In ATT, a human autoimmune serum, we found anti-nucleolar antibodies that recognized nucleolar antigens confined to a single nucleolar compartment, the dense fibrillar component (DFC). We localized these antigens by immunoelectron microscopy in DFC of HeLa cell nucleoli both on Lowicryl sections and cryoultrathin sections without embedding. The antigens were solubilized by incubation with 2M NaCl but not by RNase or DNase treatment. The ATT serum crossreacted with rat liver nucleoli and PtK1 cell nucleoli in which immunofluorescence labelling displayed a clumpy pattern. During mitosis, the antigens dispersed in the cytoplasm until late telophase, when they gathered in the prenucleolar bodies. In human peripheral lymphocytes, or HeLa cells treated with actinomycin D, the antigens were still present but the fluorescence intensity decreased. By immunoblotting using human nuclear extracts, the ATT serum bound to a 116,000 Mr protein at dilutions up to 1:2000. The reactivity of this band diminished ...
in Journal of Cell Science (1993), 105 ( Pt 1). The precise distribution of DNA and RNA within the human Sertoli cell nucleolus has been investigated, at the ultrastructural level, by cytochemical and molecular immunocytochemical techniques. In Sertoli ... [more ▼]. The precise distribution of DNA and RNA within the human Sertoli cell nucleolus has been investigated, at the ultrastructural level, by cytochemical and molecular immunocytochemical techniques. In Sertoli cells, the nucleolar components show a typical spatial distribution. The fibrillar centres are not surrounded by a layer of dense fibrillar component, but come in contact only with strands of dense fibrillar component. These fibrillar parts of strands are the extensions of granular strands connected to a large granular mass. These strands delimit numerous nucleolar interstices in which chromatin fibres are clearly obvious. Using the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase/immunogold procedure for detecting DNA, we find ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fractions of HeLa DNA differing in their content of guanine + cytosine. AU - Schildkraut, Carl L.. AU - Maio, Joseph J.. PY - 1969/12/14. Y1 - 1969/12/14. N2 - DNA isolated from preparations of HeLa cell nucleoli has been fractionated into six components which band in CsCl at densities corresponding to their G + C contents according to the relation: ρ{variant} = 0.98 (G + C) + 1.659, where ρ{variant} refers to buoyant density and (G + C) to the average mole fraction of guanine + cytosine. This nucleolar DNA is significantly enriched with respect to two satellite bands: a light satellite (ρ{variant} = 1.686 g/ml.) and a heavy satellite (ρ{variant} = 1.712 g/ml.). In an alkaline CsCl density gradient, the light satellite DNA can be separated into two complementary strands, as demonstrated by base composition analysis.. AB - DNA isolated from preparations of HeLa cell nucleoli has been fractionated into six components which band in CsCl at densities corresponding to their G + C ...
The nature and localization of DNA contained in the fibrillar centres and the dense fibrillar component (the fibrillar complex) in the nucleoli, was studied in human LEP cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia A and in mitotic chromosomes of stimulated lymphocytes. A novel procedure for isolating the intact fibrillar complex from LEP cells was used; the complex contains DNA that hybridizes to secondary constrictions of mitotic chromosomes and to 28 S rDNA sequences, on Southern blots. Electron microscopic DNA-DNA in situ hybridization was performed, with (a) a probe prepared from DNA extracted from the fibrillar complex of LEP cells, (b) a probe for human total genomic DNA, and (c) a probe for the transcribed part of human rDNA. On the basis of the results obtained we conclude that the ribosomal RNA genes in human Sertoli cells and spermatogonia A are predominantly associated with the dense fibrillar component, including the border region between fibrillar centres and the dense fibrillar component. ...
