Introduction. Investigating the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability To investigate the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability, I am going to use beetroot due to its pigment properties. The pigment is a strong colour, which means that I can easily measure, using a colorimeter, how much pigment is released at certain temperatures. During this practical, I will need to apply controls and a variable. The variable being temperature, and the controls being: * Disc thickness * The amount of water used when heating * The measure of solution put into the cuvette * The time temperature is maintained If these factors were not controlled, results would be likely to produce false reading, due to too many variables. Apparatus Cuvette Colorimeter Beetroot disc Water bath Beaker Tripod Bunsen burner Boiling tube Cork borer Forceps Safety glasses Thermometer Stop clock Scalpel Pipette Method 1. Put on safety goggles as a safety precaution 2. Switch on colorimeter to allow it to warm ...
ABSTRACT: Increased ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are reported to be an important cause of decline in submersed macrophytes in eutrophic lakes. In this study, a subacute experiment was conducted to examine the effects of various NH4+ concentrations on growth and membrane permeability of 2 submersed macrophytes, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum. Apical shoots of the plants were incubated in modified Hoagland solution with 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg l-1 NH4+-N for 4 d. The plants were then collected for examination of cell membrane permeability and the solutions were used to determine the concentrations of NH4+, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+). The results indicate that high NH4+ concentrations had significant adverse effects (e.g. reduced growth and leaf chlorosis) on the macrophytes and increased membrane permeability, leading to net leakage of NH4+ and the cations. Compared to M. spicatum, C. demersum had higher membrane ...
Hopanoids modify plasma membrane properties, like fluidity and formation of liquid ordered domains, influencing membrane permeability, rigidity and other characteristics in bacteria, similarly as sterols (like cholesterol) do in eukaryotes.[5] This relationship between biochemical structure and cellular function can be seen in the similarity of the basic structures of diploptene, a hopanoid compound found in some bacterial cell membranes, and cholesterol, a sterol compound found in eukaryotic membranes.[5] In many bacteria hopanoids may play roles in the adjustment of cell membrane permeability in adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. They are formed in the aerial hyphae (spore bearing structures) of the prokaryotic soil bacteria Streptomyces, where they are thought to minimise water loss across the membrane to the air.[6] In the actinomycete Frankia, the hopanoids in diazovesicle membranes likely restrict the entry of oxygen by making the lipid bilayer more tight and compact.[7] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Femtosecond optoinjection of intact tobacco BY-2 cells using a reconfigurable photoporation platform. AU - Mitchell, Claire A.. AU - Kalies, Stefan. AU - Cizmár, Tomás. AU - Heisterkamp, Alexander. AU - Torrance, Lesley. AU - Roberts, Alison G.. AU - Gunn-Moore, Frank J.. AU - Dholakia, Kishan. PY - 2013/11/14. Y1 - 2013/11/14. N2 - A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the cell. Ultrashort-pulsed lasers have proven to be indispensable for photoporating mammalian cells but they have rarely been applied to plant cells due to their larger sizes and rigid and thick cell walls, which significantly hinders the intracellular delivery of ...
Abstract. This study investigated the suppressive effect and the inactivation mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on . The experiment compared different inhibition effects with SAEW and two antibiotics, gentamicin and norfloxacin. The conditions of pH of 6.5, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 890 mV, available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 28 mg L-1 of SAEW, and volume ratios of 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 were used. Using exposure times of 5 and 10 min to analyze the inactivation mechanism of SAEW from the perspectives of cell membrane permeability, cell nuclear morphology, cell fluorescence staining, and other aspects, the anti-infection effects of SAEW were tested using tilapia () culture experiments. SAEW had a stronger bacteriostasis effect than the antibiotics used. SAEW can inhibit the ability to reproduce, causing abnormal cell morphology and cell elongation. The cell volume was increased with a change in the membrane permeability. The cell nuclear morphology was ...
Miltefosine is an orally- and topically-active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Miltefosine targets cellular membranes, modulating cell membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. As an immunomodulator, miltefosine stimulates T-cells, macrophages and the expression of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma (INF-gamma). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus).
Unlike high power lasers that use heat to cut or cauterize tissue, LED and low energy cold lasers enhance biochemical reactions in the targeted tissue. In somewhat simple terms, visible light is directed to a specific area. The light energy passes through the skin, and is received within the cell membrane by special energy photon acceptors. The increase in intra-cellular energy results in altered cell membrane permeability, and physiological changes occur through an enzyme cascade to affect several biological processes.. Within the injured musculoskeletal tissue, low-level light starts an increase in microcirculation and enhanced tissue regeneration, leading to decreased pain and inflammation, and increased mobility.. ...
