Paper details:. Central nervous system depressants present many dangers for abusers. Looking at the drugs in this class, describe (in at least 250 words) the risks associated with abuse and discuss at least one problem that counselors should be concerned with during a clients withdrawal and treatment.. ...
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​GHB is a central nervous system depressant that causes drowsiness and reduces heart rate. It is used to treat sleep disorders but can be dangerous if misused.
The most commonly abused prescription drugs among teenagers are opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants - like Roxies.
The European Code Against Cancer focuses on actions that describes actions that individuals can take to reduce their risk of developing cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute ethanol administration on hepatic protein and glycoprotein secretion in vivo. AU - Volentine, G. D.. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Sorrell, M. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020355393. VL - 2. SP - No. 89. JO - Hepatology. JF - Hepatology. SN - 0270-9139. IS - 5. ER - ...
CNS (Central Nervous System) depression usually happens if an individual abuses a substance that causes a slowdown of the brains activity. Such substances are referred to as CNS depressants. Sedatives, hypnotics, and tranquilizers are some examples of CNS depressants.. Recently, opioid painkillers have been prescribed by doctors for certain conditions. However, opioid painkillers are sometimes overused by patients. This overuse of opioid painkillers can lead to complications.. CNS depressants are also sometimes used as recreational drugs. Recreational use of CNS depressants is usually hazardous and is often illegal. The greatest danger lies in individuals not understanding the risks involved in the misuse of CNS depressants.. Some individuals combine various CNS depressants. For example, they may take alcohol and painkillers at the same time. This often leads to a life-threatening situation.. Hazards of using CNS depressants include long-term adverse effects, overdose, withdrawal symptoms (when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable histone methylation changes at proteoglycan network genes following ethanol exposure. AU - Gavin, David P.. AU - Hashimoto, Joel G.. AU - Lazar, Nathan H.. AU - Carbone, Lucia. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Guizzetti, Marina. PY - 2018/8/30. Y1 - 2018/8/30. N2 - Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic mental illness in which patients often achieve protracted periods of abstinence prior to relapse. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide an explanation for the persisting gene expression changes that can be observed even after long periods of abstinence and may contribute to relapse. In this study, we examined two histone modifications, histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3), in the prefrontal cortex of Withdrawal Seizure Resistant (WSR) mice 21 days after 72 h of ethanol vapor exposure. These histone modifications were selected because they are associated with active promoters (H3K4me3) and repressed gene expression in a ...
Dive into the research topics of Glutathione depletion and recovery after acute ethanol administration in the aging mouse. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The present article provides an up-to-date review summarizing almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking that leads to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock stress can reinstate extinguished drug-seeking up to 8 months from the last alcohol experience. The msP rat is highly sensitive to stress, shows an anxious phenotype and has depressive-like symptoms that recover following ethanol drinking. Interestingly, these animals have an up-regulated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 system. Clinical studies have shown that alcoholic patients often drink ethanol in the attempt to self-medicate from negative affective states and to search for anxiety ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat. AU - Volentine, Gary D. AU - Tuma, Dean J. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, [3H]leucine and [14C]fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labeling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and ...
Chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) in rodents produces reliable and high blood ethanol concentration and behavioral symptoms associated with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder (AUD)—for example, escalation of operant ethanol self-administration, a feature suggestive of transition from recreational to addictive use, is a widely replicated behavior in rats that experience CIE. Herein, we present evidence from a subset of rats that do not demonstrate escalation of ethanol self-administration following seven weeks of CIE. These low responders (LR) maintain low ethanol self-administration during CIE, demonstrate lower relapse to drinking during abstinence and reduced reinstatement of ethanol seeking triggered by ethanol cues when compared with high responders (HR). We examined the blood ethanol levels in LR and HR rats during CIE and show higher levels in LR compared with HR. We also examined peak corticosterone levels during CIE and show that LR rats have higher levels compared
March 2013. Subjects. This model has been predominantly been studied using adult (65-75 days of age) male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Although experimental parameters have been optimized using these mice, we have conducted studies with adult female C57BL/6J mice, as well as other inbred mouse strains including DBA/2J and C3H/Hecr, selectively bred HAP/LAP lines, and and BXD RI lines. Mice are acclimated to the facility for at least two weeks prior to experimental use. Mice are individually housed in standard polypropylene pans with wood-chip bedding and stainless steel wire lids. The mice are housed under a modified light/dark cycle (lights on at 0200 hr) to allow for behavioral testing to be conducted during the dark phase of the cycle. Rodent food (Wayne Lab-Blox) and water is available ad libitum at all times during the studies.. General Experimental Design and Strategy. The overall objective of this chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model ...
