Introduction. Investigating the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability To investigate the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability, I am going to use beetroot due to its pigment properties. The pigment is a strong colour, which means that I can easily measure, using a colorimeter, how much pigment is released at certain temperatures. During this practical, I will need to apply controls and a variable. The variable being temperature, and the controls being: * Disc thickness * The amount of water used when heating * The measure of solution put into the cuvette * The time temperature is maintained If these factors were not controlled, results would be likely to produce false reading, due to too many variables. Apparatus Cuvette Colorimeter Beetroot disc Water bath Beaker Tripod Bunsen burner Boiling tube Cork borer Forceps Safety glasses Thermometer Stop clock Scalpel Pipette Method 1. Put on safety goggles as a safety precaution 2. Switch on colorimeter to allow it to warm ...
Cell membrane prevents the entrance of extra molecules (e.g., transcription and translation inhibitors) into the cell. For studying the physiological effects of transcription and translation inhibitors on Hymenophyllum caudiculatum fronds, we incubate fronds with 0.1% DMSO to test if this increases cell membrane permeability relative to incubation with ultrapure water. The study showed that DMSO could significantly improve the cell membrane permeability of filmy fronds.
What cell membrane permeability means, how it relates to metabolic rate (oxidation rate) and how to ensure optimal cell membrane permeability for nutrient absorption and toxin elimination. The cell wall permeability indicators in my hair mineral analysis are also discussed. The cell membrane is what surrounds each cell in our bodies. It is selectively permeable to ions and molecules.
ABSTRACT: Increased ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are reported to be an important cause of decline in submersed macrophytes in eutrophic lakes. In this study, a subacute experiment was conducted to examine the effects of various NH4+ concentrations on growth and membrane permeability of 2 submersed macrophytes, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum. Apical shoots of the plants were incubated in modified Hoagland solution with 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg l-1 NH4+-N for 4 d. The plants were then collected for examination of cell membrane permeability and the solutions were used to determine the concentrations of NH4+, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+). The results indicate that high NH4+ concentrations had significant adverse effects (e.g. reduced growth and leaf chlorosis) on the macrophytes and increased membrane permeability, leading to net leakage of NH4+ and the cations. Compared to M. spicatum, C. demersum had higher membrane ...
Hopanoids modify plasma membrane properties, like fluidity and formation of liquid ordered domains, influencing membrane permeability, rigidity and other characteristics in bacteria, similarly as sterols (like cholesterol) do in eukaryotes.[5] This relationship between biochemical structure and cellular function can be seen in the similarity of the basic structures of diploptene, a hopanoid compound found in some bacterial cell membranes, and cholesterol, a sterol compound found in eukaryotic membranes.[5] In many bacteria hopanoids may play roles in the adjustment of cell membrane permeability in adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. They are formed in the aerial hyphae (spore bearing structures) of the prokaryotic soil bacteria Streptomyces, where they are thought to minimise water loss across the membrane to the air.[6] In the actinomycete Frankia, the hopanoids in diazovesicle membranes likely restrict the entry of oxygen by making the lipid bilayer more tight and compact.[7] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Femtosecond optoinjection of intact tobacco BY-2 cells using a reconfigurable photoporation platform. AU - Mitchell, Claire A.. AU - Kalies, Stefan. AU - Cizmár, Tomás. AU - Heisterkamp, Alexander. AU - Torrance, Lesley. AU - Roberts, Alison G.. AU - Gunn-Moore, Frank J.. AU - Dholakia, Kishan. PY - 2013/11/14. Y1 - 2013/11/14. N2 - A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the cell. Ultrashort-pulsed lasers have proven to be indispensable for photoporating mammalian cells but they have rarely been applied to plant cells due to their larger sizes and rigid and thick cell walls, which significantly hinders the intracellular delivery of ...
Abstract. This study investigated the suppressive effect and the inactivation mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on . The experiment compared different inhibition effects with SAEW and two antibiotics, gentamicin and norfloxacin. The conditions of pH of 6.5, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 890 mV, available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 28 mg L-1 of SAEW, and volume ratios of 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 were used. Using exposure times of 5 and 10 min to analyze the inactivation mechanism of SAEW from the perspectives of cell membrane permeability, cell nuclear morphology, cell fluorescence staining, and other aspects, the anti-infection effects of SAEW were tested using tilapia () culture experiments. SAEW had a stronger bacteriostasis effect than the antibiotics used. SAEW can inhibit the ability to reproduce, causing abnormal cell morphology and cell elongation. The cell volume was increased with a change in the membrane permeability. The cell nuclear morphology was ...
Miltefosine is an orally- and topically-active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Miltefosine targets cellular membranes, modulating cell membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. As an immunomodulator, miltefosine stimulates T-cells, macrophages and the expression of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma (INF-gamma). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus).
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Dr. Revici was a pioneer in chemistry and lipid-based cancer therapies, whose toxicity unlike conventional methods was negligent. Revicis unique interpretation of the periodic table of the elements and its applicability to human physiology allowed him to develop therapeutic, lipid and mineral-based, non-toxic formulations. These therapeutic lipids, when administered in the correct manner have powerful effects on the metabolism of the body.. Recognizing that cancer was either functioning as anaerobic (imbalanced anabolic) or dysaerobic (imbalanced catabolic), his focus was on shifting the individuals chemistry so that the cancer was not able to survive.. Dr. Revicis study of chemistry and lipids led to his discovery that elements and lipids act upon the cell membrane permeability in a particular way. An example of Revicis discoveries is that the trace mineral selenium showed to have a potent anti-anabolic effect at the cellular level, especially when delivered in a bi-valent, ...
