Despite the economic importance of grasses as food, feed and energy crops, little is known about the genes that control their cell wall synthesis, assembly and remodelling. Here we provide a detailed transcriptome analysis that allowed the identification of genes involved in grass cell wall biogenesis. Differential gene-expression profiling, using maize oligonucleotide arrays, was used to identify genes differentially expressed between an elongating internode, containing cells exhibiting primary cell wall synthesis, and an internode that had just ceased elongation and in which many cells were depositing secondary cell wall material. This is one of only few studies specifically aimed at the identification of cell wall-related genes in grasses. Analysis identified new candidate genes for a role in primary and secondary cell wall-related processes in grasses. The results suggest that many proteins involved in cell wall-related processes during normal development are also recruited during defence-related
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Cell Role BNI1 BEM1 Cell Polarity BEM2 Cell Polarity BEM4 Cell Polarity BUD6† Cell Polarity SLA1† Cell Polarity CLA4 Cell Polarity ELM1† Cell Polarity GIN4 Cell Polarity NAP1† Cell Polarity SWE1† Cell Polarity BNR1 Cytokinesis CYK3† Cytokinesis SHS1 Cytokinesis BCK1 Cell Wall Maintenance BNI4† Cell Wall Maintenance FAB1 Cell Wall Maintenance CHS3 Cell Wall Maintenance SKT5† Cell Wall Maintenance CHS5† Cell Wall Maintenance CHS7† Cell Wall Maintenance SLT2 Cell Wall Maintenance SMI1† Cell Wall Maintenance ARP1 Mitosis ASE1 Mitosis DYN1 Mitosis DYN2† MitOSis JNM1 Mitosis NIP100 Mitosis NUM1 Mitosis PAC1 Mitosis ATS1 Cell Structure PACI1 Cell Structure YKE2† Cell Structure PCL1† Cell Cycle Control DRS2 RNA Processing SNC2 Vesicular Transport VPS28 Vesicular Transport YPT6† Vesicular Transport ELP2 Pol II Transcription ELP3† Pol II Transcription 8BC1† Unknown N8P2† Unknown TUS1† Unknown YBL051c† Unknown YBL062w† Unknown YDR149c Unknown ...
UNLABELLEDPREMISE OF THE STUDYThe results of published studies investigating the tissue-scale mechanical properties of plant cell walls are confounded by the unknown contributions of the middle lamella and the shape and size of each cell. However, due to their microscale size, cell walls have not yet been characterized at the wall fragment level under tensile loading. It is imperative to understand the stress-strain behavior of cell wall fragments to relate the walls mechanical properties to its architecture. •METHODSThis study reports a novel method used to characterize wall fragments under tensile loading. Cell wall fragments from onion outer epidermal peels were cut to the desired size (15 × 5 µm) using the focused ion beam milling technique, and these fragments were manipulated onto a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tensile testing device. The stress-strain behavior of the wall fragments both in the major and minor growth directions were characterized in vacuo. •KEY RESULTSThe ...
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To clarify the involvement of actin in the formation of the yeast cell wall, reverting protoplasts of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were used as a simple model system. Actin of reverting protoplasts was labeled with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin and observed by conventional fluorescence microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. A close spatial as well as temporal relationship between actin and cell wall formation was observed in protoplast reversion. That is, the site of actin dots in the reverting protoplasts coincided with the site of new wall formation and the timing of rearrangement of actin coincided with the initiation of cell wall formation and with the timing of cell wall expansion. Treatment of reverting protoplasts with cytochalasin D (CD) further clarified the close relationship between actin and cell wall organization. The effect of CD was dose dependent. A high dose of CD caused the absence of actin as well as the complete inhibition of cell wall formation. A low dose of CD ...
Pathological infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still a major global health concern. Traditional diagnostic methods are time-consuming, less sensitive, and lack high specificity. Due to an increase in the pathogenic graph of mycobacterial infections especially in developing countries, there is an urgent requirement for a rapid, low cost, and highly sensitive diagnostic method. D29 mycobacteriophage, which is capable of infecting and killing M. tuberculosis, projects itself as a potential candidate for the development of novel diagnostic methods and phage therapy of mycobacterial infections. In our previous study, we showed that the cell wall binding domain [C-terminal domain (CTD)] located at the C-terminal end of the D29 mycobacteriophage LysA endolysin very selectively binds to the peptidoglycan (PG) of Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. Here, by using M. smegmatis as model organism and by exploiting the PG binding ability of CTD, we have developed a method to isolate M.
Plant cells are surrounded by a strong polysaccharide-rich cell wall that aids in determining the overall form, growth and development of the plant body. Indeed, the unique shapes of the 40-odd cell types in plants are determined by their walls, as removal of the cell wall results in spherical protoplasts that are amorphic. Hence, assembly and remodeling of the wall is essential in plant development. Most plant cell walls are composed of a framework of cellulose microfibrils that are cross-linked to each other by heteropolysaccharides. The cell walls are highly dynamic and adapt to the changing requirements of the plant during growth. However, despite the importance of plant cell walls for plant growth and for applications that we use in our daily life such as food, feed and fuel, comparatively little is known about how they are synthesized and modified. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we aim to illustrate the underpinning cell biology of the synthesis of wall ...
For optimal plant growth, carbon and nitrogen availability needs to be tightly coordinated. Mitochondrial perturbations related to a defect in complex I in the Arabidopsis thalianafrostbite1 (fro1) mutant, carrying a point mutation in the 8-kD Fe-S subunit of NDUFS4 protein, alter aspects of fundamental carbon metabolism, which is manifested as stunted growth. During nitrate nutrition, fro1 plants showed a dominant sugar flux toward nitrogen assimilation and energy production, whereas cellulose integration in the cell wall was restricted. However, when cultured on NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source, which typically induces developmental disorders in plants (i.e., the ammonium toxicity syndrome), fro1 showed improved growth as compared to NO3- nourishing. Higher energy availability in fro1 plants was correlated with restored cell wall assembly during NH4+ growth. To determine the relationship between mitochondrial complex I disassembly and cell wall-related processes, aspects of cell wall integrity ...
Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often reinforced with lignin that provides durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. For diverse green plants (chlorophytes and streptophytes) the rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, the development of methods for cell wall analyses which require less material for analysis, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated ...
Recall that most classes of bacteria possess a bacterial cell wall which is critical for their proper functioning and growth (See page). Because mammalian cells do not possess a cell wall, pharmacological inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis is one of the most important mechanisms for selective targeting of bacterial growth and proliferation ...
