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Wang L & Liu Y. (2019). Signaling pathways in cerebellar granule cells development. Am J Stem Cells , 8, 1-6. PMID: 31139492 Shoja MM, Jensen CJ, Ramdhan R, Chern J, Oakes WJ & Tubbs RS. (2018). Embryology of the Craniocervical Junction and Posterior Cranial Fossa Part II: Embryogenesis of the hindbrain. Clin Anat , , . PMID: 29344994 DOI. Aldinger KA & Doherty D. (2016). The genetics of cerebellar malformations. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med , 21, 321-32. PMID: 27160001 DOI. Butts T, Green MJ & Wingate RJ. (2014). Development of the cerebellum: simple steps to make a little brain. Development , 141, 4031-41. PMID: 25336734 DOI. Voogd J. (2012). A note on the definition and the development of cerebellar Purkinje cell zones. Cerebellum , 11, 422-5. PMID: 22396330 DOI. Roussel MF & Hatten ME. (2011). Cerebellum development and medulloblastoma. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 94, 235-82. PMID: 21295689 DOI. Herculano-Houzel S. (2010). Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons. Front ...
BioAssay record AID 349212 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at RYR2 receptor in rat cerebellar granule neurons assessed activation of [45Ca2+] uptake at 20 uM after 10 mins.
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitor cells is critical for the normal development of the nervous system. Many factors can influence these events, including the neurotrophin family of factors. These processes have been extensively studied in cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP), the most abundant cell type in the brain, which undergo much of their development postnatally. GCPs proliferate in external granule layer (EGL), a transient layer of the cerebellum, and migrate internally to form the internal granule layer (IGL). In the external part of the EGL these cells proliferate, while in the internal part of the EGL the cells exit the cell cycle and start to migrae toward the inside of the developing cerebellum. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is highly expressed in the EGL during development of the cerebellum, and is absent once the cells begin to migrate. The function of p75NTR in this developing neuronal ...
Development of the vertebrate cerebellum is unusual compared to most other regions of the brain since it involves two germinal regions. Most cell types arise from the luminal, ventricular zone as in other brain regions, but granule cells arise from the second germinal layer, the external granular layer (EGL). Our analysis of the temporal and positional expression of three members of the Sox gene family of transcription factors in the cerebellum shows that granule cell development is unusual compared to most other neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). We show that granule cell precursors lose expression of cSox2 and cSox3 as they migrate to form the EGL. The EGL is the first example of a germinal layer in the CNS which does not exhibit expression of these genes. Throughout most of the CNS cSox11 expression is very low in the ventricular zone but increases dramatically as cells cease proliferation and migrate to form the subventricular zone. We also find that cSox11 expression increases when cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell formation in the cortical layers of the developing human cerebellum. AU - Ábrahám, H.. AU - Tornóczky, T.. AU - Kosztolányi, G.. AU - Séress, L.. PY - 2001/2/1. Y1 - 2001/2/1. N2 - Cell proliferation has been studied in the human cerebellar cortex between the 24th gestational week and the 12th postnatal month. Intensive cell formation has been found in the external granular layer (EGL) of the human cerebellum, where the highest cell proliferation rate occurs between the 28th and 34th gestational weeks. This is followed by a gradual decrease that lasts up to the eighth postnatal month. As late in development as the fifth postnatal month, still 30% of cells of the EGL are labeled with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which is specific for dividing cells. The width of the EGL remained unchanged from the 28th gestational week to the end of the first postnatal month, when it starts to decrease and completely disappears by the 11th postnatal month. Large number of Ki-67 labeled ...
The relatively few well-defined cell types within the cerebellum and the stereotypical foliation pattern make the cerebellum particularly amenable to the study of morphogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). The mammalian cerebellum consists of a central vermis and two lateral hemispheres, each with its own sets of fissures. The complexity of the foliation pattern varies between species of mammals, depending on the proprioceptive input to the cerebellum. For example, the cerebellar vermis of many inbred mouse strains consists of eight major lobules with few sublobules, whereas the rat vermis consists of ten lobules and contains more sublobules. Furthermore, some inbred strains of mice have one or two additional partial lobules corresponding to additional lobules in rat. Although the basic ten lobules present in the rat are conserved in human, each human cerebellar lobule is extensively subdivided into many sublobules. The conservation of morphology within and across species suggests that ...
