TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-gated K+ channels in rat small cerebral arteries. T2 - Molecular identity of the functional channels. AU - Albarwani, Sulayma. AU - Nemetz, Leah T.. AU - Madden, Jane A.. AU - Tobin, Ann A.. AU - England, Sarah K.. AU - Pratt, Phillip F.. AU - Rusch, Nancy J.. PY - 2003/9/15. Y1 - 2003/9/15. N2 - Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent an important dilator influence in the cerebral circulation, but the composition of these tetrameric ion channels remains unclear. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of Kv1 family channels to the resting membrane potential and diameter of small rat cerebral arteries, and to identify the α-subunit composition of these channels using patch-clamp, molecular and immunological techniques. Initial studies indicated that 1 μmol l-1 correolide (COR), a specific antagonist of Kv1 channels, depolarized vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in pressurized (60 mmHg cerebral arteries from -55 ± 1 mV to -34 ± 1 mV, ...
The isolated cat cerebral arteries (basilar, middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, and internal carotid) were studied in vitro. ACh at low concentration (3 x 10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) induced relaxation, and at high concentration (10(-5) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction of the arteries with endothelial cells. In contrast, concentration of any magnitude (10(-6) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction exclusively in arteries without endothelium. Atropine (3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-5) M) blocked and physostigmine (3 x 10(-6) M) potentiated both ACh-induced relaxation and constriction. These results suggest that the relaxation induced by exogenous ACh is solely dependent on the endothelial cells and that the primary effect of the direct action of ACh on the smooth muscle cells is constriction. Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) induced a frequency-dependent relaxation in the arteries with or without endothelium. Neither atropine nor physostigmine affected the TNS-induced dilator response in either ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator that was initially described as the mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxation (endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF). It is now known that NO is produced by a variety of other cell types.. Endothelium produces NO (EDRF) under basal conditions and in response to a variety of vasoactive stimuli in large cerebral arteries and the cerebral microcirculation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation is impaired in the presence of several pathophysiological conditions. This impairment may contribute to cerebral ischemia or stroke. Activation of glutamate receptors appears to be a major stimulus for production of NO by neurons. Neuronally derived NO may mediate local increases in cerebral blood flow during increases in cerebral metabolism. NO synthase-containing neurons also innervate large cerebral arteries and cerebral arterioles on the brain surface. Activation of parasympathetic fibers that innervate cerebral vessels produces NO-dependent increases in ...
The purpose of the study was to highlight the acute motor reflex adaptation and to deepen functional deficits following a middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO-r). Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were included in this study. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; 120 min) was performed on 16 rats studied at 1 and 7 days, respectively (MCAO-D1 and MCAO-D7, n = 8 for each group). The other animals were divided into 3 groups: SHAM-D1 (n = 6), SHAM-D7 (n = 6) and Control (n = 8). Rats performed 4 behavioral tests (the elevated body swing test, the beam balance test, the ladder-climbing test and the forelimb grip force) before the surgery and daily after MCAO-r. H-reflex on triceps brachii was measured before and after isometric exercise. Infarction size and cerebral edema were respectively assessed by histological (Cresyl violet) and MRI measurements at the same time points than H-reflex recordings. Animals with cerebral ischemia showed persistent functional deficits during the ...
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Simultaneous measurements were made of spike activity and perfusion pressure (PA) in intact segments of rabbit middle cerebral artery in vitro. The segments were mounted on a Teflon tube designed so that the perfusing solution flowed in the annular space between the tube and the artery wall, thus magnifying the PA changes occurring when the artery constricted or dilated. A widened portion of the Teflon tube immobilized 1--2 mm of the artery segment for electrical recording with fine glass microelectrodes. Spontaneous spike activity (extra- and intracellular) was regularly observed. When a steady PA and spike discharge was obtained, tests were performed by substituting for the normal perfusion liquid, solutions containing 5 microgram/ml norepinephrine, 5 microgram/ml angiotensin II or 7.5 microgram/ml isoproterenol. Norepinephrine and angiotensin each increased spike frequency (+ 293 and + 126%) and PA (+ 6.6 and + 7.9 mm Hg) whereas isoproterenol decreased spike frequency (-89%) and PA (-22.9 mm ...
Synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebral artery, posterior. 11 synonyms for artery: vein, blood vessel, route, way, course, round, road, passage, avenue, arteria, arterial blood vessel. What are synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior?
Recommendations from experts and recently established guidelines on how to improve the face and predictive validity of animal models of stroke have stressed the importance of using older animals and long-term behavioral-functional endpoints rather than relying almost exclusively on acute measures of infarct volume in young animals. The objective of the present study was to determine whether we could produce occlusions in older rats with an acceptable mortality rate and then detect reliable, long-lasting functional deficits. A reversible intraluminar suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure was used to produce small infarcts in middle-aged rats. This resulted in an acceptable mortality rate, and robust disabilities were detected in functional assays, although the degree of total tissue loss measured 90 d after MCAO was quite modest. Infarcted animals were functionally impaired relative to sham control animals even 90 d after the occlusions, and when animals were subgrouped based ...
Maintaining constant blood flow in the face of fluctuations in blood pressure is a critical autoregulatory feature of cerebral arteries. An increase in pressure within the artery lumen causes the vessel to constrict through depolarization and contraction of the encircling smooth muscle cells. This pressure-sensing mechanism involves activation of two types of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels: TRPC6 and TRPM4. We provide evidence that the activation of the γ1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLCγ1) is critical for pressure sensing in cerebral arteries. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), generated by PLCγ1 in response to pressure, sensitized IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) to Ca2+ influx mediated by the mechanosensitive TRPC6 channel, synergistically increasing IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release to activate TRPM4 currents, leading to smooth muscle depolarization and constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated colocalization of PLCγ1 and TRPC6 with TRPM4, suggesting ...
In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which TNF-α, a pleiotropic cytokine, regulates the diameter of small cerebral arteries. Our data indicate that TNF-α activates smooth muscle cell NAD(P)H oxidase, leading to the generation of ROS that activate Ca2+ sparks and thus transient KCa currents. The ensuing decrease in global [Ca2+]i leads to vasodilation. These findings show for the first time that an inflammatory mediator that is central to a variety of vascular diseases induces vasodilation through Ca2+ spark activation.. TNF-α is produced in the brain during ischemia and is implicated in the etiology of several cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, cardiac failure, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis (15, 46). TNF-α is reported to induce both vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Topical application of TNF-α dilated cerebral arterioles (7, 37), whereas intracranial injection of TNF-α induced cerebrovascular constriction and reduced blood flow (29, 38, 44). ...
Shaker-type, voltage-gated K+ (KV1) channels are an important determinant of the resting membrane potential and diameter of small cerebral arteries. During hype...
Hardening of the arteries in the brain or other parts of the body is known as atherosclerosis, and it is typically caused by an accumulation of LDL cholesterol in the arteries, WebMD reports....
Research says, 3D ultrasound can compensate for the thickness of the skull and image the brains arteries in real time. Research says, 3D ultrasound can compensate for the thickness of the skull and image the brains arteries in real time.Experts believe that these advances will ultimately improve the treatment of
BRAIN DAMAGING HABITS. 1.. No BreakfastPeople who do not take breakfast are going to have a lower blood. sugar level. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the. brain causing brain degeneration.. 2. . Overeating=2 0It causes hardening of the brain arteries, leading to a decrease in. mental power.. 3.. SmokingIt causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer disease.. 4.. High Sugar consumptionToo much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causing malnutrition and may. interfere with brain development.. 5.. Air PollutionThe brain is the largest oxygen consumer in our 20 body. Inhaling polluted air decreases the supply of. oxygen to the brain, bringing about a decrease in brain efficiency.. 6. . Sleep DeprivationSleep allows our brain to rest.. Long term deprivation from sleep will accelerate the death of brain. cells... 7.. Head covered while sleepingSleeping with the head covered increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and ...
A stroke is a medical emergency characterized a blocked or ruptured brain artery that interrupts the flow of oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain....
I had a stroke in November 2009. MRI showed infarc in the back of my brain at lower right. An angigram was done this month that showed that the right cerbral artery was completely blocked while the lef...
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This paper presents a method for the visual quantification of cerebral arteries, known as the Circle of Willis (CoW). The CoW is an arterial structure that is responsible for the brains blood supply. Dysfunctions of this ...