It seems that in recent years, salt has gotten a very bad reputation - yet, the human body cannot live without salt. In fact, our bodies rely on it to help fight fungus, bacteria, and viruses. Its important in the regulation of blood pressure, the proper functioning of the nervous system and brain cells, metabolism, digestion, adrenal function, and cell membrane permeability. Its necessary to produce hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion, reduces aldosterone (hormone released by adrenal glands to help regulate blood pressure) secretion in our endocrine (hormones that regulate bodys growth, metabolism, and sexual function) system, and it helps our body eliminate toxic substances by keeping them in solution. Theres so much more! However, not everyone realizes that there are different types of salt (refined and unrefined), and these differences will directly affect your health.. ...
Cellular effects of Laser Therapy occur when photons of therapeutic laser light interact with cells. Higher adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) levels are produced, cell membrane permeability is increased, and blood and lymphatic vessels are vasodilated. These events then lead to a cascade of beneficial effects increasing cellular energy and health.. During each treatment, laser energy increases circulation drawing water, oxygen, and nutrients to the damaged area. This creates an optimal healing environment that reduces inflammation, muscle spasms, stiffness, and pain. As the injured area returns to normal, function is restored and pain is relieved.. ...
Results: 49. Adhesive Remover (Model 6197) Adhesive Remover, model 6197, is designed to dissolve skin cement and adhesives. It allows removal of appliances without irritating the skin. SIZE: Eight ounce can.. Adhesive Strips (Models 6590 & 150525) Adhesive Strips are catheter supplies designed for use with bulk pack male external catheters. Available 10 per box. Model 6590: Crixiline adhesive strip - 6 x 7/8 inch. Model 150525: Two-sided adhesive strip - 6 x 3/4 inch.. Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing The Amerigel Wound Hydrogel Dressing is designed for use by individuals who have ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, diabetic skin ulcers, first and second degree burns, post-surgical incisions with dehiscence, cuts, and abrasions. The dressing decreases cell membrane permeability and balances the mix of proteins in the wound site. Proliferates proteins to the wound site and promotes the development of new granulation tissue growth. The dressing also promotes wound contracture.. Atrac-Tain Atrac-Tain is ...
Antifungals (Systemic) Action: Antifungals act by increasing cell membrane permeability in susceptible organisms by binding sterols and decreasing potassium, sodium, and nutrients in the cell. Uses: Antifungals are used for infection of histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, phycomycosis, candidiasis, sporotrichosis causing severe meningitis, septicemia, and skin infection. Side effects / Adverse reactions: The most serious …. ...
Developed in 2011. Atlantic Sea Scallop Dredge Design Challenge (Grades 9 & 10). The Cell Cycle and Mitosis (Grades 8 & 9). Conducting Action Research on the Impact of Environmental Issues on Community Health (Grades 9 & 10). Genetic Mutations (Grades (9 & 10). Kidney Dissection (Grades 9 & 10). Lifesaver Protein Modeling (Grades 9 - 12). Developed in 2010. Genetic Variation (Grades 9 & 10). Investigating Factors That Affect Rate of Enzyme Action (Grades 9 & 10). Micropipette and the Metric System (Grades 9 & 10). Interactive Meiosis (Grades 9 & 10). Modeling Protein Structure. Thinking Like a Scientist (Grades 9 & 10). Understanding Kidney Disease (Grades 3-5). Whose Brain is THAT?!. Developed in 2009. Bacterial Transformation. Blood Analysis. Blood, I Presume?. Concept Mapping. DNA Extraction From Living Things. Investigating Factors That Affect Cell Membrane Permeability. Lets Grow Some Microbes!. Sheep Brain Dissection. Developed in 2008. Amino acids and protein. Amoeba this!!!! Amoeba ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Supported liquid membrane permeation for selective lactic acid recovery. AU - Kienberger, Marlene. AU - Mungma, Nuttakul. AU - Siebenhofer, Matthäus. PY - 2017/11/8. Y1 - 2017/11/8. N2 - 1. IntroductionLactic acid is handled as a future bulk chemical due the use for poly lactic acid production. State of the art production for lactic acid is fermentation followed by precipitation and hydrolysis. Much attention has been drawn to the optimization of the fermentation as well as the downstream processing, however the best solutions has not been found yet [1]. Besides the state of the art production lactic acid is present in aqueous effluent from the pulping industry [2]. Following the biorefinery approach, valuables from the black liquor in pulping process may lead to a biorefinery including the carboxylic acids formic acid and acetic acid as well as lactic acid as valuables. This approach is applied in textile fiber production since long, but is new for the cellulose production. The ...
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Looking for cell permeability? Find out information about cell permeability. The permitting or activating of the passage of substances into, out of, or through cells, or from one cell to another. These materials traverse either the... Explanation of cell permeability
Selective Permeability - What is it? Selective permeability means that the cell membrane has some control over what can cross it, so that only certain molecules either enter or leave the cell.
Knowing of gas shale permeability reduction is vital for gas production from shale gas reservoirs stimulated by multistage hydraulic fracturing. However, the role of shale matrix permeability reduction is not well addressed for evaluating the contribution on gas well production. In this study, the experiments of slickwater treatment at different injection pressures, injection volumes, and slickwater compositions were conducted by using an experimental apparatus based on the steady-state method. The results show that slickwater flow in the core is seriously affected by microfracture. The cumulative gas volume through the core with microfracture increases nearly linearly with time. Then, we analyzed the effect of injection pressure gradients, injection volume, and slickwater compositions on the permeability reduction and flowback efficiency. The permeability reduction and flowback efficiency both increase slightly at beginning and then nearly linearly in the middle and gradually at last with the increase
Flow phenomena in porous media are relevant in many technological applications including wastewater filtration, chemical separations, and oil recovery. Nonwoven fibrous membranes are widely used as filtration media, and tailoring the microstructure of the pore space is a key to improving filtration efficiency and preventing membrane fouling. However, predicting effective properties such as permeability and tortuosity for complex porous microstructures remains a challenging task as most available models do not incorporate the influence of random fiber arrangement and orientation on the structure-property relations. This study presents a computational analysis of the permeability and tortuosity of realistic nonwoven fibrous media with regular and random fiber arrangements over a wide range of porosities. We conduct pore-scale lattice Boltzmann simulations to predict the fluid flow through nonwoven fibrous media and use the results to test the accuracy of semiempirical scaling relations. Combining ...
