The rise of antimicrobial resistance demands the development of more rapid screening methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance in clinical samples to both give the patient the proper treatment and expedite the treatment of patients. Cerium oxide nanoparticles may serve a useful role in diagnostics due to their ability to exist in a mixed valence state and act as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents. Considering that cerium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to shift in absorbance upon oxidation, a useful method of antimicrobial resistance detection could be based on the oxidation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Herein, an assay is described whereby cerium oxide nanoparticle oxidation is a function of glucose metabolism of bacterial samples in the presence of an antimicrobial agent. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were shown to have an absorbance in the range of 395nm upon oxidation by hydrogen peroxide whereas mixed valence cerium oxide nanoparticles lacked an absorbance around 395nm. In
SEE PDF Full Length Article Writers: M.H.M.T. Assumpção; A. Moraes; R.F.B. De Souza; M.L. Calegaro; M.R.V. Lanza; E.R. Leite; M.A.L. Cordeiro; P. Hammer; M.C. Santos. Keywords: Oxygen reduction reaction; Electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide; Cerium oxide nanoparticles. Abstract: This work describes the influence of the preparation method and the carbon support using a low content of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2/C 4%) on H2O2 electrogeneration via the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose, the polymeric precursor (PPM) and sol-gel (SGM) methods with Vulcan XC 72R (V) and Printex L6 (P) supports were employed. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis identified two phases comprising CeO2 and CeO2−x. The smallest mean crystallite size was exhibited for the 4% CeO2/C_PPM_P material, which was estimated using the Debye-Scherrer equation to be 6 nm and 4 nm for ...
According to a new market report by Lucintel, the future of the |a href=https://www.lucintel.com/cerium-oxide-nanoparticle-market.aspx>cerium oxide nanoparticle|/a> market looks promising with opportunities in catalyst, biomedical, and energy applications. The cerium oxide nanoparticle market is expected to grow with a CAGR of 19% from 2019 to 2024. The major drivers for this market are increasing use of cerium oxide nanoparticles in various applications, rising focus of governments on nanotec
A simple enzyme-free spectrophotometric detection of hydrogen peroxide is demonstrated based on its colorimetric reaction with oxygen deficient cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs). This colorimetric sensitivity of CNPs towards H2O2 increases significantly with decreasing crystallite size due to an increase in
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Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation. We performed in vitro assays on mature mouse oocytes incubated with CeO2 ENPs to study (1) physicochemical biotransformation of ENPs in culture medium; (2) ultrastructural interactions with follicular cells and oocytes using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); (3) genotoxicity of CeO2 ENPs on follicular cells and oocytes using a comet assay. DNA damage was quantified as Olive Tail Moment. We show that ENPs aggregated, but their crystal structure remained stable in culture medium. TEM showed endocytosis of CeO2 ENP aggregates in follicular cells. In oocytes, CeO2 ENP aggregates were only observed around the zona pellucida (ZP). The comet assay revealed significant DNA damage in follicular cells. In oocytes, the comet assay showed a dose-related increase in DNA damage and a significant increase only at the highest concentrations. DNA damage decreased significantly both in follicular cells and in
Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO2NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO2NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia. This was accompanied by increases in IL-4, CCL11 and MCPT1 gene expression together with increases in the mucin and inflammatory regulators CLCA1 and SLC26A4. CLCA1 and SLC26A4 were also induced by CeO2NPs + HDM co-exposure in air liquid interface cultures of human primary bronchial epithelial cells. HDM induced airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling in mice were
The dynamic process of oxygen vacancy migration driven by the external electric field is directly observed at atomic scale in the cerium oxides (CeO{sub 2}) thin film by in-situ transmission electron microscopy method. When a bias voltage of a proper value is applied across the CeO{sub 2} film, the oxygen vacancies are formed near the interface of CeO{sub 2}/anode, followed by their migration along the direction of the external electric field. The structural modulation occurs in the [110] zone axis due to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The migration of oxygen vacancies results in the reversible structural transformation, i.e., releasing and storing oxygen processes in CeO{sub 2}, which is of great significance for the ionic and electronic applications of the cerium oxides materials, such as oxygen pump, gas sensor, resistive random access memory, etc. ...
Supplementary Materialscells-09-01617-s001. the procedure inhibited nuclear localization of LC3B. Used together, our research demonstrates that CeO2-NPs stand for an eligible applicant to counteract RPE degeneration and, as a result, a robust therapy for AMD. = Rabbit Polyclonal to ITCH (phospho-Tyr420) 4). * 0.05, ** 0.005, *** 0.0001 versus CTRL, # 0.05, ## 0.005, ### 0.0001 versus H2O2. 3.2. Nanoceria Localize within the RPE after Intravitreal Shot Previous evidence demonstrated that cerium oxide nanoparticles can combination the inner restricting membrane and reach the external retina after intravitreal shot. Cerium oxide nanoparticles had been found localized in your community, which include the photoreceptors external segments (Operating-system) as well as the RPE [43]. Furthermore, after a one administration, they continued to be at the same localization as much as 8 weeks [34]. On this basis, we supposed that cerium oxide nanoparticles could target the RPE and prevent its degeneration ...