It seems that in recent years, salt has gotten a very bad reputation - yet, the human body cannot live without salt. In fact, our bodies rely on it to help fight fungus, bacteria, and viruses. Its important in the regulation of blood pressure, the proper functioning of the nervous system and brain cells, metabolism, digestion, adrenal function, and cell membrane permeability. Its necessary to produce hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion, reduces aldosterone (hormone released by adrenal glands to help regulate blood pressure) secretion in our endocrine (hormones that regulate bodys growth, metabolism, and sexual function) system, and it helps our body eliminate toxic substances by keeping them in solution. Theres so much more! However, not everyone realizes that there are different "types" of salt (refined and unrefined), and these differences will directly affect your health.. ...
Cellular effects of Laser Therapy occur when photons of therapeutic laser light interact with cells. Higher adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) levels are produced, cell membrane permeability is increased, and blood and lymphatic vessels are vasodilated. These events then lead to a cascade of beneficial effects increasing cellular energy and health.. During each treatment, laser energy increases circulation drawing water, oxygen, and nutrients to the damaged area. This creates an optimal healing environment that reduces inflammation, muscle spasms, stiffness, and pain. As the injured area returns to normal, function is restored and pain is relieved.. ...
Results: 49. Adhesive Remover (Model 6197) Adhesive Remover, model 6197, is designed to dissolve skin cement and adhesives. It allows removal of appliances without irritating the skin. SIZE: Eight ounce can.. Adhesive Strips (Models 6590 & 150525) Adhesive Strips are catheter supplies designed for use with bulk pack male external catheters. Available 10 per box. Model 6590: Crixiline adhesive strip - 6 x 7/8 inch. Model 150525: Two-sided adhesive strip - 6 x 3/4 inch.. Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing The Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing is designed for use by individuals who have ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, diabetic skin ulcers, first and second degree burns, post-surgical incisions with dehiscence, cuts, and abrasions. The dressing decreases cell membrane permeability and balances the mix of proteins in the wound site. Proliferates proteins to the wound site and promotes the development of new granulation tissue growth. The dressing also promotes wound contracture.. Atrac-Tain Atrac-Tain is ...
Antifungals (Systemic) Action: Antifungals act by increasing cell membrane permeability in susceptible organisms by binding sterols and decreasing potassium, sodium, and nutrients in the cell. Uses: Antifungals are used for infection of histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, phycomycosis, candidiasis, sporotrichosis causing severe meningitis, septicemia, and skin infection. Side effects / Adverse reactions: The most serious …. ...
Developed in 2011. Atlantic Sea Scallop Dredge Design Challenge (Grades 9 & 10). The Cell Cycle and Mitosis (Grades 8 & 9). Conducting Action Research on the Impact of Environmental Issues on Community Health (Grades 9 & 10). Genetic Mutations (Grades (9 & 10). Kidney Dissection (Grades 9 & 10). Lifesaver Protein Modeling (Grades 9 - 12). Developed in 2010. Genetic Variation (Grades 9 & 10). Investigating Factors That Affect Rate of Enzyme Action (Grades 9 & 10). Micropipette and the Metric System (Grades 9 & 10). Interactive Meiosis (Grades 9 & 10). Modeling Protein Structure. Thinking Like a Scientist (Grades 9 & 10). Understanding Kidney Disease (Grades 3-5). Whose Brain is THAT?!. Developed in 2009. Bacterial Transformation. Blood Analysis. Blood, I Presume?. Concept Mapping. DNA Extraction From Living Things. Investigating Factors That Affect Cell Membrane Permeability. Lets Grow Some Microbes!. Sheep Brain Dissection. Developed in 2008. Amino acids and protein. Amoeba this!!!! Amoeba ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Supported liquid membrane permeation for selective lactic acid recovery. AU - Kienberger, Marlene. AU - Mungma, Nuttakul. AU - Siebenhofer, Matthäus. PY - 2017/11/8. Y1 - 2017/11/8. N2 - 1. IntroductionLactic acid is handled as a future bulk chemical due the use for poly lactic acid production. State of the art production for lactic acid is fermentation followed by precipitation and hydrolysis. Much attention has been drawn to the optimization of the fermentation as well as the downstream processing, however the best solutions has not been found yet [1]. Besides the state of the art production lactic acid is present in aqueous effluent from the pulping industry [2]. Following the biorefinery approach, valuables from the black liquor in pulping process may lead to a biorefinery including the carboxylic acids formic acid and acetic acid as well as lactic acid as valuables. This approach is applied in textile fiber production since long, but is new for the cellulose production. The ...
