnam FW , title = Single-chain structure of human ceruloplasmin: the complete amino acid sequence of the whole molecule , journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , volume = 81 , issue = 2 , pages = 390-4 , date = Jan 1984 , pmid = 6582496 , pmc = 344682 , doi = 10.1073/pnas.81.2.390 }},/ref>,ref name="pmid2873574">{{cite journal , vauthors = Koschinsky ML, Funk WD, van Oost BA, MacGillivray RT , title = Complete cDNA sequence of human preceruloplasmin , journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , volume = 83 , issue = 14 , pages = 5086-90 , date = Jul 1986 , pmid = 2873574 , pmc = 323895 , doi = 10.1073/pnas.83.14.5086 }},/ref>,ref name="pmid3474786">{{cite journal , vauthors = Royle ...
ST.LOUIS- The discovery of a gene associated with a rare form of Parkinsons disease provides researchers with a long sought piece to the puzzling pathogenesis of this disease.. A team of researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have characterized a rare disease, aceruloplasminemia, that causes a rare form of Parkinsons. Aceruloplasminemia is caused by a mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene, which is involved in iron transport.. Patients with this gene mutation do not make ceruloplasmin, a protein that removes iron from cells. The iron then accumulates in cells in the brains basal ganglia region and causes neurological problems. These include the tremors and gait abnormalities associated with Parkinsons disease, according to Jonathan D. Gitlin, M.D., associate professor of pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine.. Neurologists have long hypothesized that Parkinsons disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The current ...
Methods and Results-Cp was measured at ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). We studied 9240 individuals without HF or CVD at ARIC visit 4 and followed them for a mean of 10.5 years. Genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic determinants of Cp levels and evaluate their association with incident HF in ARIC participants. Cp levels (mean±SD) were higher in women versus men (335±79 versus 258±44 mg/L; P,0.0001), women on versus not on hormone-replacement therapy (398±89 versus 291±60 mg/L; P,0.0001), and African Americans versus whites (299±63 versus 293±74 mg/L; P=0.0005). After adjusting for traditional risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, higher levels of Cp were associated with HF (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.83) and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.63). A locus on the ceruloplasmin gene on chromosome 3 was significantly ...
Background and Purpose: Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder which increases maternal and pre-natal morbidity and mortality. The incidence is about 5% and is influenced by pariety, genetic background, and environmental factors. At present, the sole treatment is termination. It is suitable to use antioxidants for pre-eclampsia prevention. The aim of this ...
Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-containing multifunctional oxidase of plasma, an antioxidant, an acute-phase protein and a free radical scavenger. The structural organization of Cp causes its sensitivity to proteolysis and ROS (reactive oxygen species), which can alter some of the important Cp functions. Eluc
Ceruloplasmin (též ceruloplazmin) je bílkovinná sloučenina s vlastnostmi enzymu, která je v organizmu důležitá pro transport molekul mědi a pro metabolizmus železa (přeměna iontu Fe2+ na Fe3+). Snížená koncentrace ceruloplasminu je velmi často přítomna u jedinců s Wilsonovou nemocí, není však příčinou jejího vzniku ...
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Description: The Serum Copper test is, along with serum ceruloplasmin, is used to test for Wilson disease and more frequently used to monitor nutrition, especially when copper deficiency is indicated ...
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible blindness, yet its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Evidence suggests that cumulative oxidative damage contributes to AMD and aging in general. The Dunaief lab has found that AMD retinas have iron overload, which can cause oxidative stress. Increased understanding of retinal iron homeostasis may lead to treatments for AMD. To investigate the mechanisms of retinal iron regulation, the lab uses conditional knockout mouse models, human retinal tissue, and retinal cell tissue culture. A mouse line deficient in the iron transporting ferroxidases ceruloplasmin and hephaestin develops age-dependent retinal iron overload and retinal degeneration with features of AMD (Hahn et al., PNAS, 2004). Recent research in the lab indicates that inflammation promotes cellular iron overload in a vicious cycle leading to cell death. Our current focus is on the mechanisms of retinal iron homeostasis and development of therapeutics to ...