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Backghround: To analyze the co-occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions in CT angiograms of extra- and intracranial arteries in patients with cerebral circulation insufficiency.Material and Methods: Extra- and intracranial CTA was performed in 70 patien...
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J Mol Neurosci. DOI 10.1007/s12031 -017-0944-7. CrossMark. Proteomic Expression Changes in Large Cerebral Arteries After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat Are Regulated by the MEK-ERK1/2 Pathway. Anne H. Müller1 • Alistair V.G. Edwards2 • Martin R. Larsen2 • Janne Nielsen1 • Karin Warfvinge1,3 • Gro K. Povlsen1 • Lars Edvinsson1,3. Received: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 # The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication. Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious clinical condition where leakage of blood into the subarachnoid space causes an acute rise in intracranial pressure and reduces cerebral blood flow, which may lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. In experimental SAH, we have previously shown that the outcome can be significantly improved by early inhibition of the MAPK/ERK kinase/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway. The aim of this study was to apply mass spectrometry to investigate the ...
We have reported for the first time some characteristics of the membrane potential of SMCs of human pial arteries. The main finding of this study was that in these vessels rhythmic contractions were associated with generation of APs during spontaneous or K+-induced depolarization. The resting membrane potential of human pial arteries in vitro varied between −40 and −70 mV. The membrane potential of SMCs in rhythmically constricting arteries was significantly less negative than that of the silent ones. This finding indicates that spontaneous activity may be the result of a depolarized state of SMCs. The incidence of spontaneous activity was higher in those arteries that were obtained from patients ,40 years old. Therefore, we cannot exclude an influence of age-related vascular changes or of disease on the determined properties of human pial arteries. Periodic spontaneous activity has been demonstrated in human coronary arteries22 23 24 and was most frequent in vessels taken from older ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-Dependent Differences in Physical Exercise-Mediated Cognitive Recovery Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats. AU - Cohan, Charles H.. AU - Youbi, Mehdi. AU - Saul, Isabel. AU - Ruiz, Alex A.. AU - Furones, Concepcion C.. AU - Patel, Pujan. AU - Perez, Edwin. AU - Raval, Ami P.. AU - Dave, Kunjan R.. AU - Zhao, Weizhao. AU - Dong, Chuanhui. AU - Rundek, Tatjana. AU - Koch, Sebastian. AU - Sacco, Ralph L.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. PY - 2019/9/18. Y1 - 2019/9/18. N2 - Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. No current treatments exist to promote cognitive recovery in survivors of stroke. A previous study from our laboratory determined that an acute bout of forced treadmill exercise was able to promote cognitive recovery in 3 month old male rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 6 days of intense acute bout of forced treadmill exercise (physical exercise - PE) ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
Migraine attacks are conventionally thought to involve a dysfunction in the regulation of tone in intra- and extracranial blood vessels. A number of agents have been suggested as responsible for the altered vasomotor responses seen in conjunction with migraine attacks. Previous histochemical studies have shown that human cerebral arteries are surrounded by adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres. In addition, peptide-containing nerve fibres, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have been observed around the cerebral blood vessels of laboratory animals. Few studies have been carried out on human temporal and cerebral arteries, but none on meningeal arteries. This chapter examines the distribution of NPY-, VIP-, SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive fibres around the three types of human cranial arteries and compared the pharmacological effects of the perivascularly located neuropeptides on arterial segments. ...
Looking for online definition of cerebral artery in the Medical Dictionary? cerebral artery explanation free. What is cerebral artery? Meaning of cerebral artery medical term. What does cerebral artery mean?