Cerium (Ce) is becoming a popular metal for use in electrochemical applications. When in the form of cerium oxide (CeO2), Ce can exist in both 3 + and 4 + valence states, acting as an ideal catalyst. Previous in vitro and in vivo evidence have demonstrated that CeO2 has either anti- or pro-oxidant properties, possibly due to the ability of the nanoparticles to transition between valence states. Therefore, we chose to chemically modify the nanoparticles to shift the valence state toward 3+. During the hydrothermal synthesis process, 10 mol% gadolinium (Gd) and 20 mol% Gd, were substituted into the lattice of the CeO2 nanoparticles forming a perfect solid solution with various A-site valence states. These two Gd-doped CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to pure CeO2 nanoparticles. Preliminary characteristics indicated that doping results in minimal size and zeta potential changes but alters valence state. Following characterization, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg ...
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The presented thesis focuses on studying the interaction between rhodium and cerium oxide and its impact on the reactivity. We investigated two different systems, Rh/CeOx and Rh-CeOx, by means of the photoelectron spectroscopy and the temperature programmed reactions. Rh/CeOx stands for rhodium nanoparticles supported by cerium oxide thin film. We show that there is an electronic metal-substrate interaction between rhodium and cerium oxide. The type of the interaction depends on a degree of cerium oxide reduction and it has a tremendous impact on the reactivity of the system. On the other hand, Rh-CeOx represents cerium oxide thin films doped by rhodium. We characterized the properties of the films with various concentration of rhodium. We show that the morphology, chemical composition and reactivity of the samples strongly depend on the concentration of the rhodium dopant. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org ...
0082]The CMP abrasive slurry according to the present invention may be stored as a single-liquid abrasive slurry containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant, a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains and water. Alternatively, it may be stored as a two-liquid abrasive slurry consisting of a cerium oxide slurry (liquid A) containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant and water and a supplementary solution (liquid B) containing a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains and water, or as a two-liquid abrasive slurry consisting of a cerium oxide slurry (liquid A) containing cerium oxide particles, a dispersant and water and a supplementary solution (liquid C) containing a water-soluble polymer having amino groups on the side chains, water and a water-soluble nonionic compound. Both the single-liquid abrasive slurry and the two-liquid abrasive slurry give favorable stabilized properties. When the abrasive slurry is stored in a two-liquid abrasive slurry, ...
Background. Cerium oxide nanoparticles present the mimetic activity of superoxide dismutase, being able to inactivate the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) correlated with a large number of pathologies, such as stents restenosis and the occurrence of genetic mutations that can cause cancer. This study presents the synthesis and biological characterisation of nanoconjugates based on nanoparticles of iron oxide interconnected with cerium oxide conjugates. Methods. The synthesis of magnetite-nanoceria nanoconjugates has been done in several stages, where the key to the process is the coating of nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine and its chemical activation-reticulation with glutaraldehyde. The nanoconjugates are characterised by several techniques, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results. Iron oxide nanoparticles interconnected with cerium oxide nanoparticles were obtained, having an average diameter of 8 nm. Nanoconjugates prove to possess superparamagnetic
Title:Nanoceria: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Tripti Sahu, Satpal Singh Bisht, Kirti Ranjan Das and Savita Kerkar. Affiliation:Department of Biotechnology, Goa University, Goa, India.. Keywords:Antioxidants, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity, drug delivery, nanoceria, nanoparticle, therapeutics.. Abstract:Cerium oxide or ceria is an inorganic compound of Cerium, a rare earth element of lanthanide series. Due to the unique ability of cerium to switch oxidation states between +3 and +4 it has various applications as ultraviolet light absorbers, catalytic converters for automobile exhaust systems, solar cells, optics, oxygen sensors and other commercial and biomedical applications. Cerium oxide nanoparticles popularly known as nanoceria are efficient free radical scavengers and are considered as a potent therapeutic option for the treatment of ROS mediated disorders like neurodegenerative disorders, retinal disorders, cancer and can also act as a potent drug ...
Diabetes mellitus is one of the threatening, non-communicable and chronic ailments worldwide since ancient times to the current stage of human existence. The utilization of nanoparticles as a medicine in the treatment of diabetes is an attractive proposition. In the present study, herbal mediated cerium oxide nanoparticles (HMCeO2 NPs), herbal mediated silver nanoparticles (HMAg NPs) and Lawsonia intermix extract (LIE) was evaluated for them for in-vivo hypoglycemic effect and compared the potency. The resulting HMCeO2 NPs, HMAg NPs and Lawsonia inermis have been characterized by different analytical equipments such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Particle size analyzer (PSA), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The synthesized NPs and Lawsonia inermis extract were assessed for toxicity by using acute oral toxicity using female albino mice (s) model by following OECD-425 ...