Previous studies in mice and rats have shown that selective breeding for high and low ethanol preference results in divergence of circadian phenotype in the selected lines. These results indicate that some alleles influencing ethanol preference also contribute to circadian rhythm regulation. Selective breeding has also been used to produce lines of mice differing in a number of other ethanol-related traits, while studies of phenotypic and genetic correlation indicate that diverse ethanol-related traits are influenced by both shared and unshared genetics. ...
We previously reported that ethanol elicits an increased protein oxidation in the liver of rats receiving chronic ethanol by continuous intragastric infusion (Tsukamoto-French method). This accumulation of oxidized proteins could result from a decrease in the cytosolic proteolysis, related specifica …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
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BACKGROUND: We aimed in the present study, at investigating the gastroprotective effect of carob pods aqueous extract (CPAE) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats as well as the mechanism implicated. METHODS: Adult male wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH (80% v/v, 4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH 80% + various doses of CPAE (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, b.w.) and EtOH + Famotidine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) Animals were perorally (p.o.) pre-treated with CPAE during 15 days and intoxicated with a single oral administration of EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.) for two hours. RESULTS: The colorimetric analysis demonstrated that the CPAE exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals. We found that CPAE pretreatment in vivo, protected against EtOH-induced macroscopic and histological changes induced in stomach mucosa. Carob extract administration also protected against alcohol-induced volume gastric juice decrease. More importantly, We showed that CPAE
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Chronic alcohol exposure affects the central nervous system, influences behavior, and induces neuroadaptive changes in vertebrate species including our own. literature to be alcohol related. We conclude that the zebrafish is an excellent tool for the analysis of genes associated with alcohols actions in vertebrates, one which may facilitate the discovery and better understanding of […]. ...
ERGR, Ethanol gene database, Alcohol gene database, Ethanol-Related Gene Resource, Alcohol-Related Gene Database, Ethanol response gene database, alcoholism gene database
ERGR, Ethanol gene database, Alcohol gene database, Ethanol-Related Gene Resource, Alcohol-Related Gene Database, Ethanol response gene database, alcoholism gene database
How Does E85 Ethanol Affect You? - What is the effect of E85 ethanol flex fuel on the consumer? Learn the answer at HowStuffWorks, including why it is available in only some states.
The effects of ethanol on a fetus are extensive, devastating, and often permanent. Depending upon the population, ethanol affects as many as 2% of all live birt...
This work describes a protocol to quantify ethanol levels in a zebrafish embryo using head space gas chromatography from proper...
Study Flashcards On Nervous System Depressants and Muscle relaxants at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
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Alcohol affects a number of different biochemical pathways and a better understanding of the factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and addiction could lead to improved treatments. Since a lower initial response to the effects of alcohol has been found to correlate with increased risk of future alcoholism, identification of the genes and pathways involved in the acute response might throw light on the genetic factors contributing to addiction. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, reacts in much the same way as mammals to acute ethanol exposure and a team led by Ulrike Heberlein at the University of California is using the fly to explore the links between genetic make-up and response to alcohol. Their latest find is that flies with a mutant version of a gene that they have designated happyhour are less sensitive to the sedative effects of alcohol than flies with a normal copy of the gene. Further studies showed that the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-signalling pathway regulates ethanol ...