Examining the histogram of one reconstructed slice (figure 2b), one observes that only four of the five Gaussians can be clearly related to known morphological structures of the human cerebellum. The fifth Gaussian with the largest half width describes the Δδ-values lying between the formalin and stratum moleculare related peaks. Therefore, this Gaussian basically corresponds to the partial volume between these two components. Aside from the partial volume one finds an additional peak at Δδ = 1.3 × 10−8, which appears rather as a shoulder. This shoulder becomes more obvious in the histogram of the entire three-dimensional dataset (figure 6c). The quantitative analysis of the shoulder reveals that the related Δδ-values are located in areas of the cerebellum that were in direct contact with the formalin solution during the whole fixation period. Obviously, the formalin treatment of the human cerebellum changes the electron density at the tissue periphery.. The usefulness of the ...
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Li, Y., Hu, S-Q., & Han, Y. (2015). Preventing H2O2-induced toxicity in primary cerebellar granule neurons via activating the PI3-K/Akt/GSK3ß pathway by kukoamine from Lycii Cortex. Journal of Functional Foods, 17, 709 - 721 ...
Cerebellar granule cells are susceptible to the excitotoxin glutamate, which acts at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, as well as the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active cytotoxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Paradoxically, preincubation of cultured cerebellar granule cells with low concentrations of NMDA or glutamate markedly antagonizes the neurotoxicity resulting from subsequent exposure to toxic concentrations of either MPP+ or glutamate. The neuroprotective effects of NMDA and glutamate against MPP+ toxicity are observed at agonist concentrations as low as 1 microM, are blocked by specific NMDA receptor antagonists, and require at least 30 min to develop fully. Moreover, NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection is prevented by the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Thus, in cerebellar granule cells activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate can result in either ...
Dynamic changes of glycolipid domains within the plasma membranes of cultured rat cerebellar granule cells have been investigated. For this purpose, a pyrene-labelled derivative of G(M1) ganglioside has been incorporated in the cell plasma membrane, and the rate of excimer formation, directly related to the formation of domains, has been studied by a fluorescence imaging technique (excimer-formation imaging). Fluorescence imaging showed that upon addition of 100 μM glutamate, indirectly inducing the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), glycolipid concentration within domains increases in cell bodies. Comparable effects were exerted by the addition of PMA, directly inducing the activation of PKC. On the contrary, the phorbol ester was not effective in the presence of the specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide. These results suggest that glycolipid-enriched domains are dynamic supramolecular structures affected by membrane-associated events, such as PKC activation. Dynamic changes of ...
Comparison of Vascular Densities of The Human Cerebellum - A Pilot Study. Vascular density corresponds to metabolic demands, which increase in highly active areas of the brain. The aim of this study was to determine the surface vascular density of three equal vertical divisions of the superior and inferior cerebellar hemispheres and to correlate with the function.. The dye Araldite was injected to the carotid and vertebral arteries of four fresh adult male human brains, maintaining a constant pressure of 93 mmHg. The cerebellums were examined, and a count was made, from the number of vessels entering each square on an overlying grid, using the light microscope and the camera Lucida. The vascular density of the three vertical columns were calculated and compared. The mean values of the vascular densities of the three vertical columns were, vessels per mm2 (from medial to lateral) left superior - 1.67, 1.89, 1.54, right superior - 1.52, 1.52, 1.28, left inferior - 1.17, 1.30, 1.19, right inferior ...
Several neuronal populations are generated in the dorsal rhombencephalon, at the level of the rhombic lip. They migrate following distinct dorsoventral paths identified as the pontine, olivary and superficial migratory streams. They settle in the ventral neural tube and contribute neurons to several precerebellar nuclei. Therefore, the precebellar system permits the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of cell migration. We have focused on two populations of precerebellar neurons generated in the rhombic lip of rhombomeres 7/8 (or 8) (Cambronero and Puelles, 2000) and destined to form the inferior olive (ION), the lateral reticular (LRN) and the external cuneatus (ECN) nuclei. These neurons circumnavigate at different depths around the medulla following two routes, both orthogonal to the anteroposterior axis (Harkmark, 1954; Altman and Bayer, 1987a; Altman and Bayer, 1987b; Bourrat and Sotelo, 1988; Bourrat and Sotelo, 1990; Bourrat et al., 1989; Tan and Le ...
Fig 2. Relative lobar vermal volumes in healthy children and patients with brain malignancies. Patients tended to have lower relative vermal volumes even before the start of the radiation treatment. The volumes of the posterior vermis, lobules VIII-X, were the lowest in 3 patients with medulloblastoma treated by surgical resection, which involved removing parts of cerebellar tissue. The lines connect data from individual subjects; asterisks indicate patients with medulloblastoma. ...