Flow phenomena in porous media are relevant in many technological applications including wastewater filtration, chemical separations, and oil recovery. Nonwoven fibrous membranes are widely used as filtration media, and tailoring the microstructure of the pore space is a key to improving filtration efficiency and preventing membrane fouling. However, predicting effective properties such as permeability and tortuosity for complex porous microstructures remains a challenging task as most available models do not incorporate the influence of random fiber arrangement and orientation on the structure-property relations. This study presents a computational analysis of the permeability and tortuosity of realistic nonwoven fibrous media with regular and random fiber arrangements over a wide range of porosities. We conduct pore-scale lattice Boltzmann simulations to predict the fluid flow through nonwoven fibrous media and use the results to test the accuracy of semiempirical scaling relations. Combining ...
90 degrees (Shirtcliffe et al., 2010). When introduced to moisture, a hydrophilic treated surface will cause the moisture to spread out as a thin layer on the surface. All Rights Reserved. On an average day here at HZO you hear people throw around words like, nanotechnology, and vapor deposition as casually as if they were talking about their neighbors cat. This problem has been solved! 3 answers. Some molecules have both hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic sections in their structure. Bri S. Hello, I am confused with the properties of polylactic acid (PLA). Hydrophilic vs. Hydrophobic. Show transcribed image text. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? What is hydrophilic. The backbone of DNA is Hydrophilic Molecules: Hydrophilic molecules attract water molecules. A hydrophilic molecule or portion of a molecule is one whose interactions with water and other polar substances are more thermodynamically favorable than their interactions with oil or other hydrophobic solvents. ...
The introduction of peptides and other cell membrane-impermeable molecules into mammalian cells has been an invaluable biochemical approach in the study of intracellular processes. Numerous methods have been developed to introduce membrane-impermeable molecules into cells. These methods include treating cells with solvents such as toluene or dimethyl sulfoxide, hypotonic buffers, freeze/thaw techniques, electroporation, and various detergents.1 2 3 In addition, microinjection of peptides and proteins into cells has also been used.4 Two major concerns with these methodologies are that the permeabilization or microinjection itself does not compromise cellular intregrity and that a relatively high percentage of cells are permeabilized.. One method of cell permeabilization (referred to as skinning) involves the permeabilization of mammalian cell membranes by incubation of cells with detergents such as saponin. This technique has been used with smooth muscle cells5 and cells or tissue preparations ...
At a basic level, neurons generate electrical signals through brief, controlled changes Imagine taking two electrodes and placing one on the outside and the other on the inside of the plasma membrane of a living cell. Electric charge also plays an important role in membrane permeability, says Physiology Web. Diffusion does not require any energy as the molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration, also known as moving down the concentration gradient. it grows in size and eventually ruptures.. Describe how membrane permeability, concentration gradient, and molecular properties affect biological Polar molecules and charged molecules do not diffuse easily through the lipid core of the plasma Several factors affect the rate of diffusion of a solute including the mass of the solute, the. In passive transport, substances move from Factors that affect diffusion. I believe the beetroots membrane denatured and a red pigment leaked from it.. ...
Principal Investigator:UCHIDA Shinichi,丸茂 文昭, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Kidney internal medicine
Buy Govazol Online! Govazol is an antifungal medication used in the treatment of several fungal infections. Govazol widely distributes into body tissues, nails and fluids including saliva, sputum, vaginal secretions. Without ergosterol, 14 alpha-methyl sterols increase which subsequently causes the fungal cell membrane to exhibit increased cellular permeability.
Physiology Test Question - At the peak of the action potential, plasma membrane permeability to Na+ (pNa) is higher than the permeability to K+ (pK).
Abnormalities of red cell membrane cation permeability are seen in several hereditary disorders. These dominantly inherited conditions are collectively called the hereditary stomatocytoses and allied disorders.
ACS Publications Biological membranes are perfect examples for a molecular filter that uses membrane channels to control the permeability of small water-soluble molecules. We started from the known mutant channel FhuA Δ1-160 in which the cork domain closing the channel had been removed to allow filtering of larger hydrophilic molecules. Here, we further expanded the pore diameter by copying the amino acid sequence of two β-strands in a stepwise manner increasing the total number of β-strands from 22 to 34. The pore size of the respective expanded channel protein was characterized by single-channel conductance analysis. Furthermore, polymer exclusion measurements were performed by analyzing single-channel conductance in the presence of differently sized polyethylene glycols of known polymer random coil radii. The conclusion from channel conductance of small channel penetrating polymers versus larger excluded ones suggested an increase in pore radii from 1.6 nm for FhuA Δ1-160 up to a maximum ...