Dipole moment of methanol is less than ethanol?Can you tell me what is the efftect of iductive effect on dipole moment. The correct decreasing order of stabili
Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, an …
Some farm groups and farm-state lawmakers are expressing anger at the Trump administration over final ethanol rules that they say fail to uphold the presidents promises to the industry
Groups that lobby for the ethanol industry thanked supporters in the Senate Thursday for getting a one-year extension of the 45 cent per gallon tax credit included in pending tax legislation.Brian Jennings of the American Coalition for ethanol released this statement late Thursday: Inclusion of this one-year extension given the forces working to prevent it is an important win
U.S. ethanol and corn groups are irate as Brazil reimposes a 20% tariff on U.S. ethanol following a breakdown in talks between the two countries.
NEW YORK - A U.S. ethanol industry group is pushing lawmakers to craft legislation requiring fuel companies to inform customers what country their fuel came from in hopes of increasing awareness about money spent on oil imported from overseas.
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Intoxicated: 22-33 mmol/L (0.10-0.15 g/100 mL). Poisoned: 44-66 mmol/L (0.20-0.30 g/100 mL). Often fatal: , 88 mmol/L (, 0.40 g/100 mL).. Legal limits vary. For specific information contact local authorities.. Commonly, the legal driving limit is 0.05% that is, 11 mmol/L or 0.05 g/100 mL. In some regions it is 0.08% ,that is, 18 mmol/L or 0.08 g/100 mL.. ...
Zapper, Im sorry to hear you had such a bad episode but it sounds like it has passed. I have been unable to determine what causes my ibs attacks. At first I attributed them to food intolerances but later concluded I am uncertain of the causes. I will have normal BMs and feel fine for days and then have symptoms occurs suddenly. Just sudden onset of cramping spasming etc. sometimes it will last a half day, sometimes up to three days. ... it is starting to wear on me psychologically. My doctor put me on klonopin a few weeks ago. I guess it helps me cope or really just be spaced out and not care. I think it has decreased my ibs symptoms some; it is a central nervous system depressant. I just want to be normal again. I feel like my spiritual stamina is just shot. Every time I think Im improving, I find out Im not. having a messed up GI system is the most psychologically difficult ordeal I have ever been through. You have been amazingly strong through what you have been through ...
All of the costs associated of making ethanol are tied up in the cost of corn and grain and so if you are not careful with buying grain you can be in trouble fast.. While it seems like a lot of gloom and doom for the nations ethanol industry featuring grain and fuel price volatility. Those who study the industry say there is no way ethanol plants dont have a role in the future of alternative energy. Ethanol has had wonderful times but have gone thru a dry spot the last 9 months but they have a rosy future.. Meantime the ethanol industry waits to see the impact of the corn harvest. Part of a cycle these plants live and die by.. Not going away, in fact I think it will continue to grow. ...
There are many opportunities for market growth in the ethanol space, and the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA)works closely with the ethanol associations to help share the story of the benefits of ethanol and drive demand locally and in Washington D.C. Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor sat downwith Iowa corn farmer and Ethanol Action Team Vice Chair Kelly Nieuwenhuis to talk about small refinery exemptions (SREs), E15 in the marketplace and future market growth opportunities.
There are many opportunities for market growth in the ethanol space, and the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA)works closely with the ethanol associations to help share the story of the benefits of ethanol and drive demand locally and in Washington D.C. Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor sat downwith Iowa corn farmer and Ethanol Action Team Vice Chair Kelly Nieuwenhuis to talk about small refinery exemptions (SREs), E15 in the marketplace and future market growth opportunities.
Alcohol is a direct cause of seven forms of cancer. Tough words to swallow, but those are the conclusions of researchers from New Zealand, who say they found that no matter how much you drink, alcohol will increase your risk of cancer.