Nickel-doped cerium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism due to high oxygen mobility within the doped CeO2 lattice. CeO2 is an excellent doping matrix as it can lose oxygen whilst retaining its structure. This leads to increased oxygen mobility within the fluorite CeO2 lattice, leading to the formation of Ce3+ and Ce4+ species and hence doped ceria shows a high propensity for numerous catalytic processes. Magnetic ceria are important in several applications from magnetic data storage devices to magnetically recoverable catalysts. We investigate the effect doping nickel into a CeO2 lattice has on the room temperature ferromagnetism in monodisperse cerium dioxide nanoparticles synthesised by the thermal decomposition of cerium(III) and nickel(II) oleate metal organic precursors before and after annealing. The composition of nanoparticles pre- and post-anneal were analysed using: TEM (transmission electron microscopy), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), EDS ...
In nature, cerium occurs together with other lanthanoids in so-called cerite earths , such as in allanite (Ca, Ce, La, Y) 2 (Al, Fe) 3 (SiO 4 ) 3 (OH), in monazite (Ce, La , Th, Nd, Y) PO 4 as well as in the bastnäsite (Ce, La, Y) CO 3 F. Cer is the most common element of the lanthanides and is ranked 28th in the element frequency in the earths crust, down to a depth of 16 km calculated, it is represented at 68 g / t and is therefore more common than tin or lead. Important deposits are located in Scandinavia, the USA, the Congo, South Africa and India. The world-wide known cerium reserves are estimated at 40 million tons. Cerium is one of the so-called light rare earths that the BGR assessed in 2014 as uncritical with regard to the supply situation. Elemental (solid) cerium does not occur on earth because of its high reactivity. However, it has been found in microscopic particles in lunar rocks. It is probably caused by impact events on the moon. ...
For the first endothermic step, cerium(IV) oxide is thermally dissociated in an inert gas atmosphere at 2,000 °C (3,630 °F) and 100-200 mbar into cerium(III) oxide and oxygen. In the second exothermic step cerium(III) oxide reacts at 400 °C (752 °F)-600 °C (1,112 °F) in a fixed bed reactor with water and produces hydrogen and cerium(IV) oxide. ...
Vision Expo East, New York 18th - 20th March Cerium Product USA Inc are proud to be exibiting our wide range of products and services at this years New York Vison Expo East Show, please visit us at our stand LP 1875.. Cerium Optical Products will be attending this years Vision Expo in New york to showcase its range of equipment, products and services for both laboratories and optical retailers, developed at its HQ in Tenterden, KentEngland.. Ceriums range extends from its Alphamatic rimless drill system and extensive lens production consumable range including Shades dyes, now in user-friendly, environment-friendly, space and cost-saving Ecobag presentation: just open the colorful outer and drop the soluble inner bag whole into the dye bath.. Cerium now also offers a Hi-Index Shades dye collection specially formulated to give reliable, high-quality results on substrates up to 1.67 index. Their plastic lens polish choices were recently augmented by their own free-form friendly, all-substrates ...
Cerium Isotopes: Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.
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National Digital Library of India (NDLI) is a virtual repository of learning resources which is not just a repository with search/browse facilities but provides a host of services for the learner community. It is sponsored and mentored by Ministry of Education, Government of India, through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT). Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI provides user group-specific services such as Examination Preparatory for School and College students and job aspirants. Services for Researchers and general learners are also provided. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for 10 most widely used Indian languages. It is built to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access ...
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WCA-2 BENSITENG China, WCA-2 Cerium Oxide polishing powder Color white Parameter REO≥90% CeO2/REO≥65% D50 1.5-2.0um D90 ≤3.2um Suspension Good Packing 20kg/drum Application: Excellent
Solvays CERIUM OXIDE HSA 8 is used for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) for the manufacture of semi-conductors.CMP is a process to planarize the relief on the surface of silicon oxide, polysilicon an metal layers. It is used to planarize these layers in order to prepare them for the lithographic steps .
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Example No. 1 2 3 4 5 Glass material G1 G1 G2 G2 G2 Plate thickness 1 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 before lapping (mm) Lapping First Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond process stage pellets #1000 pad 4 μm pad 9 μm pad 9 μm pad 9 μm Processing pressure (kPa) 4 6 4 4 4 Revolution speed (rpm) 25 30 30 30 30 Processing rate (μm/min) 14 10 25 25 25 Ra after processing (μm) 0.5 0.08 0.18 0.18 0.18 Plate thickness 0.785 0.785 0.785 0.785 0.785 after lapping (mm) Second Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond Diamond stage pad 4 μm pad 2 μm pad 4 μm pad 4 μm pad 4 μm Processing pressure (kPa) 4 5 4 4 4 Revolution speed (rpm) 30 30 30 30 30 Processing rate (μm/min) 6 5 7 7 7 Ra after processing (μm) 0.04 0.012 0.05 0.05 0.05 Plate thickness 0.675 0.675 0.675 0.675 0.675 after lapping (mm) Polishing First Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane Hard urethane process stage foam foam foam foam foam Polishing agent; Cerium oxide Cerium oxide Cerium oxide Cerium oxide ...