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Looking for cell permeability? Find out information about cell permeability. The permitting or activating of the passage of substances into, out of, or through cells, or from one cell to another. These materials traverse either the... Explanation of cell permeability
Selective Permeability - What is it? Selective permeability means that the cell membrane has some control over what can cross it, so that only certain molecules either enter or leave the cell.
The introduction of peptides and other cell membrane-impermeable molecules into mammalian cells has been an invaluable biochemical approach in the study of intracellular processes. Numerous methods have been developed to introduce membrane-impermeable molecules into cells. These methods include treating cells with solvents such as toluene or dimethyl sulfoxide, hypotonic buffers, freeze/thaw techniques, electroporation, and various detergents.1 2 3 In addition, microinjection of peptides and proteins into cells has also been used.4 Two major concerns with these methodologies are that the permeabilization or microinjection itself does not compromise cellular intregrity and that a relatively high percentage of cells are permeabilized.. One method of cell permeabilization (referred to as skinning) involves the permeabilization of mammalian cell membranes by incubation of cells with detergents such as saponin. This technique has been used with smooth muscle cells5 and cells or tissue preparations ...
Principal Investigator:UCHIDA Shinichi,丸茂 文昭, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Kidney internal medicine
Physiology Test Question - At the peak of the action potential, plasma membrane permeability to Na+ (pNa) is higher than the permeability to K+ (pK).
Abnormalities of red cell membrane cation permeability are seen in several hereditary disorders. These dominantly inherited conditions are collectively called the hereditary stomatocytoses and allied disorders.
ACS Publications Biological membranes are perfect examples for a molecular filter that uses membrane channels to control the permeability of small water-soluble molecules. We started from the known mutant channel FhuA Δ1-160 in which the cork domain closing the channel had been removed to allow filtering of larger hydrophilic molecules. Here, we further expanded the pore diameter by copying the amino acid sequence of two β-strands in a stepwise manner increasing the total number of β-strands from 22 to 34. The pore size of the respective expanded channel protein was characterized by single-channel conductance analysis. Furthermore, polymer exclusion measurements were performed by analyzing single-channel conductance in the presence of differently sized polyethylene glycols of known polymer random coil radii. The conclusion from channel conductance of small channel penetrating polymers versus larger excluded ones suggested an increase in pore radii from 1.6 nm for FhuA Δ1-160 up to a maximum ...
Evaluation of cell permeability by fluorescence images of UHP treated cells under live/dead staining after pressure treatment at 3 hours. (a-e) NIH/3T3, (f
View Notes - INFLAMMATION_notes from KINS 2532 at Georgia Southern University. INFLAMMATION Nonspecific Body Defenses First line of defense: surface membrane barriers Intact skin epidermis Intact
Permeabilize Eukaryotic Membranes - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi All, we try to treat eukaryotic cells with some antibiotics. Now it seems like some of the antibiotics (aminoglycosides) arent properly in the cells, so we are looking for some stuff to permeabilize the cells. Any good ideas? Links? Thx lots for your help
Learn about Peripheral Proteins , Integral Proteins , Transmembrane Proteins , Fluid Mosaic Model , Selective Permeability , Channel Proteins , Transport Proteins , Recognition Proteins , Adhesion Proteins , Receptor Proteins .... http://cueflash.com/decks/Cliff\s_AP_Biology_Vocabulary:_Cells. Tags: ...
Goldman Sachs is doing it again. Goldman is telling the public that everything is going to be just fine, but meanwhile they are advising their top clients to
Given that Chairman/CEO Frazier gave a very thoughtful, and yet candid presentation last week, it must be more than a little disappointing that Goldman kept its non-favored stance on the Whitehouse Station company: . . . .Goldman, Sachs & Co. reiterates Neutral rating on Merck. . . So it goes.
Vanden Abeele F, Bidaux G, Gordienko D, Beck B, Panchin YV, Baranova AV, Ivanov DV, Skryma R, Prevarskaya N. Functional implications of calcium permeability of the channel formed by pannexin 1 ...
Immunofluorescence Protocol without Permeabilization: easy to follow directions describing the step by step experimental procedure.
