Understanding the reasons why SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) remain healthy despite high viremia is a key unanswered question in contemporary AIDS research,...
High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection usually correlate with rapid progression to severe immunodeficiency. However, a minority of highly viremic individuals remains asymptomatic and maintains high CD4? T cell counts. This tolerant profile is poorly understood and reminiscent of the widely studied nonprogressive disease model of SIV infection in natural hosts. Here, we identify transcriptome differences between rapid progressors (RPs) and viremic nonprogressors (VNPs) and highlight several genes relevant for the understanding of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. RPs were characterized by a specific transcriptome profile of CD4? and CD8? T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV-infected rhesus macaques. In contrast, VNPs exhibited lower expression of interferon-stimulated genes and shared a common gene regulation profile with nonpathogenic SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. A short list of genes associated with VNP, including CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1, ...
In contrast to infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques, SIV infection of a natural host, sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), is non-pathogenic despite high viraemia(1). Here we sequenced and assembled the genome of a captive sooty mangabey. We conducted genome-wide comparative analyses of transcript assemblies from C. atys and AIDS-susceptible species, such as humans and macaques, to identify candidates for host genetic factors that influence susceptibility. We identified several immune-related genes in the genome of C. atys that show substantial sequence divergence from macaques or humans. One of these sequence divergences, a C-terminal frameshift in the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) gene of C. atys, is associated with a blunted in vitro response to TLR-4 ligands. In addition, we found a major structural change in exons 3-4 of the immune-regulatory protein intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2); expression of this variant ...
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged |5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml). Potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in most of the subjects and strong virus-specific T cell activity were present but did not drive pediatric nonprogression. However, reduced CCR5 expression and low HIV infection in long-lived central memory CD4 T cells were observed in pediatric nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects ...
The primate lentiviruses comprise SIV strains from various host species, as well as two viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, that cause AIDS in humans. The origins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been traced to cross-species transmissions from chimpanzees and sooty mangabey monkeys respectively. Two approaches have been taken to estimate the time-scale of the evolution of these viruses. Certain groups of SIV strains appear to have evolved in a host-dependent manner, implying a time-scale of many thousands or even millions of years. In stark contrast, molecular clock calculations have previously been used to estimate a time-scale of only tens or hundreds of years. Those calculations largely ignored heterogeneity of evolutionary rates across different sites within sequences. In fact, the distribution of rates at different sites seems extremely skewed in HIV-1, and so the time-depth of the primate lentivirus evolutionary tree may have been underestimated by at least a factor of ten. However, these date estimates ...
HIV-2: Background HIV-2 is a diverse group of viruses closely related to and thought to be derived from the SIV of sooty mangabey monkeys First isolated in 1986 from AIDS patient in West Africa Generally confined to W Africa and in countries with close links such as Portugal. Different subtypes exist; A and B main subtypes infecting humans Different disease progression to HIV-1 Lower virulence - slower progression to AIDS Lower viral load - lower transmission rates Poorly or not detected by most HIV-1 assays. International Standard for HIV-2 RNA would be valuable for assays that detect HIV-2
By Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Owen Karimanzira, Carol Crowther, Matthew Pace, Anna Csala, Ellen Leitman, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Jacob Hurst, Andreas Groll, Masahiko Mori, Smruti Sinmyee, Christina Thobakgale, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Andrew J. Prendergast, Henrik Kloverpris, Julia Roider, Alasdair Leslie, Delane Shingadia, Thea Brits, Samantha Daniels, John Frater, Christian B. Willberg, Bruce D. Walker, Thumbi Ndungu, Pieter Jooste, Penny L. Moore, Lynn Morris, Philip Goulder. Science Translational Medicine ...