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Based on these very promising results, our supplemental investigation proposes to conduct studies that will enable the filing of an Investigational New Drug application, to further move CeONP down the drug development pipeline. Prior to a drug being tested for human use, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic studies need to be performed to assure the drug will be relatively safe. We will conduct these studies in our supplemental investigation. Immediate safety and toxicity will be assessed at two doses. Additionally, we will determine how CeONP are distributed in the body and determine what organs they accumulate in. We will examine tissues for histopathology and adverse effects. Further, since nanoparticles may persist in the system after initial delivery, we will also examine histopathology and biodistribution at six months after administration ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are promising materials for intracellular oxygen free radical scavenging providing a potential therapy for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammatory processes. In this study rhombohedral-shaped nanoceria were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis with tuneable particle diameters between 3 and 94 nm by changing the liquid precursor flow rate. Monocytes and macrophages are major players in inflammatory processes as their production of ROS species has important downstream effects on cell signalling. Therefore, this study examined the ability of the nanoceria to be internalised by the human monocytic cell line, U937, and scavenge intracellular ROS. U937 cells activated in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were found to be more responsive to the nanoceria than U937 cells, which may not be surprising given the role of monocyte/macrophages in phagocytosing foreign material. The smaller particles were found to contain more crystal ...
Optical grade cerium for use on all quartz, agate and jasper. It also produces a great polish on petrified wood, coral, obsidian and man-made glasses including goldstone. Many people prefer cerium for tumbling feldspar materials such as moonstone, labradorite, sunstone and amazonite. 1.5 microns average particle siz
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of highly active nano-sized Pt/CeO2 catalyst via a cerium hydroxy carbonate precursor for water gas shift reaction. AU - Potdar, Hari S.. AU - Jeong, Dae Woon. AU - Kim, Ki Sun. AU - Roh, Hyun Seog. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments This work is financially supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as Human Resource Development Project for Energy from Waste & Recycling. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0002521). This work was supported by The Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies Grant funded by Korea Government (MEST, Basic Research Promotion Fund).. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - A novel precipitation/digestion route has been developed to synthesize crystalline cerium hydroxy carbonate (CHC: Ce(OH)CO3) by using an equimolar quantity of cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3• 6H2O) and mixed ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetics of the methylene blue oxidation by cerium(iv) in sulphuric acid solutions. AU - Katafias, A.. AU - Kita, P.. AU - Wrzeszcz, G.. AU - Mills, A.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - The oxidation of methylene blue (MB+) by cerium(IV) was studied in 0.1-5 M H2SO4. The reaction proceeds via MB radical (MB2+•) formed by one electron transfer to the oxidant. The radical is observed spectrophotometrically by a very intense absorbance at λmax = 526 nm and by the e.p.r signal at g = 2.000. The kinetics of the fast radical formation are two orders of magnitude slower than its decomposition, which were examined using a stopped-flow method at 298 K under pseudo-first order conditions. The rate laws for the both steps were determined and a likely mechanism reported.. AB - The oxidation of methylene blue (MB+) by cerium(IV) was studied in 0.1-5 M H2SO4. The reaction proceeds via MB radical (MB2+•) formed by one electron transfer to the oxidant. The radical is observed ...
Co3O4 promoted CeO2 nanocubes have been found to exhibit outstanding catalytic activity for the oxidation of diesel soot at low temperatures (50% soot conversion = 606 K). This remarkable performance is attributed to the superior reducible nature of cerium oxide and the preferential exposure of CeO2 (100) an RACI100: Celebrating Australian Chemistry
Purpose: We have previously shown that cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) catalytically scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and can long-term inhibit retinal degeneration in tubby mice and inhibit/regress neovascularization in vldlr-/- mice. However, the toxicity of nanoceria retention in the retina was unknown. The current study is proposed to address this point.. Methods: Wild type (C57BL/6J) mice at P30 were intravitreally injected with increasing doses of nanoceria (0.1mM, 0.3mM, 1mM, 3mM and 10mM) in 1µl saline. Saline injection and uninjected mice served as controls. Retinal structure, ONL (outer nuclear layer) thickness and cellular infiltration were analyzed using H & E stained slides at post injection (PI) 7h, 3d, 7d, 15d and 30d. Retinal function was evaluated with electroretinography at PI 30d. The fundus abnormality and angiogenesis were assessed with fundoscopy and fluorescence angiography. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and markers of activation of ...
2008/3/17· The best method is using Cerium Oxide with a drill that is converted to use a felt polishing wheel; you mix the cerium oxide with water, then apply to the polishing wheel and then polish the scratch. Keep applying the water and cerium oxide to the glass; as the glass gets very hot and may crack or shatter, so try to keep it cool. ...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are of significant interest to the scientific community due to their widespread applications in a variety of fields. It i
This mineral comes from the nickel rich bauxite deposits at Nisi, Greece. The series is then complete with bastnasite (having near 100% fluorines) and hydroxylcarbonate (with near 100% hydroxides) as the two end members and hydroxylbastnasite as the intermediate member. The structure of the three minerals is made up of stacks of carbonate ion layers and Ce(OH, F) layers. The Ce(OH, F) layers form flat hexagonal sheets with each cerium bonded to three fluorines and visa-versa. The carbonate layers are more complex with angled carbonate triangular groups. The structure is closely studied because it is one of the few rare earth mineral structures that can accommodate variously sized cations. Hydroxylbastnasite (also spelled hydroxyl-bastnasite) has cerium, lanthanum and neodymium in its generalized formula but officially the mineral is divided into three minerals based on the predominant rare earth element found in specimens. There is Hydroxylbastnasite-(Ce) with a more accurate formula of (Ce, ...