Staining and immunodetection by light microscopy are methods widely used to investigate plant cell walls. The two techniques have been crucial to study the cell wall architecture in planta, its deconstruction by chemicals or cell wall-degrading enzymes. They have been instrumental in detecting the presence of cell types, in deciphering plant cell wall evolution and in characterizing plant mutants and transformants. The success of immunolabeling relies on how plant materials are embedded and sectioned. Agarose coating, wax and resin embedding are, respectively, associated with vibratome, microtome and ultramicrotome sectioning. Here, we have systematically carried out a comparative analysis of these three methods of sample preparation when they are applied for cell wall staining and cell wall immunomicroscopy. In order to help the plant community in understanding and selecting adequate methods of embedding and sectioning for cell wall immunodetection, we review in this article the advantages and
The dimerization interface in VraR is essential for induction of the cell wall stress response in Staphylococcus aureus: a potential druggable target. https://t.co/9mtzsf5GDw. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maize Stover and Cob Cell Wall Composition and Ethanol Potential as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization. AU - Sindelar, Aaron J.. AU - Sheaffer, Craig C.. AU - Lamb, John A.. AU - Jung, Hans Joachim G. AU - Rosen, Carl J.. PY - 2015/9/8. Y1 - 2015/9/8. N2 - Maize (Zea mays L.) stover and cobs are potential feedstock sources for cellulosic ethanol production. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an important management decision that influences cellulosic biomass and grain production, but its effect on cell wall composition and subsequent cellulosic ethanol production is not known. The objectives of this study were to quantify the responses of maize stover (leaves, stalks, husks, and tassel) and cob cell wall composition and theoretical ethanol yield potential to N fertilization across a range of sites. Field experiments were conducted at rainfed and irrigated sites in Minnesota, USA, over a 2-year period. Stover cell wall polysaccharides, pentose sugar concentration, and theoretical ...
Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (also called murein), which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids.[4] Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi which are made of cellulose and chitin, respectively.[5] The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of Archaea, which do not contain peptidoglycan. The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria and the antibiotic penicillin is able to kill bacteria by inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan.[5] There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, called Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain, a test long-employed for the classification of bacterial species.[6] Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In ...
Searches in a Candida albicans database (http://genolist.pasteur.fr/CandidaDB/) identified two Individual Protein Files (IPF 15363 and 19968) whose deduced amino acid sequences showed 42 % and 45 % homology with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pir4. The two DNA sequences are alleles of the same gene (CaPIR1) but IPF 19968 has a deletion of 117 bases. IPF 19968 encodes a putative polypeptide of 364 aa, which is highly O-glycosylated and has an N-mannosylated chain, four cysteine residues and seven repeats. Both alleles are expressed under different growth conditions and during wall construction by regenerating protoplasts. The heterozygous mutant cells are elongated, form clumps of several cells and are hypersensitive to drugs that affect cell wall assembly. CaPir1 was labelled with the V5 epitope and found linked to the 1,3-β-glucan of the C. albicans wall and also by disulphide bridges when expressed in S. cerevisiae.
Actin Homologues in Bacteria and Their Role in Cell Wall SynthesisMany mutations that lead to defects in bacterial cell shape are directly associated with a defect in cell wall synthesis. A mutation or multiple mutations of pbp genes can convert rod-shaped E. coli and B. subtilis cells into round or branched cells (see, e.g., references 130, 183, and 202). Also, mutations of RodA, the putative PG precursor translocase, or of TagF, an enzyme involved in teichoic acid synthesis, can convert B. subtilis into round cells (78, 83). A second group of genes, mreBCD, with no clear association with cell wall synthesis, are also required for rod-shaped growth of both E. coli and B. subtilis (48, 108, 192, 198, 199). A first indication for the function of MreB came when MreB was predicted to be structurally similar to actin (15). Proof that MreB is the bacterial homologue of actin was provided by two landmark papers published in 2001. The first paper showed that in B. subtilis MreB and a second, homologous ...
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the major cause of the common canine skin disease, pyoderma, and is a zoonotic pathogen of humans. Multidrug resistant strains of S. pseudintermedius have emerged and are spreading globally leading to decreased therapeutic success. The development of novel therapeutics is hindered by the lack of understanding of critical host-pathogen interactions mediating S. pseudintermedius colonization and pathogenesis. For the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, interactions with host fibrinogen play a fundamental role in pathogenesis. The aim of the current study was to genetically and functionally characterise 2 cell wall-associated proteins of S. pseudintermedius, SpsD and SpsL, which mediate binding to multiple host extracellular matrix proteins including fibrinogen and fibronectin. DNA sequencing of the A- (ligand binding) domains of spsD and spsL genes for 37 phylogenetically diverse isolates revealed a highly conserved sequence for SpsL (97.1% derived amino ...
Knowledge of the ultrastructural arrangement within wood fibres is important for understanding the mechanical properties of the fibres themselves, as well as for understanding and controlling the. ultrastructural changes that occur during pulp processing.. The object of this work was to explore the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in studies of the cell wall ultrastructure and to see how this structure is affected in the kraft pulp fibre line. This is done in order to eventually improve fibre properties for use in paper and other applications, such as composites. On the ultrastructural level of native spruce fibres (tracheids), it was found that cellulose fibril aggregates exist as agglomerates of individual cellulose microfibrils (with a width. of 4 nm). Using AFM in combination with image processing, the average side length (assuming a square cross-section) for a cellulose fibril aggregate was found to be 15-16 nm although with a broad distribution. A concentric lamella structure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Some Observations on the Taxonomy of the Genus Microbacterium. II. Cell Wall Analysis, Gel Electrophoresis and Serology. AU - Robinson, K.. PY - 1966/12. Y1 - 1966/12. N2 - Summary. The chemical composition of the cell wall mucopeptide, the esterases and catalases of the cell free extracts, and the serology of the 25 species of microbacteria whose morphological and cultural characteristics had been investigated previously, were examined. Suggestions are made about the relationships of the species within the genus Microbacterium and with other genera.. AB - Summary. The chemical composition of the cell wall mucopeptide, the esterases and catalases of the cell free extracts, and the serology of the 25 species of microbacteria whose morphological and cultural characteristics had been investigated previously, were examined. Suggestions are made about the relationships of the species within the genus Microbacterium and with other genera.. UR - ...
Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2pm (A 2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate ...
The Candida albicans MKC1 gene encodes a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which has been cloned by complementation of the lytic phenotype associated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae slt2 (mpk1) mutants. In this work, the physiological role of this MAP kinase in the pathogenic fungus C. albicans was characterized and a role for MKC1 in the biogenesis of the cell wall suggested based on the following criteria. First, C. albicans mkc1Δ/mkc1Δ strains displayed alterations in their cell surfaces under specific conditions as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Second, an increase in specific cell wall epitopes (O-glycosylated mannoprotein) was shown by confocal microscopy in mkc1Δ/mkc1Δ mutants. Third, the sensitivity to antifungals which inhibit (1,3)-β-glucan and chitin synthesis was increased in these mutants. In addition, evidence for a role for the MKC1 gene in morphological transitions in C. albicans is presented based on the impairment of pseudohyphal formation of mkc1Δ/mkc1Δ strains
b)Exemptions. (1) A limited permit for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in Escherichia coli genotype K-12 (strain K-12 and its derivatives), sterile strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or asporogenic strains of Bacillus subtilis, provided that all the following conditions are met: (i) The microorganisms are shipped in a container that meets the requirements of § 340.8(b)(3); (ii) The cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does not contain other conjugation proficient plasmids or generalized transducing phages; (iii) The cloned material does not include the complete infectious genome of a known plant pest; (iv) The cloned genes are not carried on an expression vector if the cloned genes code for: (A) A toxin to plants or plant products, or a toxin to organisms beneficial to plants; or (B) Other factors directly involved in eliciting plant disease (i.e., cell wall degrading enzymes); or ...
bacitracin also inhibit cell wall synthesis but are not nearly as important as the beta-lactam drugs. The selective toxicity of the drugs discussed in this chapter is mainly due to specific actions on the synthesis of a cellular structure that is unique to the microorganism. More than 50 antibiotics that act as cell wall synthesis inhibitors are currently available, with individual spectra of activity that afford a wide range of clinical applications. ...