Screening tests Serum glucose, electrolytes, calcium/phosphorus, uric acid, lactate and pyruvate, liver, renal and thyroid function tests, blood gasses Prolactin levels (10 to 20 min after suspected seizure, diagnosis seizure vs. psychogenic nonepileptic seizure) Serum CK ANA, ENA, ANCA, RF, complement, ACE, anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (Hashimoto disease), autoantibody panel (thyroid antimicrosomal, antiparietal), immunoglobulins Serum ceruloplasmin…
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Chen H, Attieh ZK, Syed BA, Kuo YM, Stevens V, Fuqua BK, Andersen HS, Naylor CE, Evans RW, Gambling L, Danzeisen R, Bacouri-Haidar M, Usta J, Vulpe CD, McArdle HJ; Identification of zyklopen, a new member of the vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase family, and characterization in rodents and human cells.; J Nutr, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC ...
An Interview with William J. Walsh, PhD This is the sixth article in a series of seven articles.. View Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 and Part 5.. JH: What kinds of testing do you recommend for patients?. WW: If patients had every blood and urine test that would provide valuable information, they probably wouldnt have any money left - or any blood - so we have to prioritize. Because six or seven factors are dominant in most cases, we start off with a panel of tests that is relatively inexpensive, maybe only $300 or $400. We have to do additional testing in only about ten percent of the cases. We look for markers of oxidative stress and at the important metals, espe-cially zinc and copper, that impact neurotransmitters. We measure the protein called ceruloplasmin because looking at serum copper and ceruloplasmin jointly reveals a lot about free radicals and oxidative stress. We need to have a marker for methylation, and what we have been using is whole blood histamine. Its imperfect, and ...
Promotes the biosynthesis of heme and assembly and repair of iron-sulfur clusters by delivering Fe(2+) to proteins involved in these pathways. May play a role in the protection against iron-catalyzed oxidative stress through its ability to catalyze the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+); the oligomeric form but not the monomeric form has in vitro ferroxidase activity. May be able to store large amounts of iron in the form of a ferrihydrite mineral by oligomerization; however, the physiological relevance is unsure as reports are conflicting and the function has only been shown using heterologous overexpression systems. Modulates the RNA-binding activity of ACO1 ...
健康な日本人におけるセルロプラスミンとフェリチンを含む酸化ストレスバイオマーカーの関連 ...
accounting acidic additional aggravate appears applied assoc atrophy beneficial bottom cellular cognitive college contributed control controls correlated correlation correlations cortex dependent derived determine disease downloaded drive early elderly elucidate enhance explaining export expressed fluid fusiform hand healthy hierarchical homeostasis impairment indicated inflammation institute interact involved iron king kingdom latter marker matched measures metabolism metal mild model negatively operates park pathogenesis pathology positively progression protein proteins psychiatry psychology reactive regression regulatory relationship respectively restore seems significantly stage store subjects suggesting supports synergy therapies tracking true variable variation ventricles volume volumes whereas ...
Membrane Protein Involved In Zinc Ion Homeostasis; Member Of The Four-protein IZH Family, Expression Induced By Zinc Deficiency; Deletion Reduces Sensitivity To Elevated Zinc And Shortens Lag Phase, Overexpression Reduces Zap1p Activity
I had my first FET with a normal embryo. My RE said it had an 85% chance of implanting, but it didnt. Im looking for reasons this might have happene
I know I am getting in early but figure may as well as I cant be the only one waiting til October to start our FET. I didnt think Id be back here after we got our BFP in March after our first successful round but unfortunately our DD - page 55
Aceruloplasminemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which iron gradually accumulates in the retina, basal ganglia, and other organs. Iron accumulation in the brain results in neurological problems that generally appear in adulthood and worsen over time. Aceruloplasminemia has been seen worldwide, but its overall prevalence is unknown. Studies in Japan have estimated that approximately 1 in 2 million adults in this population are affected. Aceruloplasminemia belongs to the group of genetic disorders called neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Patients with aceruloplasminemia develop a variety of movement problems. They may experience dystonia of the head and neck, resulting in repetitive movements and contortions. Other involuntary movements may also occur, such as tremors, chorea, blepharospasms, and grimacing. Affected individuals may also experience ataxia, the lack of coordination of muscle movements. Some develop psychiatric problems and midlife dementia. The type ...