Thrombosis of a cerebral artery. The cerebral thrombosis (obstruction of a cerebral artery by thrombus) or cerebral embolism (obstruction of a cerebral artery by an element coming from another part of the body) leads to an ischemia (reduction of the blood intake), verily a cerebral infarction (death or necrosis of the unirrigated region of the brain). - Stock Image C006/3975
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CGRP plays a major role in the pathophysiology of migraine. Concomitant, CGRP plays a role in endogenous neurovascular protection from severe vasoconstriction associated with e.g. cerebral or cardiac ischemia. The CGRP antagonistic antibodies Fremanezumab (TEVA Pharmaceuticals) and Erenumab (Novartis/Amgen) have successfully been developed for the prevention of frequent migraine attacks. Whereas these antibodies might challenge endogenous neurovasular protection during severe cerebral or coronary vasoconstriction, potential future therapeutic CGRP agonists might induce migraine-like headaches in migraineurs. In the current study segments of cerebral artery have been used to obtain mechanistic insight of the CGRP-neutralizing anti-body Fremanezumab in neurovascular regulation in vitro. The basilar artery was selected due to its relevance in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Erenumab is known to block the human CGRP receptor and Fremanezumab to neutralize both human and rat CGRP. Results confirmed ...
Strong correlations between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the risk of stroke have never been clearly established. Unlike coronary heart disease, there is no significant direct relation between an increased risk of stroke and increased plasma total cholesterol or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; nor is there an inverse relation with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.1 Indeed, an inverse relation exists between total cholesterol concentrations and cerebral haemorrhage.2. The reasons for this weak or absent relation are several. The most compelling is that virtually all coronary heart disease can be ascribed to coronary atheroma, whereas less than half the incidence of stroke is due to large vessel atheroma. Non-atheromatous causes such as cardiac arrhythmias, small cerebral artery disease, and cortical degeneration are responsible for most of the rest. Another is that, in general, coronary deaths occur at a younger age than strokes, so the population with raised plasma ...
In vitro pharmacological studies demonstrated that exogenously applied vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) relaxes the smooth muscle cells of cat cerebral arteries, whereas substance P constricts them. Ultrastructural-immunocytochemical techniques show that a VIP-like substance is present in the large granular vesicles of nonsympathetic nerve axons and terminals in the cerebral arterial walls. These results provide strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that a VIP-like substance is the transmitter for vasodilation in cerebral blood vessels. ...
Ischemia can also occur in the arteries of the brain, where blockages can lead to a stroke. About 80-85% of all strokes are ischemic. Most blockages in the cerebral arteries are due to a blood clot, often in an artery narrowed by plaque. Sometimes, a blood clot in the heart or aorta travels to a cerebral artery. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a "mini-stroke" caused by a temporary deficiency of blood supply to the brain. It occurs suddenly, lasts a few minutes to a few hours, and is a strong warning sign of an impending stroke. Ischemia can also effect intestines, legs, feet and kidneys. Pain, malfunctions, and damage in those areas may result ...
This study will determine the safety of 500mg of aspirin added to IV TPA at standard doses to prevent re-occlusion of cerebral vessels after successful reperfusion. In ischemic stroke brain arteries are occluded either by an embolus originating in the heart or large vessels leading to the brain or by a process of acute thrombosis of the cerebral arteries over a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Rupture of the plaque exposes thrombogenic elements within the plaque and leads to accumulation and activation of platelets and induction of the clotting cascade eventually leading to acute thrombosis and occlusion of the artery. TPA is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat heart and brain problems caused by blockage of arteries. It activates plasminogen and leads to disintegration of the thrombus/embolus. It is effective only if begun within 3 to 4.5 hours of onset of the stroke because of potential deleterious side effects including life threatening symptomatic intracranial ...
Authors: Allen, Rachael S. , Sayeed, Iqbal , Oumarbaeva, Yuliya , Morrison, Katherine C. , Choi, Paul H. , Pardue, Machelle T. , Stein, Donald G. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Background/Objective: To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. Methods: MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κ B, nuclear NF-κ B, phosphorylated NF-κ B, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Results: …Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κ B and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κ B at 24 h in brain and ...
Atherosclerosis, sometimes called "hardening of the arteries," occurs when cholesterol, calcium, and other substances build up in the inner lining of the arteries, forming a material called plaque. Over time, plaque buildup may narrow the artery and limit blood flow through it.. Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis in the heart (coronary) arteries. Peripheral arterial disease of the legs is atherosclerosis in the leg arteries. If atherosclerosis affects the brain arteries (carotid or cerebral arteries), a stroke can occur.. ...