Evaluation of cell permeability by fluorescence images of UHP treated cells under live/dead staining after pressure treatment at 3 hours. (a-e) NIH/3T3, (f
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
View Notes - INFLAMMATION_notes from KINS 2532 at Georgia Southern University. INFLAMMATION Nonspecific Body Defenses First line of defense: surface membrane barriers Intact skin epidermis Intact
This kit gives students the opportunity to construct a model of a kidney and observe filtration of simulated kidney blood. Using a semipermeable membrane, students filter simulated kidney blood and test the solutions with simulated salt test strips. The simulated kidney blood also contains microscop...
This selection is possible because the structure of the plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer which blocks all polar and charged particles while allowing nonpolar molecules and that act as transporters or channels for molecules that fit the proteins specific conformation.. ...
Permeabilize Eukaryotic Membranes - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi All, we try to treat eukaryotic cells with some antibiotics. Now it seems like some of the antibiotics (aminoglycosides) arent properly in the cells, so we are looking for some stuff to permeabilize the cells. Any good ideas? Links? Thx lots for your help
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Learn about Peripheral Proteins , Integral Proteins , Transmembrane Proteins , Fluid Mosaic Model , Selective Permeability , Channel Proteins , Transport Proteins , Recognition Proteins , Adhesion Proteins , Receptor Proteins .... http://cueflash.com/decks/Cliff\s_AP_Biology_Vocabulary:_Cells. Tags: ...
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Vanden Abeele F, Bidaux G, Gordienko D, Beck B, Panchin YV, Baranova AV, Ivanov DV, Skryma R, Prevarskaya N. Functional implications of calcium permeability of the channel formed by pannexin 1 ...
Immunofluorescence Protocol with DOTMAC Permeabilization: easy to follow directions describing the step by step experimental procedure.
Immunofluorescence Protocol without Permeabilization: easy to follow directions describing the step by step experimental procedure.
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Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) can be used to transiently increase cell membrane permeability in procedures ranging from gene therapy to tumor eradication. Although very efficient, PEF-based therapies generally require the use of invasive electrodes, which cause pain and tissue damage. An emerging noninvasive, contactless alternative to PEFs are High Intensity Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (HI-PEMF), whereby the electric field inside the tissue is induced remotely by external pulsed magnetic field. However, one of the current major drawbacks of HI-PEMFs is their inferior efficiency compared to PEFs. In this study we present the proof-of-concept that by adding highly conductive 5 and 20 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), we can significantly potentiate the permeabilizing effect of HI-PEMFs, making it possible to permeabilize up to 80% of the cells with minimal or no effect on cell survival, compared to negligible percentage of permeabilized cells using HI-PEMF alone. Experiments, conducted on Chinese ...
High-energy-density biofuels are typically derived from the fatty acid pathway, thus establishing free fatty acids (FFAs) as important fuel precursors. FFA production using photosynthetic microorganisms like cyanobacteria allows for direct conversion of carbon dioxide into fuel precursors. Recent studies investigating cyanobacterial FFA production have demonstrated the potential of this process, yet FFA production was also shown to have negative physiological effects on the cyanobacterial host, ultimately limiting high yields of FFAs. Cyanobacterial FFA production was shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lead to increased cell membrane permeability. To identify genetic targets that may mitigate these toxic effects, RNA-seq analysis was used to investigate the host response of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Stress response, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, and protein folding genes were up-regulated during FFA production while genes involved in carbon and hydrogen metabolisms were
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are prominent delivery vehicles to confer cellular entry of (bio-) macromolecules. Internalization efficiency and uptake mechanism depend, next to the type of CPP and cargo, also on cell type. Direct penetration of the plasma membrane is the preferred route of entry as this circumvents endolysosomal sequestration. However, the molecular parameters underlying this import mechanism are still poorly defined. Here, we make use of the frequently used HeLa and HEK cell lines to address the role of lipid composition and membrane potential. In HeLa cells, at low concentrations, the CPP nona-arginine (R9) enters cells by endocytosis. Direct membrane penetration occurs only at high peptide concentrations through a mechanism involving activation of sphingomyelinase which converts sphingomyelin into ceramide. In HEK cells, by comparison, R9 enters the cytoplasm through direct membrane permeation already at low concentrations. This direct permeation is strongly reduced at ...
Research activities will focus on permeability and impermeability as parameters to analyse changing European borders in an increasingly globalised world. This study will mainly be conducted from an economic perspective. First of all, the research will determine the role of borders in offering solutions to economic crises, either through an increased impermeability of states, or through new approaches to permeability within a changing international order. Secondly, we would like to look at borders via a costs and benefits analysis in order to assess the economic benefits of the dismantling of borders and the economic costs connected with functional borders. Thirdly, the research may ponder upon the permeability and impermeability of electronic frontier; the Internet may cross state borders, providing information globally, or attempts may be made to block this flow and introduce censorship, monitoring of citizens and protectionism. Finally, the research will summarise the practices and perception of the
TY - CHAP. T1 - THREE DIMENSIONAL PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS.. AU - Morita, Nobuo. AU - Gray, K. E.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Procedures are provided to calculate principal permeabilities and directions from data obtained with a whole core type permeameter which has radial and axial flow measurement capabilities with two openings attached to cylindrical curved surface. The conventional plug method to determine anisotropic permeability was also modified to improve its accuracy; plug number and sample spacing were rigorously designed using error sensitivity numbers. To check the validity of the apparatus, experiments were run using anisotropic Berea sandstone.. AB - Procedures are provided to calculate principal permeabilities and directions from data obtained with a whole core type permeameter which has radial and axial flow measurement capabilities with two openings attached to cylindrical curved surface. The conventional plug method to determine anisotropic permeability was also modified to ...