Periodontitis, is an infectious ailment of multifactorial origin, that brings about destruction of bone and surrounding tissues. There are various oral pathogens that may be responsible for the destruction. The host encounters these microbial invasions and their products by the production and release of inflammatory mediators from the cells within the body. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are a group of enzymes that utilize glutathione in conditions resulting in oxidative stress. These enzymes play a key role in the detoxifycation of such substance. It aids in preventing damage to important cellular components caused by release of free reactive oxygen species. Ceruloplasmin is a ferroxidase enzyme. It plays a role as an anti-inflammatory agent, by its ability to scavenge free radicals within the body. The present study was targeted at evaluating the levels of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) and Ceruloplasmin as diagnostic markers for patients with chronic periodontitis in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)
Looking for Copper oxidase? Find out information about Copper oxidase. The copper-binding serum protein in human blood. a copper-containing protein of the α2-globulin fraction of blood plasma. It was first discovered and... Explanation of Copper oxidase
In this report, we present novel evidence linking FLP to high-affinity Fe transport and propose that FLP is a ferroxidase, functioning in the reoxidation of Fe2+ before its uptake into the cell. Initial evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from the deduced FLP amino acid sequence. FLP contains two multicopper oxidase I and one multicopper oxidase signature II motifs. In addition, the amino acid sequence of FLP shows the highest homology to multicopper oxidases in mammals (HEPH and ceruloplasmin) and yeast (FET3). These proteins are ferroxidases that are themselves involved in high-affinity Fe assimilation (Stearman et al., 1996;Askwith and Kaplan, 1998; Mukhopadhyay et al., 1998; Attieh et al., 1999; Vulpe et al., 1999). The involvement of FLP in Fe homeostasis is evident from the regulation of its synthesis. Both the transcription of the FLP gene and synthesis of FLP are greatly increased in Fe-deficient cells and reversed after resupply of Fe. Although we have not demonstrated the ...
Ferritins are ubiquitous and can be found in practically all organisms that utilize Fe. They are composed of 24 subunits forming a hollow sphere with an inner cavity of ~80 A in diameter. The main function of ferritin is to oxidize the cytotoxic Fe(2+) ions and store the oxidized Fe in the inner cavity. It has been established that the initial step of rapid oxidation of Fe(2+) (ferroxidation) by H-type ferritins, found in vertebrates, occurs at a diiron binding center, termed the ferroxidase center. In bacterial ferritins, however, X-ray crystallographic evidence and amino acid sequence analysis revealed a trinuclear Fe binding center comprising a binuclear Fe binding center (sites A and B), homologous to the ferroxidase center of H-type ferritin, and an adjacent mononuclear Fe binding site (site C). In an effort to obtain further evidence supporting the presence of a trinuclear Fe binding center in bacterial ferritins and to gain information on the states of the iron bound to the trinuclear ...
CuD subjects In order to be enrolled into the CuD Arm, subjects who have had RYGB surgery will be recruited and screened for eligibility (inclusion and exclusion criteria below). Subjects whose plasma copper concentrations are in the deficient range (less than 80 μg/dL for women and less than 70 µg/dL for men, and/or ceruloplasmin activity below 62 units/L-1) following 4 weeks of supplementation with the RDA for copper will be eligible. Such supplementation is the routine standard of care with all patients undergoing RYGB surgery. This process aims to exclude patients who were only marginally copper deficient and not in need of sustained copper therapy. Subjects will be notified about their copper status by a study physician. They will be contacted by the study team, and their willingness to participate in the study will be determined.. Inclusion criteria: 1) Patient has a history of RYGB weight loss surgery; 2) subject has a plasma copper level which is less than 80 μg/dL for women andl less ...
References 1. Cauza E, Maier-Dobersberger T, Polli C, Kaserer K, Kramer L, Ferenci P. Screening for Wilsons disease in patients with liver diseases by serum ceruloplasmin. Journal of hepatology. 1997;27:358-62. 2. Medici V, Rossaro L, Sturniolo GC. Wilson disease--a practical approach to diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2007;39:601-9. 3. Roberts EA, Schilsky ML. Diagnosis and treatment of Wilson disease: an update. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md). 2008;47:2089-111. 4. Stremmel W, Meyerrose KW, Niederau C, Hefter H, Kreuzpaintner G, Strohmeyer G. Wilson disease: clinical presentation, treatment, and survival. Annals of internal medicine. 1991;115:720-6. 5. Hellman NE, Gitlin JD. Ceruloplasmin metabolism and function. Annual review of nutrition. 2002;22:439-58. 6. Scott J, Gollan JL, Samourian S, Sherlock S. Wilsons disease, presenting as chronic active ...