Immunofluorescence Protocol with DOTMAC Permeabilization: easy to follow directions describing the step by step experimental procedure.
#GS Goldman increases tracking estimate for Q3 GDP from 2.5% to 2.6% on shrinking trade balance. Keeps December rate hike odds at 50%
In these short videos, Goldman Sachs experts bring you some of the new and emerging words and phrases that are important to know in todays economy. Stay tuned for more in the coming weeks.. ...
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are prominent delivery vehicles to confer cellular entry of (bio-) macromolecules. Internalization efficiency and uptake mechanism depend, next to the type of CPP and cargo, also on cell type. Direct penetration of the plasma membrane is the preferred route of entry as this circumvents endolysosomal sequestration. However, the molecular parameters underlying this import mechanism are still poorly defined. Here, we make use of the frequently used HeLa and HEK cell lines to address the role of lipid composition and membrane potential. In HeLa cells, at low concentrations, the CPP nona-arginine (R9) enters cells by endocytosis. Direct membrane penetration occurs only at high peptide concentrations through a mechanism involving activation of sphingomyelinase which converts sphingomyelin into ceramide. In HEK cells, by comparison, R9 enters the cytoplasm through direct membrane permeation already at low concentrations. This direct permeation is strongly reduced at ...
Mercurials are known to induce morphological and functional modifications in kidney mitochondria. In this work we studied in vitro and in vivo the protective effect of captopril on the deleterious effect of Hg(++)-induced nonspecific membrane permeability changes to Ca++ and membrane de-energization. In vivo the administration of captopril prevented the toxic effects of mercury poisoning on membrane permeability, oxidative phosphorylation and Ca++ homeostasis. Moreover, captopril preserves kidney tissue morphology from Hg(++)-induced damage. The protective effect of captopril is most likely related to the existence of a sulfhydryl group in the drug. ...
NsPEF induce plasma membrane poration at lower electric fields than that required for loss of the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), indicating that nsPEFs affect plasma membranes more readily that intracellular membranes or organelles. High frequency components of nsPEFs (frequency in Hz=1/time in sec) are most effective to dissipate the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), but are less important for plasma membrane permeabilization using Ca2+ influx as a marker. Thus, the pulse waveform appears to selectively affect ΔΨm and possibly other intracellular components. Cell death is closely correlated with loss of ΔΨm; high intracellular Ca2+ is necessary, but not sufficient for cell death. Thus, nsPEF-induced cell death requires both influx of extracellular Ca2+ and dissipation of ΔΨm [20,21]. This is consistent with a "two hit" hypothesis for cell death [23,24]. At electric fields sufficient to induce cell death in 40-60% of cells, dissipation of ΔΨm is calcium-dependent. At ...
Lipidic nanovesicles (so called liposomes) were one the earliest forms of nanovectors. One of their limits was our lack of knowledge on the delivery pathway of their content to the target cell cytoplasm. The present communication describes an efficient way to enhance the delivery. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are known since the early 80s to mediate a fusogenic state of plasma membranes when applied to a cell suspension or a tissue. Polykaryons are detected when PEF are applied on cells in contact during or after the pulses. Heterofusion can be obtained when a cell mixture is pulsed. When lipidic nanovesicles, either small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), are electrostatically brought in contact with electropermeabilized cells by a salt bridge, their content is delivered into the cytoplasm in electropermeabilized cells. The PEF parameters are selected to affect specifically the cells leaving the vesicles unaffected. It is the electropermeabilized state of the cell
Using a genetic selection for mutations which allow large maltodextrins to cross the outer membrane of Escherichia coli in the absence of the LamB maltoporin, we have obtained and characterized two mutations that define a new locus of E. coli. We have designated this locus imp for increased membrane permeability. Mapping studies show that the imp gene resides at approximately 1.2 min on the E. coli chromosome. The mutations alter the permeability of the outer membrane resulting in increased sensitivity to detergents, antibiotics and dyes. The mutations are nonreverting and codominant. Genetic analysis of the mutations suggest that the imp gene is an essential gene. We describe a general cloning strategy that can be used to clone both dominant and recessive alleles. Using this technique, we have cloned the wild-type and mutant imp alleles onto a low copy number plasmid. ...