Tom, It depends on how you define epidemic. An epidemic is generally a large number of cases of an illness in a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a good example of an epidemic virus. Now, if you look at SIV, the situation is more complicated. In feral African green monkeys in East Africa, 50% are actively infected with SIV. However, SIVAGM causes no disease in this species. The virus is essentially normal flora. The same situation can be seen in humans. Epstein Barr virus infects ,80% of the adult population, but causes no detectable disease in most of those infected. In addition, sooty mangabeys also carry an SIV which causes no disease in sooty mangabeys. But inoculate a Rhesus macaque with SIVSM, and it causes an AIDS-like illness. It appears that in the species in which SIV is found naturally, it causes little or no disease. Cross species transmission results in disease, but this appears to rarely occur in nature. Jay M ...
In the battle against thrips, Cornell breeder Martha Mutschler-Chu has developed a new weapon: a tomato that packs a powerful one-two punch to deter the pests and counter the killer viruses they transmit.
Plant breeder Martha Mutschler-Chu has developed a variety of tomato that deters pests and counters the killer viruses they transmit.
The development of disease resistance among Chesapeake Bay oysters calls for a shift in oyster-restoration strategies within the Bay and its tributaries.
Researchers have taken a step towards understanding how some species of monkeys such as sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys do not get AIDS when infected with SIV, the simian equivalent of HIV.
To identify viral characteristics that may explain how the SIVs have successfully infected other primate species, we analyzed the types and extent of SIVsm diversification in naturally infected SMs. Our findings of high intra-host extremes of SIVsm V1V2 nt diversity extend previous studies of naturally SIV-infected SMs and African green monkeys (AGMs) [56-63] by demonstrating that viruses found within a single animal can vary by greater than 35% at the aa level. The ranges of aa diversity in some intra-host pairwise SIVsm V1V2 sequence comparisons in this study rival that of inter-animal comparisons [40]. As our diversity calculations exclude V1V2 length variation, they represent an underestimate of the true magnitude of viral diversity. V1V2 length polymorphisms would be predicted to have dramatic effects on SIVsm Env conformation and phenotypic diversity [64,65].. Positive selection in V1V2 appears to explain the observed env diversification. Specific sites in V1 were consistently selected for ...
Genetic engineering (GE)-the introduction or change of DNA, RNA or proteins by human manipulation to effect a change in an organisms genome-has thus far delivered a very limited range of products to agriculture-principally pest- and disease-resistant crop varieties. But this is about to change. A much broader range of applications is becoming available, including new options to enhance disease and pest resistance, nutritional quality, and the ecological sustainability of cropping systems.. The technologies include gene editing (site-specific changes to DNA in a genome), gene drives (greatly enhancing or reducing the frequency of genes that affect insect or pathogen reproduction) and synthetic biology (re-designing or constructing biological devices, e.g. chromosomes or organelles).. In a new review paper in the Annual Review of Phytopathology, we describe these emerging GE technologies to control plant pests and diseases, and focus on their applications for problems of importance to ...
Disease resistance is bred into many Tomato varieties. These plants have sturdy constitutions that fend off certain fungi, pests (such as nematodes), and viruses.
orghum Downy Mildew (SDM), which is a foliar disease caused by a fungus called Peronosclerosporasorghi, has been an issue of concern for maize farmers.
The canola plant is set for an overhaul to boost its oil content, make it more disease-resistant, and help it adapt to climate change, thanks to the sequencing of its genome.
Although the cellular immune response is essential for controlling SIV replication in Asian macaques, its role in maintaining nonpathogenic SIV infection in natural hosts such as sooty mangabeys (SM) remains to be defined. We have previously shown that similar to rhesus macaques (RM), SM are able to mount a T lymphocyte response against SIV infection. To investigate early control of SIV replication in natural hosts, we performed a detailed characterization of SIV-specific cellular immunity and viral control in the first 6 mo following SIV infection in SM. Detection of the initial SIV-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response in SIVsmE041-infected SM coincided temporally with a decline in peak plasma viremia and was similar in magnitude, specificity, and breadth to SIVsmE041-infected and SIVmac239-infected RM. Despite these similarities, SM showed a greater reduction in postpeak plasma viremia and a more rapid disappearance of productively SIV-infected cells from the lymph node compared with ...
The grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena) is an Old World monkey that can be found in the forests of Central Africa. Its range stretches from Cameroon to Gabon. This monkey prefers habitats in primary forests or swamps within forests, but it has also been found in secondary forests. It was thought that these monkeys only lived in the higher canopy, but groups have been found searching for food on the forest floor. The diet of the grey-cheeked mangabey consists of shoots, flowers, and insects, but it mainly eats fruits such as figs. It will eat seasonal fruit as well.. The grey-cheeked mangabey will live in groups of up to thirty individuals, and these groups may contain several males. However, there is no alpha male and young males will leave to join other groups when they are ready. Female mangabey will reside in the group in which they are born. Groups have been known to split if one becomes too large. Each mangabey troop prefers to avoid other troops, so hostilities do not often ...
猴免疫缺陷病毒(英语:Simian immunodeficiency virus,简称SIV),也称为非洲绿猴病毒(英语:African Green Monkey virus),是一种可影响至少33种非洲灵长目的逆转录病毒。[1][2]在对比奥科岛(于大约11000年前因海平面上升而从大陆隔离出来的一座岛屿)的四种猴中所发现的病毒株进行分析后,科学家们得出结论,称SIV在猴和猿中至少已存在了32000年,且实际存在时间可能比这长得多。[3][4] 这些灵长目动物中的两个物种中存在的病毒株,即白顶白眉猴(英语:sooty mangabey)体内的SIVsmm和黑猩猩体内的SIVcpz,被认为已跨越了种间屏障而进入人体,并最终成为了HIV的两个亚型,即HIV-2和HIV-1。HIV-1转移到人体最可能的路径之一是人类与黑猩猩(在非洲常作为"丛林肉"的来源而被捕猎)血液的接触。[3] ...
Struggling with rose diseases often converts affection to frustration for the millions of gardeners who grow the beloved shrubs.. Instead of cursing the big three - black spot, powdery mildew and rust - take the advice of Jay Pscheidt, a plant pathologist with Oregon State University Extension Service, who steers people to roses that enjoy immunity to the threats of these diseases.. "Save yourself a lot of hassle and plant disease-resistant roses this spring for trouble-free bouquets in the summer," he said. The Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Handbook, which Pscheidt co-authored, offers a list of varieties.. Hybrid teas that smell sweet and are moderately resistant to all three diseases include dark-red Mr. Lincoln; Double Delight with its shades of reds, pinks and whites; pastel pink Tiffany; and sunset-orange Voodoo. Dark-salmon Fragrant Cloud is highly resistant to rust and moderately resistant to powdery mildew and black spot.. Tournament of Roses, a coral-colored grandiflora, and the ...
Macaulay Library ML170582; gray-cheeked mangabey; Lophocebus albigena; © Peter Waser; Kanyawara; near Makerere University Biological Field Station, Western, Uganda; 21 Aug 1974
A team of US researchers, including an Indian-origin scientist, has found that older adults who used a hearing aid performed significantly better on cognitive tests than those who did not use a hearing aid despite having poorer hearing.
Monitor roses closely for blackspot. Conditions earlier this season were perfect for encouraging this fungal condition. Remove any leaves that show darkened circles with fuzzy margins on either the tops or undersides of leaves; yellow foliage with dark spots; and any leaves that have already dropped from the plant. In the future, choose disease-resistant roses.. ...
Prevent insects from entering your home by caulking or covering entryways with holes or gaps. Erase ants trails with soapy water so that they will stop using that path. Use insect traps before using insecticides. Use local, disease-resistant plants that are less likely to contribute to infestation ...