The relation between elevated ISPs and an increased incidence of acute coronary events is now well established. Whether the fatality of the events is related to the previous exposure to a low-grade inflammation has been unclear. In the entire cohort, the relative risks were higher for CHD deaths than for nonfatal MI. Among men who subsequently had acute coronary events, the number of elevated ISPs at baseline showed significant associations with the proportions of fatal outcomes (first day or within 28 days). The individual ISPs showed nonsignificant differences between CHD deaths and nonfatal MI. However, in accordance with many previous studies, the prognostic information increased substantially if all 5 ISPs were used.2,11,12,15 The results show that men who have been exposed to a low-grade inflammation many years earlier have higher fatality in future acute coronary events, with a higher proportion of CHD deaths and less nonfatal MI. If this finding can be replicated in other ...
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Copper in blood and liver can be divided into several fractions. Copper in blood is about evenly divided between erythrocytes and plasma. Normal concentrations for most species range between one and two parts per million. Plasma copper is mainly a copper protein, ceruloplasmin and a loosely bound form, reacting directly with Na diethyldithiocarbamate (DR Cu). In livers of normal rats (ca. 18 ppm Cu) the distribution is: debris, 12.8%; mitochondria, 13.5%; microsomes, 17.9%; and soluble fraction, 54.8%. On the other hand, in cattle with higher liver copper levels (ca. 69.5 ppm) the distribution is: debris, 22.2%; mitochondria, 12.3%; microsomes, 14.6%; and soluble fraction, 50.9%. The distributions are influenced by dietary copper in rats fed rations containing from 1 ppm to 200 ppm Cu. Erythrocyte and DR Cu appeared to be directly related to the copper intake, with values ranging from 0.95 to 2.04 μg/ml and 0.19 to 1.52 μg respectively. Ceruloplasmin values were depressed in the low ration ...
... To say Copper is an essential trace mineral barely does justice when one considers the wide range of vital human bodily functions dependent upon this mighty mineral. To begin with, copper is a major component of hemoglobin, the protein resposible for oxygen transport in blood cells. Copper, along with vitimin C, forms elastin, a protein required to keep skin, blood vessels, and lungs supple and elastic. As an antioxidant, copper plays a strong dual role. First as a central component of both the superoxide dismutase molecule, which protects us from cellular free-radical damage. Secondly, copper helps form the protein ceruloplasmin, which protects us against free-radical damage caused by iron. Copper is also required by the central nervous system as a component in the production of noradrenaline, the brains version of adrenaline and the neurotransmitter that keeps us alert. Copper is also involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormonelike chemicals that regulate ...
Further Observations generic cialis available on the Diseases which affect the Synovial Membranes of Joints. Double-blind comparative study of cluster and conventional immunotherapy schedules with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. S-allylcysteine inhibits free radical production, lipid peroxidation and neuronal damage in rat brain ischemia. Mechanism for hormone-induced alterations in serum ceruloplasmin. Hence, global gene-expression profiling on inguinal lymph nodes was performed 10 days after the induction of pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) and phytol administration.. According to the method used, no generic cialis available significant beneficial effect could be demonstrated in either experimental model. The dichotomous response pattern and positivity offset differed between words and pictures in patients with alcohol dependence. In closed glass containers exposed to about I Mrad of gamma radiation, ozone concentrations up to 18 parts per million (by volume) were recorded. Effect of ...
DESIGN: The test was performed on juvenile fish, which was exposed to Spartakus (concentrations of prochloraz: 0.05; 0.15 and 0.38 mg.L-1) for 28 days. Haematological indices were assessed using unified methods of haematological examination in fish. Plasma biochemical indices were determined by biochemical analyzer. Concentration of total cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity were determined spectrophotometrically in hepatopancreas. Activity of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured spectrofluorimetrically. Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and ceruloplasmin activity were assessed spectrophotometrically. Histological changes in samples of hepatopancreas, skin, gills, spleen, head kidney and caudal kidney were examined by light microscopy ...