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Facts about Cerium talk about the chemical element in the periodic table which has the atomic number 58. The symbol of the element is Ce. Cerium is very easy to
Increased viability of fibroblasts when pretreated with ceria nanoparticles during serum deprivation Francielli S Genier,1 Maximilian Bizanek,1 Thomas J Webster,1,2 Amit K Roy1,2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE), Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Conditions of cellular stress are often the cause of cell death or dysfunction. Sustained cell stress can lead to several health complications, such as extensive inflammatory responses, tumor growth, and necrosis. To prevent disease and protect human tissue during these conditions and to avoid medication side effects, nanomaterials with unique characteristics have been applied to biological systems. This paper introduces the pretreatment in human dermal fibroblasts with cerium oxide nanoparticles during nutritional stress. For this purpose, human dermal fibroblast cells received cell culture media with concentrations of
Surface area reduction of a cerium dioxide powder is studied at 900 K in a HCI, H|sub|2|/sub|O, and O|sub|2|/sub| atmosphere. The rate of surface area decrease is determined as a function of the surface chloride content and of the partial pressure of hydrogen chloride. It is shown that particle growth occurs due to the surface diffusion of cerium and hydroxyl ions, which results from hydrogen chloride adsorption. Adsorbed chloride ions react to give gaseous chlorine. The rate-determining step of the process of initial coarsening is hydrogen chloride fixation at the surface of cerium dioxide particles
Organocerium compounds are chemical compounds that contain one or more chemical bond between carbon and cerium. Organocerium chemistry is the corresponding science exploring properties, structure and reactivity of these compounds. In general, organocerium compounds are not isolable, and are rather studied in solution via their reactions with other species. There are notable exceptions, such as the Cp*3Ce(III) complex shown at right, but they are relatively rare. Complexes involving cerium of various oxidation states are known: though lanthanides are most stable in the +3 state, complexes of cerium(IV) have been reported. These latter compounds have found less widespread use due to their oxidizing nature, and the majority of literature regarding organometallic cerium complexes involves the +3 oxidation state. In particular, organocerium compounds have been developed extensively as non-basic carbon nucleophiles in organic synthesis. Because cerium is relatively non-toxic, they serve as an ...
In this study, a new cerium phosphate (CePO4)-doped sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membranes were synthesized by using solution casting method with different CePO4 loading. Their performance and durability were investigated for proton exchange membranes fuel cells. Different techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical tests (DMA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses were used to characterize the synthesized membranes. Water uptake (WU) and swelling properties as well as ion exchange capacities (IEC) of synthesized membranes were also determined. Fuel cell performance, durability, and Fenton tests for oxidative stability of the synthesized membranes were also investigated. Experimental results showed that addition of CePO4 up to 10% by weight improved the membrane properties. 10 wt% CePO4-doped membrane possessed a good proton conductivity of ...
A phosphor comprising an effective amount of cerium to provide luminescence, and the balance substantially an oxide compound of hafnium and an alkaline earth from the group consisting of barium, strontium, calcium, and mixtures thereof, having substantially a perovskite crystal form.
KeithBinns/iStockBy IBTISSEM GUENFOUD and GUY DAVIES, ABC News. (PARIS and LONDON) - An explosion at a warehouse stocked with 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate in the Beirut port changed the face of a city almost instantly.. The exact cause of the Beirut blast is still under investigation, but the catastrophic effects of ammonium nitrate were there for all to see: A massive explosion causing shock waves throughout the city and a mushroom cloud of smoke billowing high into the sky.. So far, at least 137 are confirmed dead, including one American, and over 5.000 were injured in the blast, according to the Lebanese authorities.. But, according to experts, ammonium nitrate is not itself classified as dangerous, and requires a lot of energy to ignite.. [Ammonium nitrate] is a great fertilizer for growing plants, but its also wonderful as an explosive, Jimmy Oxley, a chemistry professor at the University of Rhode Island, told ABC News. 200 factories make ammonium nitrate around the world… They are ...
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Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher ...
Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO), is by far the best UV blocking material in existence, superior to other UV blocks including titanium dioxide, cerium oxide, and zinc oxide.
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The substitution of a methyl to an octyl group in the ancillary triazolylidene ligand-an apparently simple variation-induces a more than 10-fold increase of activity of the corresponding iridium complex in water oxidation catalysis when using cerium(IV) as sacrificial oxidant. Detailed NMR studies suggest that various different molecular species form, all bearing the intact triazolylidene ligand. The octyl substituent is essential for inducing the association of the iridium species, thus generating extraordinarily active multimetallic catalytic sites. Their accessibility and steady-state concentration is critically dependent on the type of sacrificial oxidant and specifically on the cerium ammonium nitrate versus catayst ratio.. ...