Although not truly unique, the cell walls of Archaea are unusual. Whereas peptidoglycan is a standard component of all bacterial cell walls, all archaeal cell walls lack peptidoglycan,[42] though some methanogens have a cell wall made of a similar polymer called pseudopeptidoglycan.[13] There are four types of cell wall currently known among the Archaea. One type of archaeal cell wall is that composed of pseudopeptidoglycan (also called pseudomurein). This type of wall is found in some methanogens, such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermus.[43] While the overall structure of archaeal pseudopeptidoglycan superficially resembles that of bacterial peptidoglycan, there are a number of significant chemical differences. Like the peptidoglycan found in bacterial cell walls, pseudopeptidoglycan consists of polymer chains of glycan cross-linked by short peptide connections. However, unlike peptidoglycan, the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid is replaced by N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid,[42] and the two sugars ...
Plant cell wall proteomics has been a very dynamic field of research for about fifteen years. A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. The protocols are still improving to enlarge the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Comparisons between these proteomes have been done based on various working strategies or different physiological stages. In this review, two points are highlighted. The first point is related to data analysis with an overview of the cell wall proteomes already described. A large body of data is now available with the description of cell wall proteomes of seventeen plant species. CWP contents exhibit particularities in relation to the major differences in cell wall composition and structure between these plants and between plant organs. The second point is related to methodology and concerns the present limitations of the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Because of the variety of
Amazing pictures of 8 Picture Animals Do Not Have Cell Walls is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 719 x 588 px and the image size only 326 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: animals do not have cell walls, can animals have cell walls, do animal eukaryotic cells have cell walls, do animal like protists have cell walls, do animals and humans have cell walls, .. ...
Amazing pictures of 8 Picture Animals Do Not Have Cell Walls is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 719 x 588 px and the image size only 326 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: animals do not have cell walls, can animals have cell walls, do animal eukaryotic cells have cell walls, do animal like protists have cell walls, do animals and humans have cell walls, .. ...
The stiffness of closed-cell low-density cellular solids, or solid foams, is affected by imperfections such as non-uniform cell shape and size, wavy distortions of cell walls, variations in cell wall thickness, etc. The present paper focuses on the influence of non-uniform cell wall thickness on stiffness. Calculations are performed on one model with different degrees of thickness variations. The model used is the flat-faced Kelvin structure, which consists of 14-sided polyhedra in a bcc arrangement. The results indicate that the stiffness of closed-cell cellular solids is not very sensitive to thickness variations. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
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In this protocol we describe how to visualize neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and fungal cell wall changes in the context of the coculture of mouse neutrophils with fungal hyphae of Candida albicans. These protocols are easily adjusted to test a wide array of hypotheses related to the impact of immune cells on fungi and the cell wall, making them promising tools for exploring host-pathogen interactions during fungal infection.
The elongating maize internode represents a useful system for following development of cell walls in vegetative cells in the Poaceae family. Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones. Cells in the basal meristem and elongation zones contain mainly primary walls, while secondary cell wall deposition accelerates in the transition zone and predominates in the maturation zone. The major wall components cellulose, lignin and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) increased without any abrupt changes across the elongation, transition and maturation zones, although GAX appeared to increase more between the elongation and transition zones. Microarray analyses show that transcript abundance of key glycosyl transferase genes known to be involved in wall synthesis or re-modelling did not match the increases in cellulose, GAX and lignin. Rather, transcript levels of many of these genes were
(figure) (figure) Figure 4.18 High resolution scanning electron micrograph of the primary cell wall of onion (Allium cepa L.). The root has been saponin treated then freeze-fractured to reveal the inner face of a cell wall.
Enzybiotics are a novel class of antibacterials, based on the peptidoglycan lysins, which kill rapidly and specifically the bacteria, preventing the appearance of crossed resistances with other pathogens and the microbiota degradation.. The common narrow lytic spectra of enzybiotics a novel and promising class of antibacterials relies, primarily, on their targeting of specific cell-wall receptors through specialized modules: the cell wall-binding domains. Using as model system the cell wall binding domain of the Cpl-7 endolysin (made of three identical CW_7 repeats), we have established the molecular basis for the cell wall recognition by the CW_7 motif, which is widely represented in sequences of cell wall hydrolases. To this aim, the crystal and solution 25 structures of the Cpl-7 cell wall-binding domain (C-Cpl-7) were solved, N-acetyl-Dglucosaminyl-(β1,4)-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (GMDP) was identified as part of the peptidoglycan target recognized by the CW_7 motifs, ...
Mares, D.; Stone, B.; Jeffery, C.N.rstog, K., 1977: Early stages in the development of wheat endosperm. II. Ultrastructural observatons on cell wall formation
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Intestinal Bifidobacterium species are thought to be beneficial in animal and human intestines. We studied the mechanisms of Bifidobacteria in antitumor activity using a cell wall preparation (WPG) of B. infantis (Cancer Res., 45, 1300, (1985)). WPG enhanced the in vitro antitumor activities of mouse peritoneal exudate cells elicited with proteose-peptone (P-PEC) and thioglycollate broth (TG-PEC), determined by cytostatic ([,SUP,3,/SUP,H] thymidine uptake inhibition) and cytolytic ([,SUP,3,/SUP,H] uridine release) assays. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) play a role in such augmented cytotoxicity, because anti-TNF-α antibody almost completely blocked the increased cytolytic activity of P-PEC in the presence of WPG. Moreover, WPG induced RNI in the supernatant of TG-PEC in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of several cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-α and TNF-α) was induced in BALB/c mouse peritoneal cells 3 h after an intraperitoneal ...
The cell wall of brown algae is a major cell compartment involved in many physiological responses including cell growth, development, or in adaptation to the physico-chemical changes of the environment. Like other photosynthetic organisms (plants, red and green algae), brown algae have a cell wall mainly composed of polysaccharides, but taking into account phylogenetic distances, the compounds are distinct, with notably alginates and sulfated fucans. Most knowledge on cell wall compositions comes from chemical extractions carried out on whole algal plants, with the induced lost of most cellular information. Today, monoclonal antibodies specifically directed towards alginates and sulfated fucans have been developed and characterized. These tools can be used to precisely localize at a cellular and tissue level their particular polysaccharide fractions. In addition to the information on the structure and composition of the cell wall, these antibodies allow to study the biological roles of the cell ...