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The number of air rage incidents has risen by nearly a third fuelled by drinking on flights, according to government figures.
J.D. Power and Associates regularly sends out updates on how vehicle sales are doing in Canada. And like forecasting companies across Canada and the U.S., it reports on how many flexible-fuel vehicles - those that can use E85, a fuel thats primarily made up of plant-based ethanol - are sold....
Classification: Depressant Alcohol is a CNSCentral Nervous System depressant that acts through the GABAa receptor, and is one of the most common strong psychoactives used by humans. It has a long history of use and its intoxicating effects are well-studied and -documented. ...
Classification: Depressant Alcohol is a CNSCentral Nervous System depressant that acts through the GABAa receptor, and is one of the most common strong psychoactives used by humans. It has a long history of use and its intoxicating effects are well-studied and -documented. ...
In previous work, we identified genetic correlations between cAMP accumulation in the cerebellum and sensitivity to the incoordinating effects of ethanol. A genetic correlation suggests that common genes underlie the phenotypes investigated. One method for provisionally identifying genes involved in a given phenotypic measure is quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Using a panel of 30 BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice and the progenitors (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J), and the dowel test for ataxia, we measured the blood ethanol concentrations at the time an animal first fell from the dowel and acute functional tolerance (AFT), and investigated cAMP signaling in the cerebellum. Cyclic AMP accumulation was measured in whole-cell preparations of cerebellar minces from individual mice under basal or stimulated conditions. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis of the behavioral and biochemical measures with >2000 genetic markers to identify significant associations. Western blot and comparative ...
Preparation of two oligopeptides from corn protein and their protective effect on acute alcohol intoxication in mice, Naxin Sun, Tongcheng Xu, Yuehui Liu, Chunjiang Ye, Zhuqing Jia
Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed
Detroit Public Television (DPTV) is debuting a new ethanol documentary this Sunday, October 9, 2016 at 9:00 pm ET called, The Ethanol Effect. The film, produced by DPTV, takes a look at the controversy surrounding the challenges of the best use for Americas corn production: food or biofuel. The worldwide premier of the documentary is on PBS World Channel. (Click here to view promo clips and for additional air times.). The Ethanol Effect delves into what Ethanol is, demonstrates the production process and investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for fuel in America. The documentary also dives into why the choices between food or biofuel are sparking controversy across the country. Interestingly, I met the production crew this past January in Altoona, Iowa during the Iowa Renewable Fuels Summit where they had access to various speakers including Iowa Governor Terry Branstad, USDA Ag Secretary Tom Vilsack, presidential hopefuls, and more biofuel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responses of cerebral arterioles during chronic ethanol exposure. AU - Mayhan, William. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ethanol exposure on responses of cerebral arterioles in vivo. Rats were fed liquid diets with or without ethanol for 2-3 mo. Using intravital microscopy, we measured diameter of cerebral arterioles in non-ethanol- and ethanol-fed rats in response to acetylcholine, histamine, ADP, the thromboxane analogue (U- 46619), and nitroglycerin. In non-ethanol-fed rats, acetylcholine, histamine, and ADP produced dose-related dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In ethanol- fed rats, however, acetylcholine produced vasoconstriction, and vasodilatation in response to histamine and ADP was impaired. Dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to nitroglycerin and vasoconstriction in response to the thromboxane analogue (U-46619) were similar in non-ethanol- fed and ethanol-fed rats. Thus these findings suggest that chronic ...
Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic
Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼375 mg/dl;
Plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol levels were determined in six normal adult females before and during a period of acute alcohol intoxication. Plasma hormone levels found in these studies were compared with values obtained after administration of an isocaloric beverage. Each woman served as her own control for both studies which were carried out on the same day of the menstrual cycle (day 8, 9 or 10) over two consecutive menstrual cycles. Integrated plasma samples were obtained every 20 min for 6 consecutive hr before acute alcohol administration and during the ascending, peak and descending portions of the blood alcohol curve. After acute alcohol administration, all women achieved a moderate degree of intoxication, with mean peak blood alcohol levels of 88 mg/100 ml. No significant differences in levels of luteinizing hormone and estradiol were detected during any phase of the blood alcohol curve when compared to prealcohol administration values. No significant differences ...