Materials with inherent oxygen excess are of great interest for high-temperature electrochemical applications, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen permeation membranes due to their rapid ion conductivity. Cerium niobate has received a lot of attention recently due to its rapid oxide ion conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (500-650 °C). Cerium niobate has several interesting characteristics, such as the range of excess oxygen structures that stabilise in the monoclinic crystal system and the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal crystal structures associated with a change in ionic conductivity. During this work the first single crystal study of CeNbO4 has been performed and as a result of the higher quality of data available with single crystal diffraction a correction to the space group reported in literature has been suggested. Furthermore, single crystals have been thermally treated in order to synthesis the excess oxygen modulated structures. CeNbO4.25 ...
YTTRIUM [symbol, Y; atomic weight, 89.0 (O = 16)], a metallic chemical clement. In its character yttrium is closely allied to, and in nature is always associated with, cerium, lanthanum, didymium and erbium (see Rare Earths). For the preparation of yttrium compounds the best raw material is gadolinite, which, according to König, consists of 22.61% of silica, 34.64 of yttria, Y2O3, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium. The extraction (as is the case with all the rare earths) is a matter of great difficulty. Metallic yttrium is obtainable as a dark grey powder by reducing the chloride with potassium, or by electrolysing the double chloride of yttrium and sodium. It decomposes water slowly in the cold, and more rapidly on heating. Yttria, Y2O3, is a yellowish white powder, which at high temperatures radiates out a most brilliant while light. It is soluble, slowly but completely, in mineral acids. It is recognized by its very ...
The International Journal of Analytical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles reporting new experimental results and methods, especially in relation to important analytes, difficult matrices, and topical samples. Focussed review articles are also welcomed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactions of ceria supported rhodium with hydrogen and nitric oxide studied with TPR/TPO and XPS techniques. AU - Padeste, Celestino. AU - Cant, Noel W.. AU - Trimm, David L.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - The reactions of ceria supported rhodium with H2 and NO have been investigated by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In precious metal/ceria systems, both the support and the precious metal may be subject to reduction and reoxidation processes. Since partly reduced ceria is an ion-conducting material, the electrical charging of the whole sample during the XPS measurements depends on the oxidation state of the supporting ceria. Thus, the charging can be used as a sensitive indicator of the oxidation state of the support material which allows distinction between reactions of the support and of the precious metal. Rhodium oxide precursors are reduced to Rh0 at temperatures below 200°C, but a ...
worldnow id=8848977 width=420 height=278 type=video]. WEST (CBS 11 NEWS) - Investigators have now ruled what many have suspected: the ammonium nitrate stored at the West Fertilizer Companys plant exploded.. But the 29 state and federal agencies involved in the probe still dont know what triggered the blast, and the fire that began at the facility before that.. On Monday, the state announced the fire began in the fertilizer and seed building, but that investigators ruled out that the blaze began in the bin holding the ammonium nitrate.. ...
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Abstract Electrospun nanofibers with designed or controlled structures have drawn much attention. In this study, we report an interesting new closed-loop structure in individual cerium nitrate/polyvinyl alcohol (Ce(NO3)3/PVA) and NaCl/PVA fibers, which are fabricated by electrospinning with a nail collector. The electrospinning parameters such as voltage and Ce(NO3)3 (or NaCl) concentration are examined for the formation of the closed-loop structure. The results suggest that the increase of the spinning voltage or addition of Ce(NO3)3 (or NaCl) is favorable for the formation of the closed-loop structure, and the increase of loop numbers and the decrease of loop size. Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism of the closed-loop fibers can be predominantly attributed to the Coulomb repulsion in the charged jets ...
AMS 4439F results from a Five Year Review and update of this specification. The title has been changed to from 1.2 Ce to 1.2 Rare Earths. The chemistry table has been changed from Cerium [total rare earths] to Total Rare Earths.. ...
Abstract In this work, we present our attempts on the the processing of nano ceramic electrolyte and electrodes (anode and cathode) materials for low temperature grade solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFC). The studies on the processing parameters and heat treament were discussed. The phase identification, morphology and electrical properties were also studied. Part I: Combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria and nano grained dense ceria electrolyte by convencional solid-state route and its sintering characteristics studies were attempted. Accordingly, Gd3+ doped nanocrystalline ceria (GDC - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) was prepared by nitrate-fuel combustión technique followed by calcination at 700°C for 2h. The nanopowders were uni-axially pressed into cylindrical discs followed by sintering at 1200°C for 2h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrsoscopy analyses resulted in the gadolinium oxide was completely disolved into ceria solid solution with single phase fluorite structure and
New York - Oliver Wyman and RapidRatings today announced the launch of Oliver Wyman CommForecaster, a secure, online-based loss forecasting and stress testing platform built to help financial institutions-primarily banks-manage their commercial and industrial (C&I) loan portfolios of public and private obligors, while adhering to CECL standards and informing other exercises.. CommForecaster, an Oliver Wyman solution powered by RapidRatings, equips a wide range of bank executives with the ability to conduct their commercial and industrial loan portfolio risk measurement and management responsibilities with a greater degree of confidence. Not only does the platform forecast C&I loan losses accurately, CommForecaster also delivers robust, quantitative, fundamentals-based scenario analysis to authoritatively challenge incumbent models and better inform CECL, CCAR, DFAST and internal stress-testing exercises. In addition, CommForecaster allows effective reserve planning management, while ensuring ...