The higher proliferation rate of cancer cells requires an increased rate of protein synthesis. Thus, cancer cells often show increased rates of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription and have more ribosomes and larger nucleoli, which are nuclear structures that function in ribosome biogenesis. Neumüller et al. identified genes in yeast that, when ablated, resulted in smaller or larger nucleoli. A similar analysis in Drosophila enabled the identification of evolutionarily conserved molecular complexes that increase or decrease nucleolar size when the complex constituents were targeted by RNA interference. Understanding how cells regulate rDNA transcription could provide new therapeutic avenues for interfering with the unrestricted growth that occurs in cancer.. ...
The reconstruction of the nucleolus after mitosis was analyzed by electron microscopy in cultured mammalian (L929) cells in which nucleolar RNA synthesis was inhibited for a 3 h period either after or before mitosis. When synchronized mitotic cells were plated into a concentration of actinomycin D sufficient to block nucleolar RNA synthesis preferentially, nucleoli were formed at telophase as usual. 3 h after mitosis, these nucleoli had fibrillar and particulate components and possessed the segregated appearance characteristic of nucleoli of actinomycin D-treated cells. Cells in which actinomycin D was present for the last 3 h preceding mitosis did not form nucleoli by 3 h after mitosis though small fibrillar prenucleolar bodies were detectable at this time. These bodies subsequently grew in size and eventually acquired a particulate component. It took about a full cell cycle before nucleoli of these cells were completely normal in appearance. Thus, nucleolar RNA synthesis after mitosis is not ...
Confocal microscopy and in situ hybridization procedures have led to enormous progress in the visualization of the spatial organization and dynamics of transcription and RNA‐processing machinery in eukaryotic cells. It is well established that the nucleus is a highly organized structure composed of many different territories, subdomains and organelles (Lamond and Earnshaw, 1998). A state‐of‐the‐art account of the nuclear architecture of plant cells was given by P.Shaw (John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK). Mapping of the RNA polymerase I transcription and rRNA processing sites, using different pre‐rRNA, snoRNA and nucleolar protein probes, indicates that the plant cell nucleolus is organized as a series of concentric layers in which transcription and successive rRNA processing reactions occur. As in vertebrate cells, plant cells contain coiled bodies (CBs), nuclear organelles of still poorly defined function. Since CB components include several small RNAs, and also proteins related to ...
The rat liver nucleolus, after fragmentation induced by ethionine treatment, has been found to undergo complete reformation by adenine in the presence of a dose of cycloheximide sufficient to cause inhibition of protein synthesis by 90-95%. In contrast, actinomycin D given along with adenine was followed by the appearance of a small compact mass containing only the fibrillar component with no evident granules. This structure resembled pseudonucleoli seen in the anucleolate mutant of Xenopus laevis or in certain early stages of amphibian oocytes. Actinomycin D administered 2 hr after adenine induced a segregation of the fibrillar and granular components of nucleoli similar to that induced in the normal nucleolus. The implications of these findings in relation to nucleolar organization are briefly discussed.. ...
Previous reports have shown that Wee1 degradation can be suppressed by activation of the G2/M checkpoint in the presence of DNA damage (12) that also causes nucleolar disruption (6). Therefore, it is possible that depletion of NOL11, TIF-IA, or UBF induces DNA damage, which in turn causes nucleolar disruption as well as Wee1 accumulation via G2/M checkpoint activation. To test this hypothesis, we examined the levels of Chk1 phosphorylation at Ser317 (Chk1-pS317), a marker of G2/M checkpoint activation, and γH2A.X, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. The Chk1-pS317 signal was undetectable for cells with nucleolar disruption caused by depletion of NOL11, TIF-IA, or UBF, whereas the signal was clear for cells treated with etoposide, which induces DNA damage and G2/M checkpoint activation (fig. S7A). Furthermore, NOL11, TIF-IA, or UBF depletion caused nucleolar disruption but did not increase γH2A.X signal, even though etoposide treatment increased it (fig. S7B). In addition, neither the ...