The Editors xi List of Contributors xii. Preface xv. About the Companion Website xvi. COMPARTMENTS. 1 Membrane Structure and Membranous Organelles 2. Introduction 2. 1.1 Common properties and inheritance of cell membranes 2. 1.2 The fluid -mosaic membrane model 4. 1.3 Plasma membrane 10. 1.4 Endoplasmic reticulum 13. 1.5 Golgi apparatus 18. 1.6 Exocytosis and endocytosis 23. 1.7 Vacuoles 27. 1.8 The nucleus 28. 1.9 Peroxisomes 31. 1.10 Plastids 32. 1.11 Mitochondria 39. Summary 44. 2 The Cell Wall 45. Introduction 45. 2.1 Sugars are building blocks of the cell wall 45. 2.2 Macromolecules of the cell wall 51. 2.3 Cell wall architecture 73. 2.4 Cell wall biosynthesis and assembly 80. 2.5 Growth and cell walls 90. 2.6 Cell differentiation 99. 2.7 Cell walls as sources of food, feed, fiber, and fuel, and their genetic improvement 108. Summary 110. 3 Membrane Transport 111. Introduction 111. 3.1 Overview of plant membrane transport systems 111. 3.2 Pumps 120. 3.3 Ion channels 128. 3.4 Cotransporters ...
Plant Cell Wall Bioengineered Around Animal Cell By Penn State Scientists Biomedical engineers at Penn State have created a process to construct protective, artificial plant cell wall surfaces around animal cells. The work, published in Nature Communications, might hold the significant possibility for a variety of medical and biomanufacturing applications for human health and wellness. […]. The post Plant Cell Wall Bioengineered Around Animal Cell By Penn State Scientists appeared first on BioTecNika.Read more at www.biotecnika.org/2019/07/plant-cell-wall-bioengineered-around-animal-cell-by-penn-state-scientists/. ...
Transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in the regulation of secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis in herbaceous and woody plants. In Arabidopsis, the onset of SCW deposition is initiated by a nexus of NAC, MYB, homeodomain and several other families of TFs, which function in a transcriptional network regulating SCW biosynthetic genes. NAC family members SND1/NST1 and VND6/VND7 have been identified as functionally redundant master regulators of SCW formation in fibres and vessels, respectively [1, 2]. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing SND2, an indirect target of fibre master regulator SND1, exhibited increased SCW thickness in inflorescence stem fibres, whilst dominant repression lines exhibited a decrease in fibre SCW thickness associated with a reduction in glucose and xylose cell wall sugar content [3]. The ability of SND2 to transactivate the CesA8 promoter [3] suggested that SND2 may regulate cellulose biosynthetic genes during fibre SCW formation. The evaluation of this ...
Until now, MurJs mechanisms have been somewhat of a black box in the bacterial cell wall synthesis because of technical difficulties studying the protein, said senior author Seok-Yong Lee, Ph.D., associate professor of biochemistry at Duke University School of Medicine. Our study could provide insight into the development of broad spectrum antibiotics, because nearly every type of bacteria needs this proteins action.. A bacteriums cell wall is composed of a rigid mesh-like material called peptidoglycan. Molecules to make peptidoglycan are manufactured inside the cell and then need to be transported across the cell membrane to build the outer wall.. In 2014, another group of scientists had discovered that MurJ is the transporter protein located in the cell membrane that is responsible for flipping these wall building blocks across the membrane. Without MurJ, peptidoglycan precursors build up inside the cell and the bacterium falls apart. Many groups have attempted to solve MurJs ...
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall mannoproteins are required for the adhesion of pathogenic fungi, such as Candida albicans, to human epithelium. Small molecular inhibitors of the cell surface presentation of GPI-anchored mannoproteins would be promising candidate drugs to block …
Crown-gall tumor initiation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is inhibited by cell walls from normal dicotyledonous plants but not by cell walls from crown-gall tumors apparently because of bacterial adherence or nonadherence, respectively, to the different cell walls. Cell walls from normal and tumor tissues in culture also show this difference, indicating that the two types of tissue stably maintain this difference under these conditions. Habituated tissue cultures, which resemble crown-gall tumor cultures, however, form cell walls that are inhibitory like those of the normal cultures from which they are derived. Monocotyledonous plants do not act as hosts for Agrobacterium and bacteria-specific inhibition is not shown by cell walls from several species of grass, a monocot family. Cell wallsfrom embryonic tissues (dicot seedlings less than 2 centimeters long), unlike those from older seedlings, are non-inhibitory. Crown-gall tumors thus resemble embryonic tissues in this respect.. ...
Discusses all of the non-penicillin beta-lactam antibiotics, including cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, and non-beta-lactam cell wall inhibitors, including vancomycin, daptomycin, and bacitracin. These drugs are used to treat a broad spectrum ...
Recent developments in genome sequencing technology have provided detailed information about the genetics of crop plants, but what has been lacking to date is the technology needed to collect comparable cell wall data to locate, assign and signpost these important genes for plant breeders.. Using a microarray, sometimes called a lab-on-a-chip, the team were able analyze thousands of plant cell samples simultaneously and harvest a large amount of data relevant to the arrangement of the cell.. They then linked this information back to particular changes in genetic information between the different varieties of plant cell, using a technique called association mapping.. Dr Ian Bancroft from the University of Yorks Department of Biology said: Plant cell walls are made up of sugars, which can be arranged into a myriad of different carbohydrates that determine cell wall properties in subtly different but significant ways.. Variations in these sugars alter the properties of the plant, by affecting ...
The Arabidopsis root hair represents a valuable cell model for elucidating polar expansion mechanisms in plant cells and the overall biology of roots. The deposition and development of the cell wall is central to the root hair expansion apparatus. During this process, incorporation of specific wall polymers into the growing wall architecture constitutes a critical spatio-temporal event that controls hair size and growth rate and one that is closely coordinated with the cells endomembrane, cytoskeletal and signal transduction apparatuses. In this study, the protocol for live cell labeling of roots with monoclonal antibodies that bind to specific wall polymers is presented. This method allows for rapid assessment of root hair cell wall composition during development and assists in describing changes to cell wall composition in transgenic mutant lines. Enzymatic
Sandwich ELISA is a highly sensitive method that can be used to determine if two epitopes are part of the same macromolecule or supramolecular complex. In the case of plant cell wall glycans, it can reveal the existence of inter-polymers linkages, leading to better understanding of overall cell wall architectures. This development of a conventional sandwich ELISA protocol uses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), a small protein domain found in some carbohydrate catalysing or activating enzymes, and rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which can be combined in the same ELISA plate without risk of cross reaction; the secondary anti-rat HRP antibody being only able to bind to the rat mAb and not the CBM. This protocol was developed and modified in the Prof. J. Paul Knox lab at the University of Leeds.
Seedlings of Arabidopsis α-tubulin 6 mutant (tua6) were cultivated under microgravity conditions in the European Modular Cultivation System on the International Space Station, and growth and cell wall properties of their hypocotyls were analyzed (the Resist Wall experiment). Seeds of tua6 mutant were shown to germinate and grow normally until the seedling stage under microgravity conditions, as at 1 G on the ground. The seedlings were naturally air-dried in orbit, which were then recovered and transported to earth. When the mechanical properties of the cell wall of rehydrated hypocotyls were examined with a tensile tester, the hypocotyls showed typical stress-strain and stress-relaxation curves, as normally fixed or frozen materials. Also, no prominent differences were detected in the extensibility or the stress-relaxation parameters of the cell wall between space-grown hypocotyls and ground controls, suggesting that tua6 hypocotyls formed the regular cell wall architecture under microgravity ...