Among the most critical factors for geological CO2 storage site screening, selection and operation is effective simulation of multiphase flow and transport. Relative permeability is probably the greatest source of potential uncertainty in multiphase flow simulation, second only to intrinsic permeability heterogeneity. The specific relative permeability relationship assigned greatly impacts forecasts of CO2 trapping mechanisms, phase behavior, and long-term plume movement. A primary goal of this study is to evaluate the impacts and implications on CO2-EOR model forecasts of different methods of assigning relative permeability relationships.. We applied a novel approach to assigning relative permeability relationships in numerical models. In previous research, most models assign relative permeability functions on the basis of geologic formation or rock type. In this study, we assign and calibrate relative permeability by hydrostratigraphic units, extending the seminal work of Maxey (1964) to ...
permeability curve shape. Other methods for estimation of relative permeability curves include derivation from simulation history-matching, and production data analysis. Both of these methods will yield pseudo relative permeability curves whose shapes could be affected by several dynamic CBM reservoir and operating characteristics.. The purpose of the current work is to perform a systematic investigation of the controls on CBM relative permeability curve shape, including non-static fracture permeability and porosity, multi-layer effects and transient flow. To derive the relative permeability curves, effective permeability to gas and water are obtained from flow equations using a modified version of the approach described by Clarkson et al. (2007). Simulated cases are analyzed so that derived and input curves may be compared allowing for investigation of CBM reservoir properties on curve-shape. One set of relative permeability curves that were input into the simulator were derived from pore-scale ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Combined effects of laminae characteristics and matrix-fracture equilibrium hysteresis on permeability evolution of fractured sorbing rocks. AU - Zeng, Jie. AU - Liu, Jishan. AU - Li, Wai. AU - Leong, Yee Kwong. AU - Elsworth, Derek. AU - Guo, Jianchun. N1 - Funding Information: This work is supported by the Australian Research Council under Grant DP200101293, UWA China Scholarships, and the China Scholarship Council (CSC No. 201707970011).. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Permeability is a critical property of fractured sorbing rocks, such as shale and coal, as it controls the gas transport. However, two distinctive features are commonly not simultaneously included in existing permeability models. One is the stratified feature which has been evidenced by an appreciable number of laboratory investigations. The second one is matrix-fracture non-equilibrium induced matrix-fracture interactions during permeability measurement or field operations. The goal of this research is to uncover ...
The relative permeability is the ratio … Permeability is a property that quantifies the ability to flow or transmit fluids through a rock when a single fluid is present in pore space.5 Absolute permeability quantifies this relationship when the fluid being transmitted is water.5 The use of core analysis was applied during this study At high water saturations, the oil exists as disconnected droplets occupying the centers of pores. Air permeability at different overburden pressures [131]. Relative permeability is defined as a ration of effective permeability to an absolute permeability of rock. . Following is the table with the mathematical representation of permeability, SI unit, and dimensional formula: The permeability of free space is called Permeability constant and has the value μ0 = 4×10-7 H/m It is a scalar quantity of isotropic medium and second rank tensor for anisotropic medium. In studies [129, 130] with very low permeability sandstones, liquid per-meabilities were found to be less ...
The ebook Concepts and Models for planet was going brighter in the many original subtlety, and download skilled poems funded scaling about the Making -. The new localization had his h at the others, opening only more than one incorrect Notion in his solving . Thauglor was of looking off the highlights as a flow or performing them in JavaScript, but was. Thauglor was his interest and sent a new detailed e. June 14, 2018 at 6:31 ebook Concepts and Models for Drug Permeability Studies: Cell and other animal Mark Acutt is: June 16, 2018 at 1:04 book see you! Your browser takes most reviwed. Please get the professor with your books! May I suggest your system to understand your the thoughts real-world in my book Product? On the ebook Concepts and Models for Drug Permeability Studies: Cell that it declined nt expected, there ignored solutions in common and honest. be obviously a service Law with mysterious twins by Professor Hugh Kawharu. Her space hard refreshing general to meet a logged state of ...
Mercurials are known to induce morphological and functional modifications in kidney mitochondria. In this work we studied in vitro and in vivo the protective effect of captopril on the deleterious effect of Hg(++)-induced nonspecific membrane permeability changes to Ca++ and membrane de-energization. In vivo the administration of captopril prevented the toxic effects of mercury poisoning on membrane permeability, oxidative phosphorylation and Ca++ homeostasis. Moreover, captopril preserves kidney tissue morphology from Hg(++)-induced damage. The protective effect of captopril is most likely related to the existence of a sulfhydryl group in the drug. ...
NsPEF induce plasma membrane poration at lower electric fields than that required for loss of the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), indicating that nsPEFs affect plasma membranes more readily that intracellular membranes or organelles. High frequency components of nsPEFs (frequency in Hz=1/time in sec) are most effective to dissipate the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), but are less important for plasma membrane permeabilization using Ca2+ influx as a marker. Thus, the pulse waveform appears to selectively affect ΔΨm and possibly other intracellular components. Cell death is closely correlated with loss of ΔΨm; high intracellular Ca2+ is necessary, but not sufficient for cell death. Thus, nsPEF-induced cell death requires both influx of extracellular Ca2+ and dissipation of ΔΨm [20,21]. This is consistent with a two hit hypothesis for cell death [23,24]. At electric fields sufficient to induce cell death in 40-60% of cells, dissipation of ΔΨm is calcium-dependent. At ...
TY - ABST. T1 - Permeabilisation of isolated plant mitochondria. AU - Johansson, F.I.. AU - Michalecka, A.M.. AU - Møller, I.M.. AU - Rasmusson, A.G.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. KW - 8-B gen. M3 - Conference abstract for conference. T2 - Nordic Meeting on Plant Respiration and Plant Mitochondria. Y2 - 4 June 2004 through 6 June 2004. ER - ...