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The NF-κB transcription factor is one of the most important regulators of the cellular life/death balance and its aberrant activation is associated with cancer ( 4). Therefore, identifying mechanisms for switching off aberrant NF-κB activity could have a major therapeutic benefit. Here, we reveal a novel pathway for down-regulating NF-κB transcriptional activity and inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells that involves activation of the p38 pathway, inhibition of the cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase complex, and consequent nucleolar targeting of RelA. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the complexities of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, these findings have considerable relevance to understanding the mechanisms of chemoprevention and cancer therapeutics.. The data presented here provide evidence that p38-mediated inhibition of cyclin D1/CDK4 stimulates the NF-κB pathway to induce nucleolar sequestration of RelA. This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, p38 was rapidly ...
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This family represents the N-terminal region of Pescadillo. Pescadillo protein localises to distinct substructures of the interphase nucleus including nucleoli, the site of ribosome biogenesis. During mitosis pescadillo closely associates with the periphery of metaphase chromosomes and by late anaphase is associated with nucleolus-derived foci and prenucleolar bodies. Blastomeres in mouse embryos lacking pescadillo arrest at morula stages of development, the nucleoli fail to differentiate and accumulation of ribosomes is inhibited. It has been proposed that in mammalian cells pescadillo is essential for ribosome biogenesis and nucleologenesis and that disruption to its function results in cell cycle arrest [1]. This family is often found in conjunction with a PF00533 domain. ...
The precise location of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis within the nucleolus is the subject of recent controversy; some investigators have detected nascent RNA in the dense fibrillar components (DFCs) while others have localized transcription to the f
Author Summary Eukaryotic genomes are compartmentalized within nuclei such that physiological events, including transcription and DNA replication, can efficiently occur. The mechanisms that regulate this organization represent an exciting, and equally enigmatic, subject of research. In mammals, the identification of elements that influence these associations has been impeded by the complex nature of the genomes. Here, we report the identification and characterization of such an element. We demonstrate that the integration of a 5S rDNA gene, a 119 base pair noncoding RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III, into a new genomic location can significantly influence the association of the host region with the nucleolus. This positioning has drastic, inhibitory effects on the transcription of a neighboring protein coding gene transcribed by RNA polymerase II, demonstrating a functional relationship between localization and gene expression. We also provide data that suggest this may be an endogenous phenomenon,
In the interphase cell nucleus, the ribosomal genes are located in the fibrillar centers and in the associated dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus (Hernandez-Verdun, 1983; 1986; Goessens,...
Definition of nucleolus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is nucleolus? Meaning of nucleolus as a legal term. What does nucleolus mean in law?
The interphase nucleus exists as a highly dynamic system, the physical properties of which have functional importance in gene regulation. Not only can gene expression be influenced by the local sequence context, but also by the architecture of the nucleus in three-dimensions (3D), and by the interactions between these levels via chromatin modifications. A challenging task is to resolve the complex interplay between sequence- and genome structure-based control mechanisms. Here, we created a collection of 277 Arabidopsis lines that allow the visual tracking of individual loci in living plants while comparing gene expression potential at these locations, via an identical reporter cassette. Our studies revealed regional gene silencing near a heterochromatin island, via DNA methylation, that is correlated with mobility constraint and nucleolar association. We also found an example of nucleolar association that does not correlate with gene suppression, suggesting that distinct mechanisms exist that ...
Location of the nucleolar ribosomal chromatin at telophase: as the nucleolus becomes active the ribosomal chromatin and associated ribonucleoprotein transcripts compose the more peripherally located dense fibrillar component
The present study clearly demonstrates that DOX-induced acute cardiac toxicity was significantly exacerbated in Mrp1−/− mice. Whereas morphometric analysis of electron micrographs of the heart showed significant damage to the mitochondria and the cytoplasm after DOX treatment, consistent with previous findings (Yen et al., 1996), this injury was not different in the two genotypes. In contrast, the nucleus showed significantly more damage after DOX treatment of Mrp1−/− mice, with fragmentation of the nucleolus, segregation of granular and fibrillar components, and condensation of nucleoli with compacted chromatin. The nucleolus is the primary site of transcription, assembly, and processing of cellular RNA (Antoniali et al., 2014), with a tripartite organization that reflects the different steps of ribosomal biogenesis. RNA polymerase I transcription starts in the fibrillar center, with the dense fibrillary component the site of initial stages of pre-rRNA processing and a granular ...