The human cerebellum with lobules I-X color-coded. From the spatially unbiased infratentorial template [SUIT] of the cerebellum and brainstem (Diedrichsen et
Neurology Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as normal neurological functioning. The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Traditionally, the cerebellum has been studied in relation to motor movement and coordination in adults. Recent studies, however, strongly suggest that it also influences childhood cognition, Wang said. Several studies also have found a correlation between cerebellar injury and the development of a disorder in the autism spectrum, the researchers report. For instance, the researchers cite a 2007 paper in the journal Pediatrics that found that individuals who experienced cerebellum damage at birth were 40 times more likely to score highly on autism screening tests. They also reference studies in 2004 and 2005 that found that the cerebellum is the most frequently disrupted brain region in people with autism.. "What we realized from looking at the literature is that these two problems - autism and cerebellar injury - might be related to each other" via the cerebellums influence on wider neural development, Wang said. "We hope to get people and scientists thinking differently about the cerebellum ...
The effect of fluoride on murine thyroid function and cerebellar development was studied by administering NaF in drinking water (0.5 g/L) to pregnant and lactating mice, from the 15th day of pregnancy to the 14th day after delivery. Compared to a control group, the NaF-treated pups, at age 14 days, showed a 35% decrease in body weight, a 75% decrease in plasma free T4, and reductions in the cerebellar and cerebral protein concentrations by 27% and 17%, respectively. Consistent histological changes were present in the cerebellum of the treated mice with the external granular layer being markedly reduced or absent, the Purkinje cell bodies being poorly differentiated and arranged in a single layer at the surface of the internal granular layer, and with more apoptotic Purkinje cells being present.. ...
Potassium channels are key determinants of neuronal excitability. We recently identified KChIPs as a family of calcium binding proteins that coassociate and colocalize with Kv4 family potassium channels in mammalian brain (An et al. [2000] Nature 403:553). Here, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry and multilabel immunofluorescence labeling, together with transmission electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, to examine the subcellular distribution of KChIPs and Kv4 channels in adult rat cerebellum. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed on 40-μm free-floating sections using a diaminobenzidine labeling procedure. Multilabel immunofluorescence staining was performed on free-floating sections and on 1-μm ultrathin cryosections. Electron microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed using an immunoperoxidase pre-embedding labeling procedure. By light microscopy, immunoperoxidase labeling showed that Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and KChIPs 1, 3, and 4 (but not KChIP2) were expressed at ...
Synonyms for cerebellum in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebellum. 10 words related to cerebellum: arteria cerebelli, cerebellar artery, neural structure, cerebellar hemisphere, dentate nucleus, vermis, vermis cerebelli.... What are synonyms for cerebellum?
Again, the physiological significance of the transient expression of SRIF receptors in the cerebellum can only be speculated on at present. At the microscopic level, SRIF receptors are associated with the external granule layer and thus may play a role in the proliferation of the stem cells of the granule cells, and their disappearance appears to coincide with the migration of the neuroblasts. The hypothesis that SRIF may act as atrophic factor involved in the regulation of cell division and/or migration in the external granular layer is supported by the absence of synaptic contacts in this layer, thus suggesting that SRIF receptors in this layer are not involved in neurotransmission. 1986). A decrease in this particular class of steroid (after adrenalectomy) appears to increase the potential for altering the expression of the propressophysin gene within this nucleus. , 1988) found that adrenalectomyinduced plasticity in VP expression is further enhanced by ablation of a specific afferent ...
Despite our knowledge that the cerebellum plays a central role in coordinating motion and behavior, we do not really know how the cerebellar circuits accomplish this. Purkinje cells, making up the core of cerebellar circuits, are thought to perform the essential integrations of sensory and motor information. Ruben Portugues and his team at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology now uncovered a surprisingly simple yet elegant organization of the cerebellum into three behavioral modules, each encoding a distinct type of visual information.. Our world is full of sensory stimuli. Depending on what we see, smell, taste, feel, or hear, we are compelled to behave in a predictable way - like approaching tasty food or avoiding an oncoming car. The brains ability to make sense of the diverse sensory stimuli and to coordinate the appropriate behavioral response relies critically on the function of the cerebellum. This hindbrain region, critical to sensorimotor coordination, is conserved across ...