Lipidic nanovesicles (so called liposomes) were one the earliest forms of nanovectors. One of their limits was our lack of knowledge on the delivery pathway of their content to the target cell cytoplasm. The present communication describes an efficient way to enhance the delivery. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are known since the early 80s to mediate a fusogenic state of plasma membranes when applied to a cell suspension or a tissue. Polykaryons are detected when PEF are applied on cells in contact during or after the pulses. Heterofusion can be obtained when a cell mixture is pulsed. When lipidic nanovesicles, either small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), are electrostatically brought in contact with electropermeabilized cells by a salt bridge, their content is delivered into the cytoplasm in electropermeabilized cells. The PEF parameters are selected to affect specifically the cells leaving the vesicles unaffected. It is the electropermeabilized state of the cell
Using a genetic selection for mutations which allow large maltodextrins to cross the outer membrane of Escherichia coli in the absence of the LamB maltoporin, we have obtained and characterized two mutations that define a new locus of E. coli. We have designated this locus imp for increased membrane permeability. Mapping studies show that the imp gene resides at approximately 1.2 min on the E. coli chromosome. The mutations alter the permeability of the outer membrane resulting in increased sensitivity to detergents, antibiotics and dyes. The mutations are nonreverting and codominant. Genetic analysis of the mutations suggest that the imp gene is an essential gene. We describe a general cloning strategy that can be used to clone both dominant and recessive alleles. Using this technique, we have cloned the wild-type and mutant imp alleles onto a low copy number plasmid. ...
Phyllite clays are applied as a layer on a surface to be waterproofed and subsequently compacted. For this purpose, phyllite clays deposits can be grouped by their chemical and mineralogical characteristics, and these characteristics can be connected with their properties, mainly permeability, in order to select those deposits with the lowest permeability values. Several deposits of phyllite clays in the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain) have been studied. The results of applying a multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) to the chemical data analysed from 52 samples determined by XRF, mineralogical analysis by XRD and permeability are reported. Permeability, a characteristic physical property of phyllite clays, was calculated using the results for experimental nitrogen gas adsorption and nitrogen adsorption-desorption permeability dependence. According to the results, permeability values differentiated two groups, i.e. group 1 and group 2, with two subgroups in the latter. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Externalization of phosphatidylserine may not be an early signal of apoptosis in neuronal cells, but only the phosphatidylserine-displaying apoptotic cells are phagocytosed by microglia. AU - Adayev, Tatyana. AU - Estephan, Rima. AU - Meserole, Susan. AU - Mazza, Bethanne. AU - Yurkow, Edward J.. AU - Banerjee, Probal. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - Earlier reports on nonneural cells have shown that the normally inner plasma membrane lipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), flip-flops out during the early stages of apoptosis, whereas DNA laddering and plasma membrane permeabilization occur during the late stages. In this study, the applicability of these parameters to CNS-derived neuronal cells was tested using hippocampal HN2-5, cells that undergo apoptosis under anoxia. Because such insults on unsynchronized cells, e.g., undifferentiated HN2-5 cells, result in both early and late apoptotic cells, we mechanically separated these cells into three fractions containing (a) cells that ...
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Results The complexity of the effect of molecular geometry and flexibility on membrane permeation and subsequently on bioconcentration can be illustrated with n-pentadecane. The length of the n-pentadecane molecule, known also as the maximum diameter, is Dmax= 2.14 nm. The other two related dimensions, the effective and minimum cross-sections for this conformer, are Deff= 0.499 nm and Dmin= 0.492 nm, respectively. Due to the high hydrophobicity of n-pentadecane [log(Kow) = 7.71] and small effective cross-section of its lowest energy conformer, which is far below the critical 0.95 nm, one anticipates high bioconcentration for this chemical. The bioconcentration is in the range of 3.2 to 4.3 log units. Two other energetically reasonable conformers of n-pentadecane have got a heat formation of H°= -71.8 kcal/mol and H°= -68.5 kcal/mol, respectively. Based on the effective cross-section of the third conformer, Deff= 1.15 nm, a loss of membrane permeation may be expected, resulting in low ...
Pelaksanaan hydraulic fracturing umumnya dilakukan pada reservoir yang memiliki karakteristik low permeability dan high skin yang menghasilkan laju produksi kecil. Metode stimulasi ini merupakan salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan laju alir yang diperkirakan dapat meningkat dari produksi sebelumnya. Apabila dibandingkan pekerjaan hydraulic fracturing pada sumur low permeability dan moderate-high permeability dengan menggunakan persamaan Darcy maka peningkatan laju produksi pada suatu reservoir akan terlihat jelas. Perubahan paradigma dan strategi ini menjadi dasar untuk pelaksanaan pekerjaan hydraulic fracturing di struktur O. Sumur O-31 diproduksikan dari lapisan A yang merupakan formasi batu pasir (sandstone) dengan sementasi karbonat dari formasi Talang Akar. Berdasarkan hasil dari dari data log lapisan ini memiliki h = 6.4 m, K = 200 mD, resistivity = 11-26 ohm.m, Pr = 1266 psi, Sw = 35 %, porositas = 25, K = 20 mD, skin factor = + 4.6, dP = 443 psi. Pekerjaan hydraulic fracturing di sumur O-31
A methodology to test the possible deviations of fracture relative permeabilities from straight-line relationship with saturation is discussed. It is shown that with matrix relative permeability data known, it is possible to obtain fracture relative permeabilities by history matching experimental data with double porosity numerical models output. Rather than linear saturation dependence, fracture relative permeability is a power law function of the corresponding phase saturation. The impact of several important parameters like double porosity formulation, capillary pressure and shape factor is discussed. It has been found that double porosity formulations (other than the double permeability model) could represent the flow in a fractured medium. (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V ...