Treatment of rice tissues with purified preparations of a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) secreted plant cell wall degrading enzyme, Lipase/Esterase (LipA), elicits cell wall damage induced innate immune responses. LipA activity is required for induction of defense responses. In order to characterize the early events during elaboration of cell wall degrading enzyme, Lipase/Esterase (LipA) induced innate immune response in rice, we have performed global gene expression profiling of rice leaves treated with purified LipA at early time points, 30 minutes and 120min, after treatment. Whole genome transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix Rice GeneChips
Background Ruminococcus flavefaciens is a predominant cellulolytic rumen bacterium, which forms a multi-enzyme cellulosome complex that could play an integral role in the ability of this bacterium to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Identifying the major enzyme types involved in plant cell wall degradation is essential for gaining a better understanding of the cellulolytic capabilities of this organism as well as highlighting potential enzymes for application in improvement of livestock nutrition and for conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuels. Methodology/Principal Findings The R. flavefaciens FD-1 genome was sequenced to 29x-coverage, based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis estimates (4.4 Mb), and assembled into 119 contigs providing 4,576,399 bp of unique sequence. As much as 87.1% of the genome encodes ORFs, tRNA, rRNAs, or repeats. The GC content was calculated at 45%. A total of 4,339 ORFs was detected with an average gene length of 918 bp. The cellulosome model for R.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of the Candida albicans cell wall during commensalism and infection. AU - Gow, N.A.R.. AU - Hube, B.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - An imbalance of the normal microbial flora, breakage of epithelial barriers or dysfunction of the immune system favour the transition of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans from a commensal to a pathogen. C. albicans has evolved to be adapted as a commensal on mucosal surfaces. As a commensal it has also acquired attributes, which are necessary to avoid or overcome the host defence mechanisms. The human host has also co-evolved to recognize and eliminate potential fungal invaders. Many of the fungal genes that have been the focus of this co-evolutionary process encode cell wall components. In this review, we will discuss the transition from commensalism to pathogenesis, the key players of the fungal cell surface that are important for this transition, the role of the morphology and the mechanisms of host recognition and ...
Lignocellulosic biomass is today considered a promising renewable resource for bioenergy production. A combined chemical and biological process is currently under consideration for the conversion of polysaccharides from plant cell wall materials, mainly cellulose and hemicelluloses, to simple sugars that can be fermented to biofuels. Native plant cellulose forms nanometer-scale microfibrils that are embedded in a polymeric network of hemicelluloses, pectins, and lignins; this explains, in part, the recalcitrance of biomass to deconstruction. The chemical and structural characteristics of these plant cell wall constituents remain largely unknown today. Scanning probe microscopy techniques, particularly atomic force microscopy and its application in characterizing plant cell wall structure, are reviewed here. We also further discuss future developments based on scanning probe microscopy techniques that combine linear and nonlinear optical techniques to characterize plant cell wall nanometer-scale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The anatomy of bamboo culms and the multilayered structure of fibre cell walls are known to be the main determinant factors for its physical and mechanical properties. Studies on the bamboo cell wall have focussed mainly on fully elongated and mature fibres. The main aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of primary and secondary cell walls in culm tissues of Dendrocalamus asper at different stages of development. METHODS: The development of fibre and parenchyma tissues was classified into four stages based on light microscopy observations made in tissues from juvenile plants. The stages were used as a basis for transmission electron microscopy study on the ultrastructure of the cell wall during the process of primary and early secondary cell wall formation. Macerations and phloroglucinol-HCl staining were employed to investigate fibre cell elongation and fibre cell wall lignification, respectively. KEY RESULTS: The observations indicated that the primary wall ...
Some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens belong to the oomycete class. The cell walls of these microorganisms represent an excellent target for disease control, but their carbohydrate composition is elusive. We have undertaken a detailed cell wall analysis in 10 species from 2 major oomycete orders, the Peronosporales and the Saprolegniales, thereby unveiling the existence of 3 clearly different cell wall types: type I is devoid of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) but contains glucuronic acid and mannose; type II contains up to 5% GlcNAc and residues indicative of cross-links between cellulose and 1,3-beta-glucans; type III is characterized by the highest GlcNAc content (,5%) and the occurrence of unusual carbohydrates that consist of 1,6-linked GlcNAc residues. These 3 cell wall types are also distinguishable by their cellulose content and the fine structure of their 1,3-beta-glucans. We propose a cell wall paradigm for oomycetes that can serve as a basis for the establishment of ...
Molecular probes are required to detect cell wall polymers in-situ to aid understanding of their cell biology and several studies have shown that cell wall epitopes have restricted occurrences across sections of plant organs indicating that cell wall structure is highly developmentally regulated. Xyloglucan is the major hemicellulose or cross-linking glycan of the primary cell walls of dicotyledons although little is known of its occurrence or functions in relation to cell development and cell wall microstructure. Using a neoglycoprotein approach, in which a XXXG heptasaccharide of tamarind seed xyloglucan was coupled to BSA to produce an immunogen, we have generated a rat monoclonal antibody (designated LM15) to the XXXG structural motif of xyloglucans. The specificity of LM15 has been confirmed by the analysis of LM15 binding using glycan microarrays and oligosaccharide hapten inhibition of binding studies. The use of LM15 for the analysis of xyloglucan in the cell walls of tamarind and nasturtium
Molecular probes are required to detect cell wall polymers in-situ to aid understanding of their cell biology and several studies have shown that cell wall epitopes have restricted occurrences across sections of plant organs indicating that cell wall structure is highly developmentally regulated. Xyloglucan is the major hemicellulose or cross-linking glycan of the primary cell walls of dicotyledons although little is known of its occurrence or functions in relation to cell development and cell wall microstructure. Using a neoglycoprotein approach, in which a XXXG heptasaccharide of tamarind seed xyloglucan was coupled to BSA to produce an immunogen, we have generated a rat monoclonal antibody (designated LM15) to the XXXG structural motif of xyloglucans. The specificity of LM15 has been confirmed by the analysis of LM15 binding using glycan microarrays and oligosaccharide hapten inhibition of binding studies. The use of LM15 for the analysis of xyloglucan in the cell walls of tamarind and nasturtium
Research Associate Position. One posdoctoral research scientist position is anticipated to become available as early as August 1st 1997, in an USDA funded project aimed to test the biological necessity of plant cell wall degrading enzymes during fungal plant infections. Combined biochemical and molecular genetic approaches will be used to identify and characterize genes that regulate the expression of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Ph.D. with previous experience in fungal cell biology required; previous experience in molecular genetics and/or fungal plant pathology preferred. For consideration, send curriculum vitae and the names of three references to: Dr. R.A. Prade, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Oklahoma State University. Stillwater OK 74078-3020. Application deadline is July 15 1997. Visit the following websites to learn more about the project, http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/micro/prade.htm ; Oklahoma State University:, http://pio.okstate.edu/ and the Stillwater ...
immune Uncategorized CGP 3466B maleate, Rabbit Polyclonal to NFYC. Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs in by inositol deacylation and is critical for host invasion and immune escape. is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that typically grows as a harmless commensal as a part of the normal flora found on the skin mucosal surfaces and in the gut of healthy individuals1. However in immunocompromised populations infection can result in a diverse range between mild discomfort to life-threatening systemic candidiasis. CGP 3466B maleate Significantly despite significant medical advances bloodstream infections of are connected with a higher mortality rate2 still. The fungal cell wall structure as the outermost mobile structure can be a complicated of cross-linked polysaccharides and glycoproteins just crucial for the integrity and form of fungi because they develop and differentiate but also an ...