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RegionFitness xdat ydat boundary weight (lines=28008) 1 ,, 14000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 2.05 2.1 2.15 2.2 2.25 2.3 2.35 2.4 2.45 2.5 2.55 2.6 2.65 2.7 2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 3 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25 3.3 3.35 3.4 3.45 3.5 3.55 3.6 3.65 3.7 3.75 3.8 3.85 3.9 3.95 4 4.05 4.1 4.15 4.2 4.25 4.3 4.35 4.4 4.45 4.5 4.55 4.6 4.65 4.7 4.75 4.8 4.85 4.9 4.95 5 5.05 5.1 5.15 5.2 5.25 5.3 5.35 5.4 5.45 5.5 5.55 5.6 5.65 5.7 5.75 5.8 5.85 5.9 5.95 6 6.05 6.1 6.15 6.2 6.25 6.3 6.35 6.4 6.45 6.5 6.55 6.6 6.65 6.7 6.75 6.8 6.85 6.9 6.95 7 7.05 7.1 7.15 7.2 7.25 7.3 7.35 7.4 7.45 7.5 7.55 7.6 7.65 7.7 7.75 7.8 7.85 7.9 7.95 8 8.05 8.1 8.15 8.2 8.25 8.3 8.35 8.4 8.45 8.5 8.55 8.6 8.65 8.7 8.75 8.8 8.85 8.9 8.95 9 9.05 9.1 9.15 9.2 9.25 9.3 9.35 9.4 9.45 9.5 9.55 9.6 9.65 9.7 9.75 9.8 9.85 9.9 9.95 10 10.05 10.1 10.15 10.2 10.25 10.3 10.35 10.4 10.45 10.5 10.55 ...
The neurological mutation weaver is characterized by defects in granule cell migration along Bergmann glial processes and by subsequent death and disposition of granule cells. Immunocytochemical localization of antisera raised against purified glial filament protein (AbGF) and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize specific associations between granule neurons and astroglia in microcultures of cerebellar cells dissociated from normal (+/+), heterozygous (+/wv), and homozygous (wv/wv) B6CBA-w mouse cerebella. In microcultures of cells dissociated from normal B6CBA-Aw-J-wv (+/+) cerebella, staining with AbGF closely resembled results previously reported for cells taken from C57BL/6J (+/+) tissue. Two forms of stained astroglia were seen, one with a larger perikaryon and shorter processes, among which 12 to 20 unstained cells nestled; and another with a smaller cell soma and longer processes, along which a few unstained cells were seen. The first resembled astrocytes of the ...
Presynaptic terminals occur along unmyelinated axons in specialized compartments called axonal varicosities or synaptic boutons. Since the first descriptions of varicose axons by Cajal and others, the spatial organization of varicosities along axons has attracted the attention of neuroscientists. Quantitative light- and electron-microscopic analyses of varicosity spacing in the cerebellum and elsewhere have recently provided a clearer picture of this organization, and theoretical analyses now incorporate varicosity spacing as an essential parameter in structural models of neural connectivity. Here we review the salient features of varicosity spacing, with emphasis on cerebellar parallel fibers as a model system. Measured globally across the entire≈ 5 mm lengths of parallel fibers, the overall mean spacing of varicosities is 5.2 μm. Measured locally, however, mean spacing follows a proximodistal gradient, increasing with distance from the point of bifurcation from the ascending axon. Measured at the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Developmental assembly of calcium-mobilizing systems for excitatory amino acids in rat cerebellum. AU - Ito, Etsuro. AU - Miyazawa, Atsuo. AU - Takagi, Hiroshi. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. AU - Horikoshi, Tetsuro. AU - Yanagisawa, Keiji. AU - Nakamura, Takeshi. AU - Kudo, Yoshihisa. AU - Umeda, Masato. AU - Inoue, Keizo. AU - Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko. PY - 1991/8. Y1 - 1991/8. N2 - The postnatal development of calcium-mobilizing systems was studied by both microfluorometric imaging analysis of Ca2+ on living rat cerebellar slices and immunohistochemical labeling of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding protein (IP3BP) in fixed rat cerebellum. Stimulation with quisqualate (QA) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) enhanced the Ca2+ level only diffusely on postnatal day (PND) 3, but more discretely on PNDs 7 and 15. On PND 21, QA-induced responses were localized in the molecular layer especially, but not in the granular layer. By contrast, NMDA ...