Another electron arrangement unique to the lanthanides series is that the 5s and 5p orbitals penetrate into the 4f-subshell. This has the effect that 4f-subshell electrons are not shielded from the increasing positive nuclear charge and that means that the attractive force makes the radii of their orbitals contract so they nudge closer to the nucleus. This means that the radii (physical size) of the lanthanide atoms actually decreases as atomic number increases. For example, the atomic radius of cerium (second lightest lanthanide, Z=58) is 2.70 angstroms across and the atomic radius of lutetium (heaviest lanthanide, Z=71) is just 2.25 angstroms. As proton number increases and radius decreases, the ionization energy (the energy you need to pull an electron into a higher energy shell or the energy released as it returns to ground state) increases, as you might expect. Increasing ionization energy means that outermost electrons are held more and more tightly to the atom. Density, hardness and ...
Sulfite is a well-known reductant. Oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by acidified permanganate, cerium(IV) or hydrogen peroxide is feebly chemiluminescent;[1] exploitation of the weak chemiluminescence improved the detectivity of atmospheric sulfur dioxide by a factor of 50. A proposed mechanism comprised an initial oxidation of HSO3― to S2O62― , which then disproportionates to SO42― and excited SO2, which emits visible light. Sulfites undergo an addition reaction with carbonyl compounds and addition of cyclohexanone to protect sulfite solutions against atmospheric oxidation led to the observation that this, at appropriate concentrations, enhanced the oxidative chemiluminescence. Light emission is also sensitized by other cyclohexyl compounds. Paulls and Townshend have suggested that the enhancement depends on β-sultine formation and have shown that the phenomenon occurs generally with higher cycloalkyl compounds, the optimum ring size being nine.. Fused cycloalkane rings also enhance ...
An alcohol steam reforming catalyst for generating hydrogen contains palladium, yttrium, and at least one of cerium and a metal oxide. The catalyst displays both an improved alcohol conversion rate and improved carbon dioxide selectivity. Methods of making and using the alcohol steam reforming catalyst are described.
to name a couple. Mixite is probably the best known of these, but is still a rare mineral by most considerations. It forms in the oxidation zone of metal ores that probably contained primary bismuth sulfides such as emplectite. As a mineral collection specimen, mixite is truly a wonderful addition. It forms nice radial clusters called spherules, made up of fine acicular crystals. The color is typically a brilliant green of one shade or another coupled with an attractive silky luster. Mixite lends its name to a small group of rather obscure minerals called the Mixite Group. The Mixite Group is a group of hexagonal, hydrated copper arsenate and phosphate hydroxides with a general formula of ACu6(XO4)3(OH)6 - 3H2O The A in the formula can be either bismuth, aluminum, calcium, cerium, lanthanum, yttrium, neodymium or thorium. The X can be either arsenic or phosphorous. These are the members of the Mixite Group: ...
Frit is a mixture of inorganic chemical substances produced by rapidly quenching a molten, complex combination of materials, confining the chemical substances thus manufactured as nonmigratory components of glassy solid flakes or granules. This category includes all of the chemical substances specified below when they are intentionally manufactured in the production of frit. The primary members of this category are oxides of some or all of the elements listed below. Fluorides of these elements may also be included in combination with these primary [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] ...
Frit is a mixture of inorganic chemical substances produced by rapidly quenching a molten, complex combination of materials, confining the chemical substances thus manufactured as nonmigratory components of glassy solid flakes or granules. This category includes all of the chemical substances specified below when they are intentionally manufactured in the production of frit. The primary members of this category are oxides of some or all of the elements listed below. Fluorides of these elements may also be included in combination with these primary [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] ...
A nickel-base superalloy article substrate has more nickel than any other element and a nominal bulk composition of carbon. A protective layer is deposited overlying the surface of the article substrate. The protective layer includes aluminum and one or more of the reactive elements hafnium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, and cerium. The depositing of the protective layer includes steps of decarburizing locations where the carbon may serve as a barrier to the mobility of the reactive elements within the protective layer, and depositing an aluminum-containing protective layer overlying the substrate. The decreasing of the carbon concentration may be accomplished. by decarburizing the substrate, depositing a platinum-containing layer and then decarburizing, depositing an aluminum-containing layer in a reducing atmosphere, and/or decarburizing the deposited protective layer. A ceramic thermal barrier coating may be deposited overlying the protective layer.
Commonly used oxidants in redox polymerization include peroxides, cerium(IV) salts, sodium hypochloride, persulfates, peroxydiphophate, and permanganate. Reducing agents are, for example, the salts of metals like Fe, Cr, Ce, Tf Co, Cu, oxoacids of sulfur, hydroxyacids, [Pg.54] ...
Catalyst shaped bodies containing as active composition a multielement oxide i of the general stoichiometry i bi1wbox a mo12z1 cz2 dfeez3 fz4 gz5 hoy 1 i, where z1 ni or co, z2 alkali metal or alkaline earth metal, z3 zinc, phosphorus, arsenic , boron, antimony, tin, cerium, vanadium, chromium or bismuth, z4 silicon, aluminum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, z5 copper, silver.