Author(s): Devineni, Anita | Advisor(s): Heberlein, Ulrike | Abstract: Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world. Ethanol consumption produces short-term changes in behavior as well as long-term adaptations that can lead to addiction. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic responses to ethanol are still not fully understood. Human and rodent studies have suggested that acute ethanol sensitivity may be related to risk of alcohol abuse, and that the same genes often regulate both types of behavior. In this thesis I have used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behavior. In Chapter 2, I show that flies prefer to consume food containing ethanol and that this ethanol preference may represent a new model for studying addiction-related behavior. In Chapter 3, I examine the relationships between acute ethanol sensitivity, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol consumption preference by measuring these
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of alcohol and is also sensitive to the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption. In humans, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a characteristic set of changes to the metabolism of lipids in the liver that is referred to as an alcoholic fatty liver. In humans, AFL is characterized by an increase in liver weight, accumulation of triglyceride and changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In severe cases, these metabolic changes result in the enlargement and fibrillization of the liver and are considered risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer.. Previous work suggests that there may be links between mutations in the circadian system and liver metabolism. The transcription of many genes in liver, including those involved in lipid metabolism, is regulated on the circadian time scale [8, 22]. Furthermore, mice with mutations in core elements of the circadian timing system also exhibit deficits in liver function. In ...
Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for ...
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Mice were pretreated with DEX prior to EtOH exposure to determine its protective effects on impaired postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Six-day-old neonatal mice were treated with DEX (125 μg/kg) or saline, followed by EtOH at a total of 5 g/kg or an equivalent volume of saline on P7. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the neurogenesis and activated microglia in the DG. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was utilized to assess the expression of inflammatory factors in the hippocampus.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
THE POTENTIATING ACTION OF HYDROXYZINE MUST BE CONSIDERED WHEN THE DRUG IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS SUCH AS NARCOTICS, NON-NARCOTIC ANALGESICS AND BARBITURATES. Therefore when central nervous system depressants are administered concomitantly with hydroxyzine their dosage should be reduced.. Since drowsiness may occur with use of this drug, patients should be warned of this possibility and cautioned against driving a car or operating dangerous machinery while taking Atarax. Patients should be advised against the simultaneous use of other CNS depressant drugs, and cautioned that the effect of alcohol may be increased.. ...
The present study sought to examine the effects of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal on glutamate release probability at inputs arising from two subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex to the basolateral amygdala. We used a combination of optogenetics and chemogenetics to document the neurophysiological and behavioral alterations of dmPFC and vmPFC terminals in the BLA. The major findings of the study are that withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases optogenetically stimulated glutamate release from dmPFC-BLA terminals but decreases the glutamate release from vmPFC terminals. Additionally, we demonstrate that chemogenetic inhibition of dmPFC terminals in the BLA reduces withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. And finally, we show that local feedback-like GABAergic circuits make significant contributions to optically gated responses from both dmPFC and vmPFC terminals. Together, these data provide the first characterization of how chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal ...
Introduction. How does caffeine and ethanol affect the heart rate? Introduction At rest a normal adult heart beats around 75 times per minute. During strenuous exercise it may rise to 200 beats per minute. The SAN (sino-atrial node) controls the heart rate. Information is sent via two autonomic nerves that link the SAN with cardiovascular centre in the medulla of the brain, the rate increases or decreases depending on the information received. Factors, which affect the heart: , The secretion of adrenaline. This may be under stress, excitement or other emotions. , Movement of the limbs (exercise). Heart rate and breathing rate increase due to oxygen levels falling and levels of carbon dioxide rising. , Blood pressure. When blood pressure is too high, a mechanism prevents increase in heart rate. Adrenaline is a hormone, which is produced by the adrenal gland; it is usually secreted in tiny amounts, when stressed or scared. It raises your heart rate immediately. Adrenaline improves the strength of ...