Brachypodium distachyon ( Brachypodium) has emerged as a useful model system for studying traits unique to graminaceous species including bioenergy crop grasses owing to its amenability to laboratory experimentation and the availability of extensive genetic and germplasm resources. Considerable natural variation has been uncovered for a variety of traits including flowering time, vernalization responsiveness, and above-ground growth characteristics. However, cell wall composition differences remain underexplored. Therefore, we assessed cell wall-related traits relevant to biomass conversion to biofuels in seven Brachypodium inbred lines that were chosen based on their high level of genotypic diversity as well as available genome sequences and recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Senesced stems plus leaf sheaths from these lines exhibited significant differences in acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), cell wall polysaccharide-derived sugars, hydroxycinnamates content, and ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of humans (1). Cells of S. aureus are surrounded by a thick layer of highly cross-linked cell wall peptidoglycan (2). The peptidoglycan layer is formed from lipid II precursors, C55-(PO3)2-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-(l-Ala-d-iGln-(Gly5)l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala)-GlcNAc (3), via the transpeptidation and transglycosylation reactions of cell wall synthesis to generate [MurNAc-(l-Ala-d-iGln-(Gly5)l-Lys-d-Ala)-GlcNAc]n polymer (4). Assembled peptidoglycan is a single large macromolecule that protects bacteria against osmotic lysis (5) and also functions as scaffold for the anchoring of wall teichoic acids (6) and proteins (7). These secondary cell wall polymers promote specific interactions between staphylococci and host tissues (8). Cell wall-anchored surface proteins are synthesized as precursors with N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signals (9). Following cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide by signal ...
The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines.
The fatigue behavior of the wood fiber cell wall under mechanical treatment in refining was simulated dynamically using a finite element method. The effect of the amplitude and frequency of impacts on the mechanical breakdown of the fiber wall structure was examined. The proposed model of the fiber cell wall was constructed from elementary microfibrils in various orientations embedded in isotropic lignin. The fatigue of the cell wall was simulated under normal refiner mechanical pulping conditions. A cyclic load was applied on the model fiber through a hemispherical grit proposed to be applied on the surface on refiner segments. Changes in the elastic modulus of the cell wall were analyzed to determine the potential for cell wall breakdown. An increase in the amplitude of applied forces and frequency of impacts was found to have a significant influence on the reduction of the elastic modulus of the wall structure. A high frequency of impacts increased the stiffness of the cell wall, but resulted ...
Although post infection changes in cell wall constituents are known to induce the immune response in plants against necrotrophs, little is known about the role of the cell wall in mediating resistance in Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (Zingiberaceae) against the soil-borne necrotrophic oomycete Pythium myriotylum Drechsler, which causes soft-rot disease. Using RNA-Seq in combination with custom gene expression microarray we studied the temporal expression profile of 46 wall-associated genes in Z. zerumbet against P. myriotylum inoculation. Many genes that promote cell wall loosening were suppressed. Similarly, the genes involved in the biosynthesis and the signaling of phytohormones and the receptor-like kinases that mediate cell elongation were also suppressed. Several monolignol biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated. Histochemistry of the collar region of the aerial stem revealed H2O2 accumulation, increased lignification of the mesophyll cells surrounding vascular bundles in the leaf ...
Plant cells are routinely exposed to various pathogens and environmental stresses that cause cell wall perturbations. Little is known of the mechanisms that plant cells use to sense these disturbances and transduce corresponding signals to regulate cellular responses to maintain cell wall integrity. Previous studies in rice have shown that removal of the cell wall leads to substantial chromatin reorganization and histone modification changes concomitant with cell wall re-synthesis. But the genes and proteins that regulate these cellular responses are still largely unknown. Here we present an examination of the nuclear proteome differential expression in response to removal of the cell wall in rice suspension cells using multiple nuclear proteome extraction methods. A total of 382 nuclear proteins were identified with two or more peptides, including 26 transcription factors. Upon removal of the cell wall, 142 nuclear proteins were up regulated and 112 were down regulated. The differentially ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Anisotropic Motions of Fibrils Dictated by Their Orientations in the Lamella. T2 - A Coarse-Grained Model of a Plant Cell Wall. AU - Mani, Sriramvignesh. AU - Cosgrove, Daniel J.. AU - Voth, Gregory A.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported as a part of the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award DE-SC0001090. The authors also acknowledge the computational resources provided by the SuperMIC cluster as a part of XSEDE grant and the Research Computing Center (RCC) at the University of Chicago. Publisher Copyright: Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society.. PY - 2020/4/30. Y1 - 2020/4/30. N2 - Plant cell walls are complex systems that exhibit the characteristics of both rigid and soft material depending on their external perturbations. The three main polymeric components in a plant primary cell wall are cellulose fibrils, ...
By combining Zinnia elegans in vitro tracheary element genomics with reverse genetics in Arabidopsis, we have identified a new upstream component of secondary wall formation in xylary and interfascicular fibers. Walls are thin 1 (WAT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of Medicago truncatula NODULIN 21 (MtN21), encodes a plant-specific, predicted integral membrane protein, and is a member of the plant drug/metabolite exporter (P-DME) family (transporter classification number: TC 2.A.7.3). Although WAT1 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the plant, its expression is preferentially associated with vascular tissues, including developing xylem vessels and fibers. WAT1:GFP fusion protein analysis demonstrated that WAT1 is localized to the tonoplast. Analysis of wat1 mutants revealed two cell wall-related phenotypes in stems: a defect in cell elongation, resulting in a dwarfed habit and little to no secondary cell walls in fibers. Secondary walls of vessel elements were unaffected by the mutation. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of features associated with plant cell wall recalcitrance to pretreatment by alkaline hydrogen peroxide in diverse bioenergy feedstocks using glycome profiling. AU - Li,Muyang. AU - Pattathil,Sivakumar. AU - Hahn,Michael G.. AU - Hodge,David B.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - A woody dicot (hybrid poplar), an herbaceous dicot (goldenrod), and a graminaceous monocot (corn stover) were subjected to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis in order to assess how taxonomically and structurally diverse biomass feedstocks respond to a mild alkaline oxidative pretreatment and how differing features of the cell wall matrix contribute to its recalcitrance. Using glycome profiling, we determined changes in the extractability of non-cellulosic glucans following pretreatment by screening extracts of the pretreated walls with a panel of 155 cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies to determine differences in the abundance and ...
The desire for improved methods of biomass conversion into fuels and feedstocks has re-awakened interest in the enzymology of plant cell wall degradation. The complex polysaccharide xyloglucan is abundant in plant matter, where it may account for up to 20% of the total primary cell wall carbohydrates. Despite this, few studies have focused on xyloglucan saccharification, which requires a consortium of enzymes including endo-xyloglucanases, α-xylosidases, β-galactosidases and α-L-fucosidases, among others. In the present paper, we show the characterization of Xyl31A, a key α-xylosidase in xyloglucan utilization by the model Gram-negative soil saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. CjXyl31A exhibits high regiospecificity for the hydrolysis of XGOs (xylogluco-oligosaccharides), with a particular preference for longer substrates. Crystallographic structures of both the apo enzyme and the trapped covalent 5-fluoro-β-xylosyl-enzyme intermediate, together with docking studies with the XXXG ...