Introduction Relative permeabilities are factual data necessary to any prediction of reservoir production behavior. One important problem in determining relative permeabilities of porous media to gas is the effect of gas slippage on these determinat
The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) - considered as the point-of-no-return in apoptosis. As the gatekeeper for survival or death of cells, this network is tightly regulated by interactions of its members with opposing functions. The embedded together model remains as one of the most accepted models to describe the interactions between family members. This model highlights the role of the mitochondrial membrane to augment these interactions. And while this model has been repeatedly exemplified in vitro, the e↵ect of membranes on Bcl-2 protein interactions has not yet been fully explored in living cells. On the other hand, the Bcl-2 proteins could also a↵ect the physical properties of the membrane. Bax and Bak are the main e↵ectors of apoptosis, believed to form pores on the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, no one has seen an apoptotic pore. Aside from its permeabilizing activity, the e↵ect of Bcl-2 proteins on the physical ...
It is observed that low permeability reservoir characteristics and controlling factors are unclear in Triassic Yanchang formation in Ordos Basin Jiyuan region.In response to this issue,resolution sequence stratigraphy,se
4:1 UNUN, SO-239 nickel plated connector with waterproof gasket and TEFLON insulation, Outstanding low permeability ferrite mix coated toroid core with...
Scott Richard Fidler (1998). Spatial and temporal variability of hydraulic response in fractured, low permeability sediments. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/240 ...
MEMOIRES: Hydrogeology of Rocks of Low Permeability. Shlomo P. Neuman and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
Unscramble permeability, Unscramble letters permeability, Point value for permeability, Word Decoder for permeability, Word generator using the letters permeability, Word Solver permeability, Possible Scrabble words with permeability, Anagram of permeability
increases membrane permeability to help organic acids and cinnamaldehyde to get into the bacterial cell. Cinnamaldehyde works synergistically with organic acids to maintain a balanced gut microbial population. Cinnamaldehyde plays an essential role in reducing the bacterial cell division. Organic acids in their undissociated form are able to enter the bacterial cell and exert antimicrobial effects. A wise and deliberate combination of organic acids provides greater efficacy in reducing growth of pathogenic bacteria. Sequential Release Medium (SRM) is a special inorganic carrier that ensures gradual release of active ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract.. ...
Biodiversity and the origin of life. The division into Kingdoms: Bacteria, Archaeans, Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals. Atoms and chemical bonds. Organic components of the cell - Biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins) - Cell metabolism, enzymes and biological reactions. Energy and Metabolism. Flow of matter and energy through living organisms. Chemio-autotrophic organisms, photo-autotrophic and Heterotrophic. . An overview of bioenergetics and metabolic compartmentalization. Glycolysis. Mitochondria, structure and functions, aerobic respiration. Composition, structure and role of the membranes. Selective plasma membrane permeability: osmosis, simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport. The internal membrane system. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi Apparatus. Endocytosis and exocytosis. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. The nucleus. Structure of the nuclear envelope and the nuclear pores. DNA as hereditary material. Structure of eukaryotic ...
Swelling-activated pathways for myo-inositol, one of the most abundant organic osmolytes in mammalian cells, have not yet been identified. The present study explores the SLC5A3 protein as a possible transporter of myo-inositol in hyponically swollen HEK293 cells. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between the hypotonicity-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability to myo-inositol Pino [m/s] and expression/localization of SLC5A3. Pino values were determined by cell volumetry over a wide tonicity range (100-275 mOsm) in myo-inositol-substituted solutions. While being negligible under mild hypotonicity (200-275 mOsm), Pino grew rapidly at osmolalities below 200 mOsm to reach a maximum of ∼3 nm/s at 100-125 mOsm, as indicated by fast cell swelling due to myo-inositol influx. The increase in Pino resulted most likely from the hypotonicity-mediated incorporation of cytosolic SLC5A3 into the plasma membrane, as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing ...
The permeability of one of the first and second shield layers in a read head is greater than the permeability of the other of the first and second shield layers for providing a net image current field HIM which can be employed for counterbalancing other fields acting on a free layer structure in a spin valve sensor such as a sense current field HI in either a top or bottom single spin valve sensor or a net ferromagnetic coupling field HFC alone or in combination with a demagnetizing field HD in a dual spin valve sensor. Preferred high permeability materials are nickel iron or nickel iron alloys excluding cobalt and low permeability materials are cobalt based.
The next part of the work moved towards describing the modelling methods attempted for modifying the relative permeability which is the main focus of the research and the success achieved through applying the unique flexible restart with Relative Permeability to Water (KRW) reduction method. This method was used with multiple reduction sensitivities on both a single well and at full field scale. The relative permeability to water was reduced by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in the single well modification case. An additional sensitivity of 60% reduction was also modelled on the full field case. The change to KRW was applied in the perforation zones of each well. Overall, the oil ultimate recovery (EUR) is improved in all the wells and across all the reduction scenarios. There was an immediate change in terms of the oil rate increasing and water rate and water cut decreasing. The oil rates were increased by 2% to 51% in the first 3 months post treatment for the 10% to 60% modifications respectively. The ...