Intake of ethanol by rats, at a dose of 10 to 12 g/kg daily for two weeks, led to a slower onset and shorter duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep (30 mg/kg i.p.) than in pair-fed controls with isocaloric substitution of sucrose for ethanol. The pentobarbital concentrations in both plasma and brain were significantly lower in ethanol-treated animals at 15 minutes after injection, but not at 30 to 60 minutes. During the latter times, the rate of disappearance of pentobarbital from plasma did not differ in the two groups. The rate of metabolism of pentobarbital by liver slices in vitro was 33% lower for the chronic ethanol group than the controls. In contrast, pretreatment with phenobarbital for one week led to a significant increase in the rate of pentobarbital metabolism by liver slices. It is concluded that the changes in pentobarbital sleeping time after chronic ethanol treatment are primarily the result of changes in sensitivity of the nervous system, rather than of changes in distribution ...
Background: Although the beneficial effects of mild to moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to heart, alcohol abuse has proven to be a major cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Western society. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms, which mediate the pathologic cardiac effects of ethanol, remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on cardiac apoptosis and expression of some of the genes associated with cardiac remodeling in vivo. Methods: Alcohol-avoiding Alko Non Alcohol rats of both sexes were used. The ethanol-exposed rats (females, n= 6; males, n= 8) were given 12% (v/v) ethanol as the only available fluid from age of three to 24 months of age. The control rats (females, n= 7; males, n= 5) had only water available. At the end of the experiment, free walls of left ventricles of hearts were immediately frozen. Cytosolic DNA fragmentation, reflecting apoptosis, was measured using a commercial ...
The IL-10 promoter is regulated through the p38 MAPK pathway in human macrophages (40). Our results demonstrated that acute ethanol treatment increased the levels of phosphorylated p38 in the same LPS-stimulated human monocytes that showed increased IL-10 and reduced TNF-α production. These effects of acute ethanol in our experiments were similar to the effects of CO, a product of HO-1 activation on monocytes (13). Consistent with the previously described role of p38 MAPK activation in IL-10 induction, inhibition of p38 activity with SB203580 prevented ethanol-induced augmentation of monocyte IL-10 production (28, 40). Activation of p38 MAPK has been shown to induce HO-1 expression in various cell types including macrophages (13), hepatocytes (24), pulmonary epithelial cells (41), and vascular cells (42). Our studies revealed that augmentation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation contributed to alcohol-induced HO-1 activation in LPS-stimulated monocytes. Recent studies demonstrated that transcriptional ...
BACKGROUND: The NMDA receptor represents a particularly important site of ethanol action in the CNS. We recently reported that NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene expression was persistently up-regulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment. Increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in dynamic and long-lasting regulation of gene expression in multiple neuroadaptive processes prompted us to investigate the role of DNA methylation in mediating CIE-induced up-regulation of NR2B gene transcription. To dissect the changes of DNA methylation in the NR2B gene, we have screened a large number of CpG sites within its 5-regulatory area following CIE treatment. METHODS: Primary cortical cultured neurons were subjected to ethanol treatment in a CIE paradigm. Bisulfite conversion followed by pyrosequencing was used for quantitative measurement and analysis of CpG methylation status within the 5-regulatory area of the NR2B gene; chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was ...
Administration of topical antibiotics led to resolution of the lesions within 3 weeks, and there were no signs of scarring or recurrence.. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of coma blisters.. Clinically, coma blisters are characterized by tense clear or hemorrhagic blisters that develop on erythematous-violaceous macules or plaques of varying size. The lesions typically appear within 24hours of the intake of drugs and within 48 to 72hours of the loss of consciousness. They primarily develop on pressure points, such as fingers and toes, elbows, knees, ankles, and heels. They are self-limiting and heal within days or weeks, without causing scarring or atrophy. The only treatment indicated thus is topical treatment to prevent secondary infections.2,8. Multiple factors have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of coma blisters, including local pressure or friction, generalized hypoxia and tissue ischemia, direct toxicity due to drugs ...