In episode 33, we continue the series on assessing and managing nutritional status. This time we talk about copper. Copper deficiency can cause anemia that is very difficult to tell apart from iron-deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, histamine intolerance, high cholesterol, and a variety of mental effects resulting from neurotransmitter imbalances. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin are excellent tools for assessing nutritional status, but are confounded by inflammation, birth control, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy, making it necessary to look at the diet, lifestyle, digestive problems, and other factors that make copper deficiency plausible.  I discuss how to protect yourself from the small risk of copper in your drinking water, and why I think many claims about excess copper outside the context of frank toxicity are misleading. Everything converges on the practical questions of what to do in these situations. You can find the show notes to this episode at chrismasterjohnphd.com/33.
Effect of copper deficiency on prenatal development and pregnancy outcome.: Copper deficiency during embryonic and fetal development can result in numerous gros
Copper is an essential micronutrient for most organisms, especially in respiring eukaryotes, due to its being a cofactor in electron transfer proteins and in enzymes that catalyze redox reactions or oxygen chemistry, such as cytochrome oxidase, ferroxidases, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases. The availability of copper in the environment or in the nutrient source may vary widely, however, and copper deficiency is a challenge that many organisms encounter, a challenge they have met through the evolution of sophisticated adaptive mechanisms. At the same time, free copper ions have the potential to participate in Fenton chemistry resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species. Copper assimilation must therefore be tightly regulated so as to meet but not exceed cellular requirements (reviewed in Eide, 1998; Puig and Thiele, 2002; Winge, 2002; Merchant et al., 2006; Pilon et al., 2006),. Genetic and biochemical studies in a number of model organisms have established the existence in eukaryotes ...
Copper is an essential trace element. It is required for ferro-oxidase activity which is an essential stage for incorporation of iron into haem. Copper is absorbed in the intestines and then transported to the liver, where it is stored or used in the production of a variety of enzymes. Caeruloplasmin is a copper-containing enzyme that plays a role in the bodys iron metabolism. In the blood, 95 % is bound to caeruloplasmin and 5 % is free. It is used in conjunction with serum copper assay to help diagnose Wilsons disease and evaluate copper metabolism.. ...
Normally food copper is metabolized by the liver and channeled into safe pathways such as being incorporated in to ceruloplasmin. [...] When we administer inorganic copper orally labeled with 64Cu, we see a fraction of the label appear in the blood in 1-2 hours, too soon to be processed by the liver. [...] We believe this fraction of 64Cu-labeled inorganic copper is bypassing the liver, is therefore not incorporated safely into ceruloplasmin, contributes directly to the nonceruloplasmin free copper pool, and represents what is happening to at least a portion of the inorganic copper ingested in drinking water or copper supplements."[32] ...
We found an age-related increase of iron in the white matter of controls as well as in patients with short disease duration. In chronic MS, however, there was a significant decrease of iron in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) corresponding with disease duration, when corrected for age. This decrease of iron in oligodendrocytes and myelin was associated with an upregulation of iron-exporting ferroxidases. In active MS lesions, iron was apparently released from dying oligodendrocytes, resulting in extracellular accumulation of iron and uptake into microglia and macrophages. Iron-containing microglia showed signs of cell degeneration. At lesion edges and within centers of lesions, iron accumulated in astrocytes and axons ...
Wilsons disease (-) ceruloplasmin does not rule out Keyser-Fleischer rings absent in 50% AST & ALT |1500 Normal or low alk phos for age (cofactor Zn displaced by Cu) AST:ALT |2.2 AlkPhos : TotBili |4
Olatunbosun, D. A., Bolodeoku, J. O., Cole, T. O. & Adadevoh, B. K. (‎1976)‎. Relationship of serum copper and zinc to human hypertension in Nigerians*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 53 (‎1)‎, 134 - 135. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/260875 ...
Patients with moderate to high risk primary breast cancer (Stage II with more than 4 lymph nodes involved with cancer) III or Stage IV (without evidence
Our physicians collaborate closely to diagnose and treat Wilsons disease. Treatment depends on the organs involved and overall health of the patient.