Viruses are suspected of significant roles in autoimmune diseases but the mechanisms are unclear. We get some insight by considering demands a virus places on host cells. Viruses require production of their own proteins, RNA and/or DNA, but also production of additional cellular machinery, such as ribosomes, to handle the increased demands. Since the nucleolus is a major site of RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly, nucleoli are targeted by viruses, directly when viral RNA and proteins enter the nucleolus and indirectly when viruses induce increased expression of cellular polyamine genes. Polyamines are at high levels in nucleoli to assist in RNA folding. The size and activity of nucleoli increase directly with increases in polyamines. Nucleolar expansion due to abnormal increases in polyamines could disrupt nearby chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome, leading to expression of previously sequestered DNA. Sudden expression of a large concentration of Alu elements from the disrupted
The present invention is concerned with granular components comprising an enzyme, specified polymeric binding material, and a mixture of coating components. The granular components are particularly suitable for use in detergent compositions.
The nucleus in plants and animals is a highly structured organelle containing several well-defined subregions or suborganelles. These include the nucleolus, interphase chromosome territories and coiled bodies. We have visualized transcription sites in plants at both light- and electron-microscopy level by the incorporation of BrUTP. In the nucleolus many dispersed foci are revealed within the dense fibrillar component, each of which probably corresponds to a single gene copy. In the nucleoplasm there are also many dispersed foci of transcription, but not enough to correspond to one site per transcribed gene. We have shown that in wheat, and probably many other plant species, interphase chromosome territories are organized in a very regular way, with all the chromosomes in the Rabl configuration, all the centromeres clustered at the nuclear membrane and all the telomeres located at the nuclear membrane on the opposite side of the nucleus. However, despite this regular, polarized structure, there is no
The polarity is related to the number of cytoplasmic processes projecting from the perikaryon. Many neurons are multipolar and, typically, one axon and many dendrites extend from the perikaryon (Fig. 1). Some neurons in the brain and ventral regions (horns) of the spinal cord are multipolar. g. the eye) and they have two cytoplasmic processes, one an Cell body (perikaryon) Dendrites Nucleus Dendrite Nucleolus Cytoplasm Myelin sheath Node of Ranvier Interruption indicating variable length Axon terminal Skeletal muscle cell Fig. If connective tissue is damaged, it may be repaired by the ability of fibroblasts to undergo mitosis and to synthesise new matrix. If fibroblasts are actively secreting matrix proteins, their appearance is changed: their nuclei are larger and relatively palely stained and nucleoli are apparent (Chapter 3, see Fig. 2). This appearance is a result of the activity of the DNA (and nucleolus) in the synthetic processes which produce new molecules for the extracellular matrix. ...
The nucleolus is found in the nucleus of a cell and appears as a dark spherical region when seen through a microscope. The nucleolus is one of the largest physical structures within the nucleus and...
The nucleolus is a cellular structure found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Some cells have several nucleoli, which work as a...
To investigate the function of the nucleolar protein Nop2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we constructed a strain in which NOP2 is under the control of a repressible promoter. Repression of NOP2 expression lengthens the doubling time of this strain about fivefold and reduces steady-state levels of 60S ribosomal subunits, 80S ribosomes, and polysomes. Levels of 40S subunits increase as the free pool of 60S subunits is reduced. Nop2p depletion impairs processing of the 35S pre-rRNA and inhibits processing of 27S pre-rRNA, which results in lower steady-state levels of 25S rRNA and 5.8S rRNA. Processing of 20S pre-rRNA to 18S rRNA is not significantly affected. Processing at sites A2, A3, B1L, and B1S and the generation of 5 termini of different pre-rRNA intermediates appear to be normal after Nop2p depletion. Sequence comparisons suggest that Nop2p may function as a methyltransferase. 2-O-ribose methylation of the conserved site UmGm psi UC2922 is known to take place during processing of 27S ...