In the present study, we provide evidence that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions promote the differentiation of cerebellar granule cells at approximately postnatal day 5 in the early proliferative developmental stages of the mouse cerebellum, while heterophilic trans-interactions of CHL1 with vitronectin, integrins, PAI-2, uPA, and uPAR contribute to postproliferative neurite outgrowth and granule cell migration 1-2 d later.. The number of undifferentiated granule cells was increased only when dissociated cells from cerebella of 4- to 5-d-old wild-type mice were cultured on CHL1-Fc substrate, but not on a neutral control substrate, suggesting that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions inhibit or delay differentiation of granule cell precursors before radial glia-guided outside-in migration starts. Increased numbers of differentiated granule neurons in 5-d-old CHL1-deficient cerebella versus wild-type cerebella infer that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions delay the differentiation of granule cell ...
Increasing evidence has linked autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with dysfunction of the brains cerebellum, but the details have been unclear. In a new study, researchers at Boston Childrens Hospital used stem cell technology to create cerebellar cells known as Purkinje cells from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic syndrome that often includes ASD-like features.
A detailed multicompartmental model was used to study neuronal electroresponsiveness of cerebellar granule cells in rats. Here we show that, in cerebellar granule cells, Na+ channels are enriched in the axon, especially in the hillock, but almost absent from soma and dendrites. Numerical simulations indicated that granule cells have a compact electrotonic structure allowing EPSPs to diffuse with little attenuation from dendrites to axon. The spike arose almost simultaneously along the whole axonal ascending branch and invaded the hillock, whose activation promoted spike back-propagation with marginal delay (,200 micros) and attenuation (,20 mV) into the somato-dendritic compartment. For details check the cited article ...
GDF15, also known as MIC-1, is a novel member of the TGFβ superfamily and is known to plays multiple roles in the processes of neural protection, regeneration and axonal elongation [5,7,9,13,28]. However, the receptor for GDF15 and its downstream effector signalling pathways have been poorly characterized. In the present study, for the first time, we show that GDF15 may activate the TGFβR2 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathways to increase the IK amplitude, as well as the expression of Kv2.1 in CGNs, which may be associated with a developmental function.. The IK is one of the most ubiquitously expressed voltage-gated K+ channels and plays many diverse physiological roles. Kv2.1 is a major component of the IK in the central nervous system [19]. Previous studies using cultured CGNs showed that enhancement of the IK was associated with the apoptosis, migration or maturation of CGNs, depending on their normal development state or abnormal apoptosis stimulation [14,15]. Indeed, the IK amplitude and ...
Bax −/− cerebellar granule cells do not undergo apoptosis in response to K+ deprivation. Cerebellar granule cells from Bax +/+ (a, b, e, and f) and Bax −
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010 Aug;44(4):362-73. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2010.05.001. Epub 2010 May 12. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
J:46505 Baader SL, Sanlioglu S, Berrebi AS, Parker-Thornburg J, Oberdick J, Ectopic overexpression of engrailed-2 in cerebellar Purkinje cells causes restricted cell loss and retarded external germinal layer development at lobule junctions. J Neurosci. 1998 Mar 1;18(5):1763-73 ...
The cerebellum is known to contain a double somatotopic body representation. While the anterior lobe body map has shown a robust somatotopic organization in previous fMRI studies, the representations in the posterior lobe have been more difficult to observe and are less precisely characterized. In this study, participants went through a simple motor task asking them to move either the eyes (left-right guided saccades), tongue (left-right movement), thumbs, little fingers or toes (flexion). Using high spatial resolution fMRI data acquired at ultra-high field (7T), with special care taken to obtain sufficient B-1 over the entire cerebellum and a cerebellar surface reconstruction facilitating visual inspection of the results, we were able to precisely map the somatotopic representations of these five distal body parts on both subject- and group-specific cerebellar surfaces. The anterior lobe (including lobule VI) showed a consistent and robust somatotopic gradient. Although less robust, the presence of
Looking for inferior cerebellar peduncle? Find out information about inferior cerebellar peduncle. A large bundle of nerve fibers running from the medulla oblongata to the cerebellum. Also known as restiform body Explanation of inferior cerebellar peduncle
TY - JOUR. T1 - CONTENTS OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN THE CEREBELLUM, BRAIN STEM AND CEREBRUM OF THE STAGGERER, WEAVER AND NERVOUS NEUROLOGICALLY MUTANT MICE. AU - McBride, W. J.. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Kusano, K.. PY - 1976/5. Y1 - 1976/5. N2 - The content of glutamate, GABA, aspartate, glycine and alanine was determined in the cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum of three different mutant mice which have been named staggerer, weaver and nervous on the basis of neurological symptoms. In the staggerer and weaver mutants there is an almost complete absence of granule cells in the cerebellar cortex while in the nervous mutant there is a loss of Purkinje cells (and to a lesser extent a loss of granule cells) in the cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellum of the weaver mutant, the content of glutamate was significantly lower (P,0.025) than control values (8.77±0.76 vs 12.0±1.3 μmol/g tissue wet wt) and the contents of GABA and glycine were significantly greater than normal levels. ...