Phyllite clays are applied as a layer on a surface to be waterproofed and subsequently compacted. For this purpose, phyllite clays deposits can be grouped by their chemical and mineralogical characteristics, and these characteristics can be connected with their properties, mainly permeability, in order to select those deposits with the lowest permeability values. Several deposits of phyllite clays in the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain) have been studied. The results of applying a multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) to the chemical data analysed from 52 samples determined by XRF, mineralogical analysis by XRD and permeability are reported. Permeability, a characteristic physical property of phyllite clays, was calculated using the results for experimental nitrogen gas adsorption and nitrogen adsorption-desorption permeability dependence. According to the results, permeability values differentiated two groups, i.e. group 1 and group 2, with two subgroups in the latter. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Externalization of phosphatidylserine may not be an early signal of apoptosis in neuronal cells, but only the phosphatidylserine-displaying apoptotic cells are phagocytosed by microglia. AU - Adayev, Tatyana. AU - Estephan, Rima. AU - Meserole, Susan. AU - Mazza, Bethanne. AU - Yurkow, Edward J.. AU - Banerjee, Probal. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - Earlier reports on nonneural cells have shown that the normally inner plasma membrane lipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), flip-flops out during the early stages of apoptosis, whereas DNA laddering and plasma membrane permeabilization occur during the late stages. In this study, the applicability of these parameters to CNS-derived neuronal cells was tested using hippocampal HN2-5, cells that undergo apoptosis under anoxia. Because such insults on unsynchronized cells, e.g., undifferentiated HN2-5 cells, result in both early and late apoptotic cells, we mechanically separated these cells into three fractions containing (a) cells that ...
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Introduction Relative permeabilities are factual data necessary to any prediction of reservoir production behavior. One important problem in determining relative permeabilities of porous media to gas is the effect of gas slippage on these determinat
4:1 UNUN, SO-239 nickel plated connector with waterproof gasket and TEFLON insulation, Outstanding low permeability ferrite mix coated toroid core with...
Scott Richard Fidler (1998). Spatial and temporal variability of hydraulic response in fractured, low permeability sediments. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/240 ...
MEMOIRES: Hydrogeology of Rocks of Low Permeability. Shlomo P. Neuman and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
Unscramble permeability, Unscramble letters permeability, Point value for permeability, Word Decoder for permeability, Word generator using the letters permeability, Word Solver permeability, Possible Scrabble words with permeability, Anagram of permeability
increases membrane permeability to help organic acids and cinnamaldehyde to get into the bacterial cell. Cinnamaldehyde works synergistically with organic acids to maintain a balanced gut microbial population. Cinnamaldehyde plays an essential role in reducing the bacterial cell division. Organic acids in their undissociated form are able to enter the bacterial cell and exert antimicrobial effects. A wise and deliberate combination of organic acids provides greater efficacy in reducing growth of pathogenic bacteria. Sequential Release Medium (SRM) is a special inorganic carrier that ensures gradual release of active ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract.. ...
The permeability of one of the first and second shield layers in a read head is greater than the permeability of the other of the first and second shield layers for providing a net image current field HIM which can be employed for counterbalancing other fields acting on a free layer structure in a spin valve sensor such as a sense current field HI in either a top or bottom single spin valve sensor or a net ferromagnetic coupling field HFC alone or in combination with a demagnetizing field HD in a dual spin valve sensor. Preferred high permeability materials are nickel iron or nickel iron alloys excluding cobalt and low permeability materials are cobalt based.
Durability and long-term performance of concrete exposed to deleterious ions and environmental conditions are major concerns. The rapid chloride permeability (R
Forms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane and also the plasma membrane. The channel at the outer mitochondrial membrane allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules; in the plasma membrane it is involved in cell volume regulation and apoptosis. It adopts an open conformation at low or zero membrane potential and a closed conformation at potentials above 30-40 mV. The open state has a weak anion selectivity whereas the closed state is cation-selective. May participate in the formation of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC) responsible for the release of mitochondrial products that triggers apoptosis ...
In typical permeability experiments, a disk sample is sealed gas tight over a support tube. A gas or gas mixture is supplied to one side, and one or more species permeate to the other side, where a sweep gas and/or pump collect the gas. The modes of operation are numerous, and so are the ways to analyze the permeation, including gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). Typically, an inert gas added to the entry side gas mixture is used for monitoring the presence or absence of background leakage through seal leaks or sample cracks and porosity.. In general, a large sample area or tubular sample is preferable, as it reduces the relative effects of leakage from seal ring and general equipment. It also simplifies the considerations of sample geometry for samples where the thickness is not much smaller than the diameter so that permeation from the side is significant. However, a large sample may put higher requirements to the mechanical assembly and seal.. These articles refer to ...