A comprehensive overview of the diversity of nucleolar function Data presented comes from a wide spectrum of species Leading edge studies presented shed
Nucleolar localization of U4 and U5 snRNAs does not depend on U6 snRNA. Fluorescein-labeled U4 or U5 snRNA were injected into the nuclei of Xenopus oocytes that
Reversible static detention of VHL and MDM2 by the nucleolar architecture. MCF7 cells were transfected to express GFP-tagged MDM2 (A), B23 (B), or VHL (C-G) a
Nucleus vs Nucleolus Every organism has the most basic component of life, which is the cell, and in almost all cells there is the nucleus. The nucleus is found
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Differential screening of entire cell proteomes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) often leads to the identification of several differentially expressed but functionally unrelated target...
Principal Investigator:FUJIWARA Tateki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:General fisheries
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The lymph nodes have been grossly abnormal, sound, nodular masses (Figure 1C), from which a contact preparing confirmed little, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and outstanding nucleoli (Determine 1D). Histologic assessment confirmed effacement of ordinary architecture by irregular, crowded nests of compact, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia containing atypical nuclei had been existing within the periphery of your nests (Determine 1F). The person cells had scant cytoplasm and calculated 5 to 6 μm in diameter (marginally more compact than the usual human purple cell), with nuclei that were roughly two to three μm in diameter. Occasional cells ended up markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei that contains multiple nucleoli (Determine 1G ...
The lymph nodes ended up grossly irregular, reliable, nodular masses (Determine 1C), from which a touch preparation confirmed modest, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and notable nucleoli (Figure 1D). Histologic assessment showed effacement of typical architecture by irregular, crowded nests of little, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia that contains atypical nuclei had been present for the periphery of the nests (Figure 1F). The person cells had scant cytoplasm and calculated five to six μm in diameter (marginally smaller than the usual human purple mobile), with nuclei that were somewhere around two to three μm in diameter. Occasional cells were markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei containing many nucleoli (Determine 1G ...
The lymph nodes were grossly irregular, stable, nodular masses (Determine 1C), from which a touch preparing showed little, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and outstanding nucleoli (Determine 1D). Histologic assessment confirmed effacement of typical architecture by irregular, crowded nests of small, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia made up of my response atypical nuclei ended up existing with the periphery on the nests (Determine 1F). The person cells had scant cytoplasm and measured 5 to 6 μm in diameter (slightly lesser than the usual human crimson cell), with nuclei that were approximately 2 to 3 μm in diameter. Occasional cells were markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei get more made up of several nucleoli (Determine 1G ...
The lymph nodes were being grossly abnormal, reliable, nodular masses (Figure 1C), from which a touch preparing confirmed tiny, atypical cells with scant cytoplasm and distinguished nucleoli (Determine 1D). Histologic assessment showed effacement of typical architecture by irregular, crowded nests of smaller, atypical cells (Determine 1E). Syncytia containing atypical nuclei ended up present within the periphery from the nests (Determine 1F). The individual cells had scant cytoplasm and measured five to six μm in diameter (a bit scaled-down than the usual human pink mobile), with nuclei that were about 2 to 3 μm in diameter. Occasional cells ended up markedly enlarged, with pleomorphic nuclei containing multiple nucleoli (Figure 1G ...
Université de Liège - ULg , Services généraux (Faculté des sciences) , Relations académiques et scientifiques (Sciences) ,] ...
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On 17 August 1940, Flying Officer John Nine Gun Coghlan, from Southsea and of 56 Squadron RAF, was killed in France. He was 25.