Supplementary Materialsproteomes-04-00034-s001. at least several thousand genes encoding putative extracellular proteins [12]. Only a limited number of these extracellular proteins has so far been characterized for function, particularly concerning cell wall dynamics [9,13], and thus, a full picture of how cell wall dynamics result from the concerted action of such proteins is not yet attainable. Protoplasts isolated enzymatically from your cells and cultured Akt1 cells of vegetation are capable of forming fresh cell walls and therefore offer a unique opportunity to study various methods of cell wall construction and, using histochemical staining techniques and electron microscopy, observed cell wall dynamics in the cell surface during cell wall regeneration [14]. Furthermore, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), we successfully recognized approximately three hundred ...
Although the presence of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in herbivorous beetles has been known since the late 1990s, we recently discovered, by using deep sequencing of beetle midgut transcriptomes, that these enzymes are part of multigene families of moderate size and seem to be restricted to species of the two superfamilies Chrysomeloidea (longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils, bark beetles). Sequences encoding these beetle-derived PCWDEs strikingly resemble those of saprophytic and phytopathogenic microorganisms and, together with the fact that PCWDEs are patchy distributed in animals, raise questions about their origin (e.g. insect-derived or microorganism-derived?). Our primary goal resides in deciphering the evolutionary origins of PCWDEs in these beetles and characterizing their biological function (i.e. Do they still possess the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides or did they evolve new functions?). Our primary analyses indicate that most of ...
Although the presence of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in herbivorous beetles has been known since the late 1990s, we recently discovered, by using deep sequencing of beetle midgut transcriptomes, that these enzymes are part of multigene families of moderate size and seem to be restricted to species of the two superfamilies Chrysomeloidea (longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils, bark beetles). Sequences encoding these beetle-derived PCWDEs strikingly resemble those of saprophytic and phytopathogenic microorganisms and, together with the fact that PCWDEs are patchy distributed in animals, raise questions about their origin (e.g. insect-derived or microorganism-derived?). Our primary goal resides in deciphering the evolutionary origins of PCWDEs in these beetles and characterizing their biological function (i.e. Do they still possess the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides or did they evolve new functions?). Our primary analyses indicate that most of ...
Penicillin kills bacteria by interfering with the ability to synthesize cell wall. The bacteria lengthen, but cannot divide. Eventually the weak cell wall ruptures.. Penicillin irreversibly blocks bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links. Penicillin covalently binds to the enzyme transpeptidase that links the peptidoglycan molecules in bacteria, it inhibits the molecule so that it cannot react any further and cell wall cannot be further synthesized. The cell wall of the bacterium is weakened even further because the build-up of peptidoglycan precursors triggers bacterial cell wall hydrolysis and autolysins, and destroys pre-existing peptidoglycan. Penicillin makes a great inhibitor because of its four membered beta lactam ring, which makes it especially reactive. Penicillin acts as a suicide inhibitor by binding with the transpeptidase enzyme it inactivates itself.. Gram positive bacteria are the most sensitive and susceptible to penicillin because ...
September 14, 2016. Yasu Morita, microbiology, has been awarded a renewable $40,000 biomedical research grant from the American Lung Association for a project, Cell wall biogenesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: towards identifying druggable cell envelope proteins.. He explains, Developing new TB drugs is particularly challenging because the bacteria that cause the disease have impermeable cell walls that block antibiotics. These cell walls contain a unique set of compounds categorized as glycolipids. Having shown that changing the structure of these glycolipids increases the antibiotic sensitivity of TB bacteria, our goal is to identify a protein involved in the production of glycolipids that can be targeted by new drugs. We have identified a novel protein, which is involved in this process. We will investigate whether this protein is essential for the growth of TB bacteria and if it is located within the surface of the cell wall, making it an ideal drug target.. ...
Cell size is a structural component of fleshy fruit, contributing to important traits such as fruit size and texture. There are currently a number of methods for measuring cell size; most rely either on tissue sectioning or digestion of the tissue with cell wall degrading enzymes or chemicals to release single cells. Neither of these approaches is ideal for assaying large fruit numbers as both require a considerable time to prepare the tissue, with current methods of cell wall digestions taking 24 to 48 hours. Additionally, sectioning can lead to a measurement of a plane that does not represent the widest point of the cell. To develop a more rapid way of measuring fruit cell size we have developed a protocol that solubilises pectin in the middle lamella of the plant cell wall releasing single cells into a buffered solution. Gently boiling small fruit samples in a 0.05 M Na2CO3 solution, osmotically balanced with 0.3 M mannitol, produced good cell separation with little cellular damage in less than 30
Evaluation of a marker gene operon for plastid transformation and cloning of genes encoding cell wall degrading enzymes in plastid transformation vectors ...
S. mutans was known as the prime causal agent of dental caries, which appear to have protein fractionation on its bacterial wall surfaces. This protein can be use as a vaccine material against tooth infection cussed by S. mutans. To make a choice of vaccine material originating from the bacterial component, it is necessary to recognize components found on the bacterial cell wall surface (i.e. fimbriae, slime layer and bacterial cell wall) its function, especially the function that involved on the pathogenesis of a tooth infection. By understanding the component function, therefore a choice can be made which proteins that form the component candidate can be extracted. Various protein fractions namely: 185 kDa protein, which has an adherence function to the host; 29 k Da protein which support S. mutans aggregation function; 59 kDa protein that can bound to other S. mutans to be form colonization. To establish a vaccine candidate, it is necessary to recognize a specific receptor of the protein on ...
In molecular biology, the xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase (XET) is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of xyloglucan, which is a component of plant cell walls. This enzyme is part of glycoside hydrolase family 16. Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase (XET) is thought to be highly important during seed germination, fruit ripening, and rapid wall expansion. Xyloglucan is the predominant hemicellulose in the primary cell walls of most dicotyledons. With cellulose, it forms a network that strengthens the cell wall. XET catalyses the splitting of xyloglucan chains and the linking of the newly generated reducing end to the non-reducing end of another xyloglucan chain, thereby loosening the cell wall. Baumann MJ, Eklöf JM, Michel G, Kallas AM, Teeri TT, Czjzek M, et al. (2007). Structural evidence for the evolution of xyloglucanase activity from xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases: biological implications for cell wall metabolism. Plant Cell. 19 (6): 1947-63. doi:10.1105/tpc.107.051391. PMC ...
Read Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid removal enhances separation of oat grain cell wall material from starch and protein. AU - Sibakov, J.. AU - Myllymäki, O.. AU - Holopainen, U.. AU - Kaukovirta-Norja, A.. AU - Hietaniemi, V.. AU - Pihlava, J.M.. AU - Poutanen, K.. AU - Lehtinen, Pekka. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Effects of lipid removal on the fine milling and air classification processing of oats were studied. Lipid removal by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction enabled concentration of the main components of oats - starch, protein, lipids and cell walls - into specific fractions. Using defatted oats as raw material, the highest β-glucan concentration of the cell wall-enriched fraction was 33.9% as compared to 17.1% without lipid removal. This was probably due to more efficient milling yielding smaller particles, and release of starchy material from cellular structures during milling of defatted oats, resulting in better classification. The removal of lipids also enabled separation of an ...