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The major MRI signs consist of fused cerebellar hemispheres, with absent or hypoplastic vermis, narrow diamond-shaped fourth ventricle and fused dentate nuclei. In a minority of cases, partial RS has been identified by MRI [3], demonstrating the presence of the nodulus and the anterior vermis and absence of part of the posterior vermis with only partial fusion of the hemispheres in the inferior part [3 ...
b/w cerebellomesencephic fissure posterior to REZ of CN V --, over the superior cerebellar peduncle and anterior medullary velum --, looping into the ...
Much attention has focused on the dramatic expansion of the forebrain, particularly the neocortex, as the neural substrate of cognitive evolution. However, though relatively small, the cerebellum contains about four times more neurons than the neocortex. I show that commonly used comparative measures such as neocortex ratio underestimate the contribution of the cerebellum to brain evolution. Once differences in the scaling of connectivity in neocortex and cerebellum are accounted for, a marked and general pattern of correlated evolution of the two structures is apparent. One deviation from this general pattern is a relative expansion of the cerebellum in apes and other extractive foragers. The confluence of these comparative patterns, studies of ape foraging skills and social learning, and recent evidence on the cognitive neuroscience of the cerebellum, suggest an important role for the cerebellum in the evolution of the capacity for planning, execution and understanding of complex behavioural ...
Looking for cerebella? Find out information about cerebella. portion of the brain brain, the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness,... Explanation of cerebella
Synonyms for granular layer in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for granular layer. 10 words related to cerebellum: arteria cerebelli, cerebellar artery, neural structure, cerebellar hemisphere, dentate nucleus, vermis, vermis cerebelli.... What are synonyms for granular layer?
Antiapoptotic protein which protects cells uniquely from Fas-induced apoptosis. Regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis in neurons by interfering with caspase-8 activation. Plays a role in cerebellar development by affecting cerebellar size, internal granular layer (IGL) thickness, and Purkinje cell (PC) development (By similarity).
As to the mechanism for these deficits, both Luciani and Holmes ascribed to a theory of deficient cerebellar tonic excitatory reinforcement of targets in spinal cord, brain stem, and (via thalamus) cerebral cortex. This thinking was followed by Derek Denny-Brown, and in turn by Sid Gilman.3 In this view, the signature clinical feature is hypotonia, which is fundamental to all the other deficits.4 Nonetheless, all of the aforementioned accepted that, given time, even hypotonia may di-minish. This in turn was interpreted as an indication that "cerebellar deficits are compensated for, to a considerable extent, by other structures in the brain if sufficient time is given.5 ...
Pyramid of cerebellum aka Pyramis cerebelli in the latin terminology and part of anterior and superior views of the cerebellum. Learn more now!
Cerebellum is one of the regions in the brain where neurons are beautifully organized. Here is a picture from the cerebellum of a transgenic mouse expressing ChR2 (ChannelRhodopsin-2) and eYFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in the basket cells of the cerebellum. The Purkinje cell was filled with an alexa dye. The picture above was taken as…
Learning a new dance routine or how to ride a bike is possible because of Cerebellar Granule Cells (GCs) according to Galliano and colleagues in The Netherlands. To find out more about the role of these abundant brain cells, and why we have so many of them, the scientists silenced most of the GCs in a group of mutant mice. They found the rodents could balance and run as well as they ever did, but when it came to learning new activities involving motor function, the mice had a harder time.. "Our findings indicate that a minority of functionally intact GCs is sufficient for the maintenance of basic motor performance, whereas acquisition and stabilization of sophisticated memories require higher numbers of normal GCs controlling PC firing," the authors say in their paper published last month in Cell Reports.. Comprising more than half of all neurons in the central nervous systems of vertebrates, GCs are a particularly populous type of neuron, but why? To get some answers, the research team bred a ...