Material and Method: After left frontoparietal craniectomy, the ICA and arterial circle of the brain were coagulated and transected, letting the middle cerebral artery be perfused by the contralateral ICA by way of the rostral cerebral artery in five mongrel dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed during the first 24 to 48 hours and 7 to 10 days after the operation. Paired t and Wilcoxon matched pair tests were used for statistics (p,0.05 ...
Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the third leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in more than 150,000 deaths per year. About 80 percent of strokes are caused by a decrease in blood flow to the brain (called ischemic strokes). This is usually the result of a blood clot that has formed within an artery to the brain or has formed elsewhere (e.g., the heart) and traveled to a brain artery, where it has become lodged. Loss of blood flow can also occur if the heart malfunctions and no longer pumps blood effectively. Strokes can also be caused by a break in a blood vessel, causing blood to flow into the brain, compressing and damaging brain tissue. These are referred to as hemorrhagic strokes.. Stroke types The most common causes of stroke are hypertension and atherosclerosis. In both cases, these result in damage to the arteries that feed the brain with blood and oxygen. ...
Endovascular therapy (group two) received a lower dose (0.09mg per kg bolus and 0.54mg/kilogram infusion over 40 minutes, maximum dose 53.6mg) or after Amendment #5, a standard dose of IV rt-PA (.9mg/kg with 10% as a bolus and the remainder over one hour) and then underwent an angiogram test (cerebral angiography) right after the medicine was given to check for blood clots. If a clot was not seen, then no more treatment was given. If a clot was seen, the neurointerventionalist chose (based on the location and extent of the blood clot) a protocol approved endovascular treatment given directly in the brain artery that would be most effective in reopening the blocked artery ...
Dr. Kemmling is using high-precision 3D printing to create models of brain arteries to personalize operations and reduce risks such as stroke.
Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. Neuron metabolism tolerates a brief period of interrupted oxygen and glucose delivery. Cell death is imminent after approximately ... more
This stock medical exhibit compares three coronal views of the head and brain to describe the Progression of Brain Ischemia. The following views are illustrated: 1- Initial infarct in the region of the left cerebral artery. 2- Generalized spread of hypoxia and swelling from the left to right side. 3- Involvement of the right cerebral artery with further brain damage.
Cerebral Cortex is a comprehensive and detailed work covering the dual nature of the organization of the architecture and connections of the cerebral cortex. After establishing the evolutionary approach of the cerebral cortexs origin, the authors have systematically analyzed, in detail, the common principle underlying the structure and connections of sensory and motor systems.
The cerebral cortex is a telencephalic structurepresent in some vertebrate species located at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres
I am a bit late on this, but here are my second annual Cerebral Cortex awards. These awards are for those things that I read, viewed or experienced in 2006 that made me think deeper, differently or extensively. Receiving the...
Hi all-- Can you please comment to help me confirm the appropriate 36000 series for this given cerebral angiogram scenario? Patient is normal arch art
Originally published 5/19/09 at www.jelletlambie.wordpress.com Dontrelle Willis needed this. He needed to step onto that mound at Comerica Park and feel the evening sun shine upon him, the clouds in retreat, the swirling winds at bay...
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J Neurosurg 127:725-731, 2017. The study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 320-detector row nonsubtracted and subtracted volume CT angiography (VCTA) in detecting small cerebral aneurysms (, 3 mm) compared with 3D digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA).. METHODS Six hundred sixty-two patients underwent 320-detector row VCTA and 3D DSA for suspected cerebral aneurysms. Five neuroradiologists independently reviewed VCTA and 3D DSA images. The 3D DSA was considered the reference standard, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of nonsubtracted and subtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were analyzed. A p value , 0.05 was considered a significant difference.. RESULTS According to 3D DSA images, 98 small cerebral aneurysms were identified in 90 of 662 patients. Nonsubtracted VCTA depicted 90 small aneurysms. Ten small aneurysms were missed, and 2 small aneurysms were misdiagnosed. The missed small aneurysms were located almost in the internal carotid artery, near bone tissue. ...
This exhibit features two color coded illustrations of the brain, highlighting the territory of the middle cerebral artery. The first illustration consists of a lateral brain with the middle cerebral artery in situ. The area of blood supplied by the middle cerebral artery is delineated in yellow. The second image color codes the various areas of function within the middle cerebral artery territory of the brain.