Eukaryotic cells perform continuous recycling of the plasma membrane proteins and extracellular matrix molecules from the cell surface back to the cytoplasm (for plant cells, see Low and Chandra, 1994; Robinson et al., 1998). Our recent study (Baluška et al., 2002) provides experimental evidence that cell wall pectins are internalized after in muro de-esterification (Micheli, 2001) and cross-linking with calcium and boron (Matoh and Kobayashi, 1998;Kobayashi et al., 1999). These almost exclusive cell wall pectin epitopes, reactive to JIM5 and RGII antibodies, accumulate abundantly within intracellular BFA-induced compartments, which are obviously formed through aggregation of trans-Golgi networks and putative plant endosomes (Baluška et al., 2002). Here, we report that intracellular BFA compartments accumulate these cell wall pectins in meristematic cells of maize and wheat, but not of zucchini and alfalfa, root apices. Intriguingly, boron deprivation inhibits endocytosis of cell wall pectins. ...
Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H2O2, but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to
Only two autolytic enzymes (autolysins) have been unequivocally identified so far in S. pneumoniae: the well known LytA amidase and the LytC lysozyme (11). LytC is an autolysin designed to remodel the cell wall, with maximum activity at 30 °C. This feature suggests that LytC could be more active in habitats like the upper, well ventilated respiratory tract (11). In fact, LytC plays a role in the colonization of the rat nasopharynx (12), where it could also contribute to DNA release in competent cells (13). LytC is directed to the outer surface by a leader peptide (33 residues), and it remains tightly bound to the cell wall in a mature, active form that comprises a CBM made of 11 (p1-p11) repeating units (264 residues) and a CM belonging to the GH-25 family of glycosyl hydrolases (204 residues). The unprocessed form is also detected in the cytoplasm (11). The slow hydrolysis of pneumococcal cultures carried out by LytC contrasts with the fast, uncontrolled lysis of the host cell performed by ...
While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated
A characterization of the S. cerevisiae KRE6 and SKN1 gene products extends previous genetic studies on their role in (1--,6)-beta-glucan biosynthesis (Roemer, T., and H. Bussey. 1991. Yeast beta-glucan synthesis: KRE6 encodes a predicted type II membrane protein required for glucan synthesis in vivo and for glucan synthase activity in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:11295-11299; Roemer, T., S. Delaney, and H. Bussey. 1993. SKN1 and KRE6 define a pair of functional homologs encoding putative membrane proteins involved in beta-glucan synthesis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:4039-4048). KRE6 and SKN1 are predicted to encode homologous proteins that participate in assembly of the cell wall polymer (1--,6)-beta-glucan. KRE6 and SKN1 encode phosphorylated integral-membrane glycoproteins, with Kre6p likely localized within a Golgi subcompartment. Deletion of both these genes is shown to result in a dramatic disorganization of cell wall ultrastructure. Consistent with their direct role in the assembly of ...
vancomycin, teicoplanin) must bind to receptors in the bacterial cell wall to cause an antibacterial effect. The target receptors (there are at least seven) for penicillins and cephalosporins are collectively called penicillin-binding proteins. Autolytic enzymes within the cell wall bind to penicillin-binding proteins, and the enzymes are activated, resulting in the deterioration of the peptidoglycan component of the cell wall, cell wall weakening, and eventual cell lysis. Glycopeptide antibiotics bind to a terminal dipeptide (alanine-alanine) in the cell wall peptidoglycan, and then, by steric hindrance, prevent the necessary cross-linking for a competent cell wall structure. At usual doses, β-lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics are bactericidal. Resistance can arise to these antibiotics due to mutations in the penicillin-binding proteins, leading to markedly reduced β-lactam binding (e.g., in ...
Tsai, A. Y.-L., Canam, T., Gorzsás, A., Mellerowicz, E. J., Campbell, M. M. and Master, E. R. (2012), Constitutive expression of a fungal glucuronoyl esterase in Arabidopsis reveals altered cell wall composition and structure. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 10: 1077-1087. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2012.00735.x ...
We have isolated several invertase isoforms in rice. They include one soluble alkaline form (IT7), two soluble acid forms (IT4 and IT5) and one cell wall-bound form (ITb) in the milky stage grains (Charng et al., 1994; Sung and Huang, 1994). In leaves, there are three soluble acid invertase forms (IT I, IT II and IT III) and one cell wall-bound form (IT IV) (Lin and Sung, 1993). Suspension cells possess two soluble acid invertases (Type I and Type II) (Chen and Sung, 1996). Etiolated seedlings have one soluble alkaline form (AIT) (Lin et al., 1999). ITab, IT7 and AIT are similar in optimum pH, moleculae mass, pI value, and in not being glycoproteins (not bound to Con A-Sepharose), but their distributions in the cell compartment are different. ITab is different from the other cell wall invertases of rice like ITb and IT IV in optimum pH, molecular mass, pI value, and glycosylation although they could be released from cell-walls and membranes by treatment with 1 M NaCl or 5% EDTA.. Four putative ...
Detail záznamu - Sorption capacities of cell wall glucan isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards PCP - Detailné zobrazenie záznamu - Slovenská technická univerzita
Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial functions impinge on cell wall integrity, drug tolerance, and virulence of human fungal pathogens. However, the mechanistic aspects of these processes are poorly understood. We focused on the mitochondrial outer membrane SAM (Sorting and Assembly Machinery) complex subunit Sam37 in Candida albicans. Inactivation of SAM37 in C. albicans leads to a large reduction in fitness, a phenotype not conserved with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that slow growth of the sam37ΔΔ mutant results from mitochondrial DNA loss, a new function for Sam37 in C. albicans, and from reduced activity of the essential SAM complex subunit Sam35. The sam37ΔΔ mutant was hypersensitive to drugs that target the cell wall and displayed altered cell wall structure, supporting a role for Sam37 in cell wall integrity in C. albicans. The sensitivity of the mutant to membrane-targeting antifungals was not significantly altered. The sam37ΔΔ mutant was ...
Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow in a variety of environments, including refrigeration, making it difficult to control and highlighting the importance of optimizing control strategies against this pathogen. Listeria phages are attractive biocontrol agents because phages bind to specific wall teichoic acids (WTA) on the bacterial cell wall, inhibiting pathogens without disrupting the nor ...
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING, SUCH BUILDING, AND WALL AND FLOOR ELEMENTS FOR USE THEREIN - The invention relates to a method of constructing a building, comprising the step of providing a skeleton for a building wall of the building. The skeleton includes at least upright building elements such as columns or dividing walls. At least one lightweight, heat insulating and fire retarding wall element is placed between each adjacent pair of said columns. The columns are covered to provide substantially closed wall surfaces. The wall surfaces are covered with a covering layer having properties so as to provide fire-resistance to the complete wall. The covering layer on the inside wall surface may include a base layer of modified resin mortar, and a top layer of plaster mortar. The covering layer on the outside wall surface may include a base layer of modified resin mortar and a top layer of mineral mortar. Lightweight, heat insulating floor elements are placed and interconnected, and supported if ...