2Research Center for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Pancreatitis and Cirrhosis, School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA. In the search for novel targets for chronic alcohol-induced inflammatory responses, we recently started exploring the therapeutic potential of ATP-gated purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs). Despite the recognized important role in several neurodegenerative pathologies and inflammatory conditions, the role of P2X7Rs in ethanol-induced inflammation and organ damage is still unknown. Using a chronic ethanol exposure model of alcohol liver disease that combines intragastric (iG) ethanol feeding and high fat diet (Hybrid) in C57BL/6J mice, our recent work demonstrated an increased expression of P2X7Rs that paralleled neuroinflammatory changes in several ethanol-sensitive brain regions. These findings served the basis for the hypothesis that there is a functional link between P2X7Rs and chronic ethanol-induced inflammatory response leading to organ ...
the precise molecular sites and mechanisms of action for ethanol in ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) in general, and in GlyRs and GABAARs specifically, are just now starting to become understood. The present dissertation focuses on studies we conducted that address this issue using molecular biology, pressure antagonism, electrophysiology and molecular modeling strategies to probe, identify and model the initial molecular sites and mechanisms of ethanol action in GlyRs and GABAARs. Specifically, this work focuses on the Loop 2 region in the extracellular domain of GlyRs and GABAARs and (1) Provides evidence that position 52 in Loop 2 is a target for ethanol action and antagonism in GlyRs; (2) Demonstrates that the structural bases for the actions of ethanol and pressure on this common target are different and (3) Provides strong evidence that the structure of Loop 2 in GlyRs, GABAARs and possibly across LGICs may be a key factor in controlling the sensitivity of these receptors to ethanol. ...
Bicarbonate Decreased & Hypotension & Potassium Decreased Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Acute Alcohol Intoxication. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Tachycardia & Vomiting Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Acute Alcohol Intoxication. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
The transportation industry has been investigating ethanol as an alternative fuel for many years. Ethanol provides a clean alternative to gasoline, though widespread use of this fuel has been limited due to a number of technical challenges, such as poor cold-start performance and reduced vehicle ran
Ethanols effects on lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition; membrane protein-lipid interactions; production and isolation of fatty acid ethyl esters and their pathological effects; the effect of ethanol on metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. ...
Ethanol, oil and livestock groups all weighed in with opinions on the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) last week as Congress returned to work.
The neurochemical mechanisms that regulate development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are complex, and gut-brain peptides were recently pinpointed as novel modulators. Gut-brain peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are well known for their ability to regulate food intake and appetite. GLP-1 also controls glucose homeostasis, which lead to the approval of GLP-1 receptor agonists for treatment of diabetes type II. These pharmacotherapies, including exenatide/exendin-4(Ex4) and liraglutide, have also been tested in various animal modes of AUD. In mice, Ex4 attenuates the acute behavioural responses to alcohol. Rat studies additionally show that Ex4 reduces the intake and the intravenous operant self-administration of alcohol and decreases the motivation to consume alcohol. Further studies established that Ex4 modulates alcohol-mediated behaviours via activation of GLP-1 receptors in reward related areas and an area of the hindbrain. In rodents, liraglutide reduces withdrawal symptoms ...
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Looking for a cure for fatty liver?: Does Alcohol Causes Fatty Liver. The Fatty Liver Site, Tips and natural treatments for fatty liver.
Can alcohol cause hair loss or hair thinning? If so, why? Nioxin answers this and more in this helpful guide so you can know all the facts.