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Nucleoli are usually stained as small, slightly elongated circles in the nucleus. The number and shape of the nucleoli depend a lot on the cell type. Some proteins localize to the rim of the nucleolus, which is visible as a thin circle around the nucleolus.. The staining for fibrillar center and/or dense fibrillar components appears as a spotty cluster in most cell lines but can also appear as a single, bigger spot in other cell lines.. Read more about the proteome of the nucleoli.. ...
Digestive organs result from the endoderm. subunit (SSU) processome. The nucleolus is definitely a subnuclear structure that exhibits dynamic morphological changes during cell cycle. The nucleolus serves as the site for rRNA biosynthesis, processing and maturation, and also as the site for assembly of ribosome large and small subunit [15]. Rabbit Polyclonal to UBE2T Therefore, disruption of the nucleolus function is normally detrimental to a cell [15]. Recently, evidence has shown that some nucleolar factors are also essential for organogenesis during embryogenesis. For example, loss-of-function of confers small eyes and hypoplastic digestive organs [16] and mutation leads to neurodegeneration [17] in zebrafish. In this work, we sought to address the question how Def, as a nucleolar factor, regulates organogenesis of digestive organs in zebrafish. We focused on a specific question: can Defs function in the liver be uncoupled from that in the exocrine pancreas and intestine? Does Def regulate ...
Rabbit antibodies to RNA polymerase I from a rat hepatoma have been used to localize the enzyme in a variety of cells at the light and electron microscopic level. In interphase cells the immunofluorescence pattern indicated that polymerase I is contained exclusively within the nucleolus. That this fluorescence, which appeared punctated rather than uniform, represented transcriptional complexes of RNA polymerase I and rRNA genes was suggested by the observation that it was enhanced in regenerating liver and in a hepatoma and was markedly diminished in cells treated with actinomycin D. Electron microscopic immunolocalization using gold-coupled second antibodies showed that transcribed rRNA genes are located in, and probably confined to, the fibrillar centers of the nucleolus. In contrast, the surrounding dense fibrillar component, previously thought to be the site of nascent pre-rRNA, did not contain detectable amounts of polymerase I. During mitosis, polymerase I molecules were detected by ...
A Robertsonian translocation 45,XY, t(13q; 14q) was detected in the leukocyte cultures of a phenotypically normal male. Silver staining technique for nucleolus organizer regions revealed that both acrocentrics involved in the translocation had lost their nucleolus organizers.
Nucleostemin, a protein found in the nucleoli of highly proliferative cells (such as stem cells and some cancer cell lines), may help regulate cell proliferation. Tsai and McKay, who previously identified nucleostemin, have now investigated the mechanisms whereby it is targeted to the nucleolus. The authors used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and inverse FRAP (iFRAP) to show that nucleostemin tagged with green fluorescent protein shuttled rapidly and bidirectionally between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm of cultured CHO and U2 OS cells. Mutation of a GTP-binding motif (G1) that blocked the ability of nucleostemin to bind GTP also blocked its nucleolar localization, as did deletion of an N-terminal basic (B) domain. FRAP, together with further mutational analysis, indicated that GTP binding relieved the inhibitory action of a domain between G1 and the C terminal on nucleolar localization of the B domain and was required for long-term retention of nucleostemin in the nucleus. ...
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that controls cell proliferation and survival downstream of integrin-matrix receptors. However, under deprivation of anchorage, FAK translocates to the nucleus. The nucleolus, a non-membrane structure within the nucleus, is important in the control of ribosome biogenesis, regulates the sequestration of nuclear proteins, and increased nucleolar size is a marker of aggressive tumors. Nucleostemin, a nucleolar-localized protein, acts to modulate cell cycle progression and anchorage-independent cell growth. Although many drugs have low efficacy on tumor cells cultured in suspension, nanomolar small molecule FAK inhibitor (PF-271 or PND-1186) addition can prevent anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells as spheroids through mechanism(s) that remain unresolved. Here, we show that pharmacological FAK inhibitor (FAK-I) treatment or kinase-dead (KD) FAK re-expression analyses reduced breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1-L) anchorage-independent ...