Hybrid Asian elms Hybrid Asian elms are the result of controlled breeding programs throughout North America. All have demonstrated resistance to Dutch elm disease and are great selections for tough sites where other trees wont grow. In general, hybrid elms are smaller at maturity than their American cousins. Many have leaves and mature forms that are distinctly different from American elms.List of Dutch elm disease-resistant varieties of elm trees for Minnesota property owners and arborists
Michelle and Ann are both in the 2017 edition of Best American Science and Nature Writing, Michelle for The Parks of Tomorrow in National Geographic, Ann for Inside the Breakthrough Starshot Mission to Alpha Centauri in Scientific American. Notable mentions in the same edition were Christies Failure is Moving Science Forward in FiveThirtyEight.com and Eriks Why Great Sharks Are Still a Mystery to Us for National Geographic.. Michelle and ex-LWONian Erika Check Hayden were each finalists in the (also big-deal) National Academies 2017 Communication Awards/Keck Futures Initiative. Michelle co-finalized for articles in National Geographic on climate change, Erika for articles in Nature on CRISPR-Cas9.. Christie won a 2016 AAAS-Kavli Science Journalism award (big deal) for a FiveThirtyEight.com series on p-hacking your way to scientific glory. One of that series, called Science Isnt Broken also won a Kantor Information is Beautiful award. Classic Christie: "When the first analysis you try doesnt ...
Apparently humans arent the only primates that plan outdoor events based on weather. Gray-cheeked mangabey monkeys rely on recent trends in temperature and solar radiation to forage for figs and insect larvae, report Karline Janmaat and her colleagues of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. The results support a lesser-studied notion that primate cognition evolved to solve problems rooted in ecology--such as foraging--instead of the more favored viewpoint, that cognition evolved as a way to cope within a complex society. The findings, published today in Current Biology, come from field studies conducted for 210 days in the Kibale National Park of Uganda, where Janmaat mapped out the locations of 80 fig trees, noting whether the trees contained ripe fruit, unripe fruit or no fruit at all. Next, her team followed a group of mangabey monkeys from dawn to dusk, recording their position every 10 minutes using global positioning system (GPS) satellite technology, and observing whether the ...
Simian immunodeficiency viruses are retroviruses found in primates. Researchers have hypothesized that SIVs led to the transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in humans. Evidence suggests that both HIV-1 and HIV-2 originated in Africa, with HIV-1 being a relative of a SIV that infects wild chimpanzees, and HIV-2 being a relative of one that infects the sooty mangabey. It is likely that the first human cases of HIV resulted from contact with an infected chimpanzee or monkey.. ...
Researchers have identified an important cog in the molecular machinery of plant immunity -- a discovery that could help crop breeders produce disease-resistant varieties to help ensure future food security. There may also be implications for treating human immune-related disorders.
WOKW rats and BB/OK rats were originated from the same colony of Wistar rat and both strains possess RT1u haplotype (Kovács, 1997). WOKW rats develop polygenic inherited metabolic syndrome resembling human disorder such as obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia (Kovács, 1997; Kovács, 2000; van den Brandt, 2000; van den Brandt, 2002). By breeding analysis of disease-prone WOKW and disease-resistant DA rats, several QTLs associated with metabolic syndrome were mapped (Kovács, 2000; Klöting, 2001; Baguhl, 2009). Some of them were sex-specific. (Sep 16, 2010 ...
Grapes come in many disease-resistant cultivars, but this does not mean they are all impervious to diseases. Even resistant varieties can develop grape diseases under the proper conditions. Sprays designed for grape diseases can prevent infection and eradicate existing diseases quickly to avert crop disasters. Use ...
A very adaptable, disease-resistant spinach good for use in any climate. Ready in no time, it holds well and is super flavorful. These seeds arrive embedded in biodegradable paper (seed tape) that can be cut to desired size and direct-sown into the garden or containers. Available today at Park Seed!
CITES is an international agreement between governments, aimed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.. ...
The grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena), also known as the white-cheeked mangabey,[3] is an Old World monkey found in the forests of Central Africa. It ranges from Cameroon down to Gabon. The grey-cheeked mangabey is a dark monkey, looking in shape overall like a small, hairy baboon. Its thick brown fur is almost black in its forest home, with a slightly rufus/golden mane around the neck. The sexes are similar, with the males slightly larger than the females. The grey-cheeked mangabey lives in a variety of habitats with the forests of Central Africa, it is generally thought to live in either swamp or primary forests, in some areas it has also been found in secondary forest as well. Some authors in the past have considered the species to be restricted to the forest canopy, however more recently habituated troops have been observed on the forest floor collecting food. It feeds primarily on fruit, particularly figs, taking other fruits seasonally, as well as shoots, flowers and insects. The ...
CIAT distributes the seeds from this project to various sub-organisations who then supply them to breeders. The analytical method for determining genetic markers is relatively simple and inexpensive to apply, making it viable for use in agricultural laboratories in the countries concerned. It costs less than 0.2 CHF to test a genetic marker, Nay explains, which is an affordable amount for laboratories in less affluent countries. Whats more, all the findings from this study are available through open access. "This way, our work reaches the people who really need these kind of resources," Nay emphasises.. Nay and Studer worked on this project in close collaboration with CIAT. The global research centre runs the largest breeding programme in the tropics and has several thousand varieties of bean in its seed repository. At its headquarters in Colombia, CIAT breeds new bean varieties, tests the seeds, and, in partnership with the Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance, makes the seeds available to ...
HIV pathogenesis reflects the various biologic properties of HIV and the hosts immune response to the virus. The differential expression of these two major components of HIV infection determines the final outcome: long-term survival or development of AIDS with its associated opportunistic infections and cancers. How these viral and immunological features of HIV pathogenesis influence survival from HIV infection becomes an important consideration. This chapter first discusses cofactors in HIV infection and disease progression. The pathogenic pathway, after the acute infection period, can be divided into three major phases: early period following acute virus infection, persistent period, and symptomatic period. One noteworthy observation is the loss of CD4+ T cells in the bowel of SIV-infected healthy sooty mangabeys similar to that noted in HIV infection. The chapter talks about high-risk HIV-exposed seronegative individuals, and diversity of viruses involved in transmission and infection. In addition
This balanced formula contains a 6-12-6 fertilizer, plus humus, amino acids, and vitamins to make seedlings stocky and disease-resistant Gardeners Supply
J Virol. 2008 Apr;82(7):3725-35. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02408-07. Epub 2008 Jan 23. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccine protection of rhesus macaques against simian immunodeficiency virus infection. AU - Carlson, J. R.. AU - McGraw, T. P.. AU - Keddie, E.. AU - Yee, J. L.. AU - Rosenthal, A.. AU - Langlois, A. J.. AU - Dickover, R.. AU - Donovan, R.. AU - Luciw, P. A.. AU - Jennings, M. B.. AU - Gardner, M. B.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immunized with an inactivated whole SIV(mac) vaccine and muramyl dipeptide (MDP), incomplete Freunds adjuvant (IFA), or aqueous suspension were challenged intravenously with 0.1 TCID50 of cell-free SIV(mac). Whereas virus was readily recovered from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 10 of 10 nonvaccinated controls following this challenge dose, virus was not recovered from the three animals that received the vaccine with MDP nor from one of two animals that received the vaccine with IFA and one of three animals that received the aqueous vaccine. The animals that were protected against challenge were those that had ...
African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that do not progress to AIDS when
Introduction Tributyltin is among the wide-spread and important persistent organic impurities that accumulate in the meals string. tissues was processed for CAL-101 cell signaling ultrastructure and histological evaluation. The colloid section of thyroid follicles was evaluated and statistically analyzed morphometrically. Results A substantial reduction in T3 and T4 amounts and serum decreased glutathione in the group II in comparison to the various other groups. Furthermore, a substantial upsurge in serum Malondialdehyde and TSH amounts was documented in group II treated group in comparison towards the various other two groups. Ultrastructural and Histopathological adjustments of thyroid gland follicles were discovered in tributyltin treated rats; the follicular cells appeared vacuolated and swollen. Epithelial stratification was seen in some foci with extreme vacuolation from the colloid. Dilated tough endoplasmic reticulum filled up with flocculent material and increased number of lysosomes ...