Red wine is composed of more than 500 compounds although only a few are present at concentrations of more than 100 mg/L. These include water, glycerol, ethanol, sugar and organic acids. There is increasing evidence supporting the cardioprotective effects of ethanol (Figure 2), although the mechanisms of cardioprotection remain somewhat obscure. Ethanol decreases sympathetic activity, thereby decreasing heart rate and cardiac contraction while inducing coronary vasodilation; all these effects lead to cardioprotection. On the other hand, Grassi et al (50) showed that increased plasma ethanol level significantly elevates the blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity. Low to moderate concentrations of ethanol are shown to inhibit coronary muscle contraction, increase coronary flow and improve the cardiac output (51). The mechanisms by which ethanol is a vasodilator are still unknown, however, a study on the effects of changes in extracellular Ca2+ on muscle contractions supports a ...
Grown in nearly every country, then sent for fermentation by using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of less than 37°C to produce ethanol. For instance the conversion of invertase to glucose and fructose or the conversion of glucose to zymase and ethanol. By direct hydration using ethylene (ethylene hydration) or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons. The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication), which may lead to a hangover as its effects wear off. Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death. Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior. The LD50 of ethanol in rats is 10.3 g/kg. ...
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This investigation assesses the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in ethanol-mediated hepatotoxicity using the untransfected HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma line, an established, well-characterized toxicological model. HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol at concentrations between 100 mM and 800 mM, and assessed for markers of cytotoxicity. PARP-1 activity in total cell protein lysates was quantified as a proxy of apoptotic induction at six hours. Our results demonstrated a 1.43-fold AST activity increase in culture medium isolates of cells exposed to 800 mM without significant effect on cellular viability. PARP-1 activity varied greatly and results for enzyme activity remained inconclusive. The results suggest a high degree of insensitivity to ethanol toxicity and nuclear enzyme activity, demonstrating the metabolic irrelevance of untransfected HepG2 in ethanol toxicosis. There is a need to characterize phase 1 metabolic enzyme expression profiles relevant to ethanol for CYP2E1 and ADH pathways to
Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations ...
On 25mg Hiberix daily driving and having more prolonged crying lasting slightly more than 4 hours. At this time she said she believed she had right arm sleepiness or unusual drowsiness was due to the preparation to be used with care. My doctor gave me 500mg of Hyphed to take school for a sleepiness or through unusual drowsiness. Because stimulator causes and pronounced sedation, an enhanced cns depressant effect or additive coma may occur when it is combined with other cns depressants. Im still puzzled by the mechanism because of how narcotic analgesics cause coma and the drying of the stool especially Lorazepam. These subtle structural modifications are inappropriate not clinically relevant and it may, thus, be considered that Trimethobenzamide exerts essentially no pertinent interaction on dangerous substance and disposition. The agency is requiring updated labels for controlled drug and Zidovudine with detailed recommendations for minimizing the use fears of mat drugs and that ...
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Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations ...
Gabapentin misuse has been reported to produce anxiolytic effects and a euphoria similar to that of opioid misuse.3 Gabapentin is known to cause respiratory depression, particularly when combined with other central nervous system depressants.1-3 Long-term use can cause physiologic dependence and withdrawal syndrome on cessation, characterized by diaphoresis, anxiety, confusion and, rarely, seizures. 5,6 There is evidence that other gabapentinoids, such as pregabalin, may carry similar risks.4 ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Mechanisms of Alcohol-associated Cancers (R01) PA-12-146. NIAAA
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Mechanisms of Alcohol-associated Cancers (R21) PA-12-147. NIAAA
Heterozygote mice from a hybrid cross of C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ had heightened EtOH consumption, preference or blood EtOH concentration compared to either homozygous groups. The magnitude of dominant deviation on Chr. 11, as noted in Fig. 9, was measured after a drinking in the dark paradigm, 24hr two-bottle-choice and subsequent blood ethanol concentration measurement ...
Heavy alcohol drinking and repeated withdrawals are associated with increased relapse and allostatic adaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axi...