Solid inorganic polymers are derivatives of phosphorous or phosphonic acids which contain cyclic organo groups selected from the group consisting of alicyclics, aromatics and heterocyclics. They are characterized by the structural linkage of three oxygens bonded to phosphorus to one or more tetravalent metals selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, cerium, hafnium, lead, thorium and uranium. The molar ratio of phosphorus to tetravalent metal is about 2 to 1. One use for the polymers is as stationary phases or supports in chromatography.
In vitro experimentation Construction of replication-defective adenoviral vectors. The OPGΔ cDNA was transferred from the mOPGΔ pCEP4 construct into the shuttle vector pTrackCMV using the pAdEasy-1 system ( 27). Recombinant adenoviral plasmids recovered by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli were transfected into 911 cells. Appropriate recombinant plaques containing mOPG were isolated, propagated and titrated. Adenovirus containing GFP was used as a control (Ad-EGFP).. In vivo experimentations Rat osteosarcoma model. The osteosarcoma was initially induced by a local injection of colloidal radioactive 144cerium in rats ( 28). The evolution of the tumor is comparable at the temporal (ratio 1:100 between rats and humans) and physiologic levels to the development of human osteosarcoma. The tumor can be regrafted as described above and maintained in vivo for many months, or fragments can be frozen until reuse. Lung metastases are observed in 75% to 90% of rats bearing advanced malignant ...
Thin carbonaceous laminations preserved in shallow-water facies of the 3416 Ma Buck Reef Chert, South Africa, have been interpreted to represent some of the oldest-known mats constructed by photosynthetic microbes. Preservation of these mats within a unit containing facies deposited at water depths ranging from 0 m to ,200 m provides an opportunity to explore the electron donors employed in early microbial photosynthesis. The presence of siderite (FeCO3) as a primary sediment, lack of hematite (Fe2O3), and lack of cerium anomalies throughout the Buck Reef Chert imply that the entire water column was anoxic despite the presence of photosynthetic organisms. Authigenic uranium (Ua = U-Th/3) correlates inversely with siderite abundance, suggesting that variations in carbonate rather than oxygen activity controlled uranium mobility. The inferred lack of oxygen and ferric minerals and the presence of dissolved Fe2+ in the water column imply that H2O, Fe2+, and H2S could not have served as primary ...
The BZ reaction is an example of a chemical oscillator, a system which instead of arriving at a steady state transitions between two different chemical states (which two states have two different colors, whence the waves above). Boris Belousov discovered it in the 1950s when he happened to mix together potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, propanedioic acid and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid (hell, why not?); he made two attempts to publish his findings, but was rejected from peer-reviewed journals because he couldnt explain why the oscillations occurred ...
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CAS 7757-79-1 6484-52-2 PETERS PROFESSIONAL SOLUBLE FERTILIZER potassium nitrateammonium nitrate (solution) (sara iii) msds toxicity property
In 2019, Export of Double Salts and Mixtures of Calcium Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrate from Egypt was 924549 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster!
One typically determines the heat capacity of the aqueous solution (Csoln) from the mass of the solution (msoln) and the specific heat capacity of the solution (ssoln). The mass of the solution is the sum of the masses of the water and ammonium nitrate originally placed in the calorimeter. The specific heat capacity of the aqueous solution is usually close to that of pure water (4.184 J oC-1 g-1).. The objective of this experiment is to determine the heat of reaction (in this case a heat of solution). The above equations can be combined and rearranged to yield a working equation:. qrxn = - qcal - qsoln = - ( Ccal + msoln ssoln ) ( Tf - Ti ) Just as the heat capacity of a substance is an extensive property, so the heat of solution is an extensive property. It is generally more convenient to report intensive properties, thus the heat capacity of a substance is usually reported as a specific heat capacity, that is, the heat capacity per gram of substance. Similarly one can report a specific heat of ...
The 2013 World Market Forecasts for Imported Fertilizers, Double Salts, and Mixtures of Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Nitrate This report was created for strategic planners, - Market research report and industry analysis - 7467803
Ammonium nitrate was about one-tenth the price of tetrazole, according to Upham, who also reviewed industry patents. But ammonium nitrate had a critical flaw that he says led other air bag makers to give up on it: Ammonium nitrate has five phases of varying density that make it hard to keep stable over time. A propellant made with ammonium nitrate would swell and shrink with temperature changes, and eventually the tablet would break down into powder. Water and humidity would speed the process. Powder burns more quickly than a tablet, so an air bag whose propellant had crumbled would be likely to deploy too aggressively. The controlled explosion would be just an explosion. Everybody went down a certain road, and only Takata went down another road, says Jochen Siebert, whos followed the air bag industry since the 1990s and is now managing director of JSC Automotive Consulting. If you read the conference papers from back then, you can actually see that people said, No, you shouldnt. Its ...
Source: Al-Mayadeen, Lebanese TV channel pro-Hezbollah, August 5th, 2020 Translation: resistancenews.org Video: https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x7vf2l2 Transcript: Greetings. Anyone who sees these photos will find it hard to believe that they show the Beirut port just 24 hours ago, full of life, before being (completely) destroyed by (the explosion) of (hundreds of) tons of ammonium nitrate, stored in…