New Mexico chile peppers are grown from seeds - and each of the individual pepper types is specifically bred and grown to be disease-resistant and provide consistent and healthy plants within their specific regions. Altitude, climate, soil, and acreage affects a crops taste and heartiness, making the New Mexican region unique for plant propagation. The Rio Grande bosque, mountains, and high deserts provide the appropriate regional environment for growing chiles. To ensure that a varietys lineage remains disease-resistant and maintains optimal growth within its heritage region, seeds from specific plants are carefully selected. An example of a New Mexican chile grown outside the state is the Anaheim pepper which are extremely resilient in multiple altitudes. A quirky aspect of the New Mexico chile pepper regards reintroducing seeds from their heritage soil since each successive generation becomes susceptible to disease and it loses its flavor. Therefore, chile pepper farmers usually order ...
While following a troop of sooty mangabeys, monkeys found in the forests of Ivory Coast, Boston University primatologist Erin Kane walked face-first into a
South Africa remains plagued by AIDS despite massive government and NGO efforts on prevention and life-sustaining Anti-Retro-Viral programs. The country has the highest number of new HIV infection worldwide and 15 to 20 percent of the adult population is HIV positive. But it has opened up another front to reduce new HIV infections: promoting circumcision. Each day, dozens of men pass through the doors of this circumcision clinic in southern Johannesburg.
But as you can imagine, Atys could not escape his fate. While prohibited from war, he is allowed to go on a boar hunt where he is accidentally stabbed by a compatriots spear. He dies of his wound, and then the friend commits suicide. A real dream by historical character? Or a morality tale Herodotus spins to underscore his own belief in fate, the will of the gods and the honour of friends?. Most likely the latter, given Herodotus tendencies to throw tall tales into his histories. Herodotus also recounts the dream of King Astyages where his daughter Mandane urinates until all of Asia is flooded. That, we learn later, was a prophecy of the rise of Cyrus. great leaders are often - later - said to have been prophesized by dreams.. Similarly, the Bible is replete with dreams and visions, mostly in the Old Testament, some of which are recast in the New Testament to justify elements of the Christian story. Post facto, again, of course, sometimes with the help of editors.. Its a fairly common to find ...
The preliminary sequencing of the cacao genome is a promising first step in advancing farmers ability to plant more robust, higher yielding and drought and disease-resistant trees. The results of the research will be made available to the public with permanent access via the Cacao Genome Database (www.cacaogenomedb.org) to ensure that the data remains perpetually open without patent, as well as to allow scientists to begin applying the findings immediately to crop cultivation efforts ...
Saving the American Elm by Bruce Carley http://www.elmpost.org I have posted this article to call attention to a special project which I have been doing since 1994 and which hopefully will be a source of inspiration for many. Ever since some new disease-resistant varieties of purely American elm were called to my attention, I have been hooked on raising these trees for distribution in my home town of Acton, Massachusetts, and it did not take me long to conceive of finding a way to have them planted on various conservation lands, where they will always be safe from indifferent landowners. I soon became acquainted with this town s conservation director, who welcomed my idea wholeheartedly and gave me the necessary permission. During their usual strolls along the main streets of their home towns, our parents and grandparents gazed at the scenery around them and took for granted a spectacular picture that is seldom observed nowadays and that few of us can hope to see during our lifetimes. The ...
These easy-care beauties offer repeat bloom, disease-resistant foliage, and outstanding hardiness. Their extraordinary tolerance for wind, salt, and neglect also makes them a superb choice for seaside gardens. Their perfume is exquisite, and the bright fruits borne by many of them are colorful and attractive later in the season.