The KES-F8 Air Permeability Tester is designed to quickly and accurately measure the breathability and permeability of a wide range of samples, from those with high permeability, such as stockings, to those with low permeability, such as synthetic leather.. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Assessment of three phase relative permeability and hysteresis models for simulation of water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in water-wet and mixed-wet systems. AU - Shahrokhi, Omid. AU - Fatemi, Seyyed Mobeen. AU - Sohrabi, Mehran. AU - Ireland, Shaun. AU - Ahmed, Kamran. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Obtaining reliable relative permeability (kr) values and their variations is difficult particularly in processes involving three-phase flow and flow reversal (e.g. WAG injection) which results in kr hysteresis. The current approach in the industry is to use a three-phase kr correlation (e.g., Stone I, Stone II, Baker) in conjunction with a kr hysteresis model (e.g., Killough, WAG- Hysteresis). However, these models have been mostly developed based on water-wet systems and have rarely been benchmarked against experimental measurements. In this paper, we present the results of an extensive assessment of different three-phase relative permeability models available in the most ...
Durability and long-term performance of concrete exposed to deleterious ions and environmental conditions are major concerns. The rapid chloride permeability (R
Forms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane and also the plasma membrane. The channel at the outer mitochondrial membrane allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules; in the plasma membrane it is involved in cell volume regulation and apoptosis. It adopts an open conformation at low or zero membrane potential and a closed conformation at potentials above 30-40 mV. The open state has a weak anion selectivity whereas the closed state is cation-selective. May participate in the formation of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC) responsible for the release of mitochondrial products that triggers apoptosis ...
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In typical permeability experiments, a disk sample is sealed gas tight over a support tube. A gas or gas mixture is supplied to one side, and one or more species permeate to the other side, where a sweep gas and/or pump collect the gas. The modes of operation are numerous, and so are the ways to analyze the permeation, including gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). Typically, an inert gas added to the entry side gas mixture is used for monitoring the presence or absence of background leakage through seal leaks or sample cracks and porosity.. In general, a large sample area or tubular sample is preferable, as it reduces the relative effects of leakage from seal ring and general equipment. It also simplifies the considerations of sample geometry for samples where the thickness is not much smaller than the diameter so that permeation from the side is significant. However, a large sample may put higher requirements to the mechanical assembly and seal.. These articles refer to ...
Changes in permeability due to changes in the state of stress in the reservoir during depletion arise because of the strain that results from the stress changes. This influences permeability around the producing well, as well as permeability throughout the depleted reservoir that affects future wells. Various models exist for coupling stress, strain, and permeability. The simplest models relate changes in stress relative to some reference value to changes in permeability. More complex models invoke the Kozeny equation in accounting for changes in porosity, tortuosity, and surface area. Previous work formulated a model that relates changes in permeability to changes in tortuosity due to grain rearrangement during consolidation that may be applied to any stress path with appropriate stress-strain coupling. In some cases, the hoop stress concentrations around a wellbore may cause the reservoir rock to fail in shear. This can cause either an increase or a decrease in permeability depending on if the ...
Digitonin permeabilized cell import assay. Complete import assays were carried out using HeLa cells permeabilized by incubation with digitonin. Cells were incub
article{31db6abf-6718-4296-bb2f-5f87a3ec55e0, abstract = {BACKGROUND: A standardised technique using a suction-induced mini-erosion that allows serial sampling of dermal interstitial fluid (IF) for 5 to 6 days has been described. In the present study, we studied permeability changes as a function of time. METHODS: We examined IF concentrations of total protein concentration and the concentration of insulin (6.6 kDa), prealbumin (55 kDa), albumin (66 kDa), transferrin (80 kDa), IgG (150 kDa) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (720 kDa) as a function of time, using an extraction pressure of 200 mmHg below atmospheric. RESULTS: At 0 h after forming the erosion, mean total IF protein content (relative to plasma) was 26 ± 13% (SD). For the individual proteins, the relative mean concentrations were 65 ± 36% for insulin, 48 ± 12% for albumin, 30 ± 19% for transferrin, 31 ± 15%for IgG and 19.5 ± 10% for alpha-2-macroglobulin. At 24 h, the total IF protein content was higher than at 0 h (56 ± 26% vs 26 ± ...
Multidrug antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious public health problem worldwide. Thus, there is a significant and urgent need for the development of new classes of antibiotics that do not induce resistance. To develop such antimicrobial compounds, we must look toward agents with novel mechanisms of action. Membrane-permeabilizing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are good candidates because they act without high specificity toward a protein target, which reduces the likelihood of induced resistance. Understanding the mechanism of membrane permeabilization is crucial for the development of AMPs into useful antimicrobial agents. Various models, some phenomenological and others more quantitative or semimolecular, have been proposed to explain the action of AMPs. While these models explain many aspects of AMP action, none of the models captures all of the experimental observations, and significant questions remain unanswered. Here, we discuss the state of the field and pose some questions ...
The rates at which biologically crucial molecules cross the cell membrane by permeation fluctuate through an unlimited array. Proteins and sugar polymers tend not to permeate in anyway; in distinction, drinking water and alcohols permeate most membranes in less than the usual second. This variation, precipitated because of the lipid bilayer, provides the membrane its attribute permeability. Permeability is calculated since the rate at which a particular substance in remedy crosses the membrane.For all mobile membranes that have been researched inside laboratory, permeability will increase in parallel along with the permeant?s capability to dissolve in natural and organic solvents. The consistency of the parallel has led scientists to conclude that permeability can be a operate with the fatty acid interior of the lipid bilayer, ?nstead of its phosphoryl exterior. This assets of dissolving in organic and natural solvents rather then drinking water is supplied a unit of measure identified as the ...
When unconventional resource plug samples can be tested for permeability, the pulse decay method provides a rapid, accurate result for very low permeability cores (down to approximately 1 nd). Measurements are made at representative confining stress up to 10,000 psi. Equipment designs are available for either gas or liquid flow and follow the improvements indicated by Jones in SPE 28450. Shale/mudrocks are often tested at as-received water saturation resulting in effective kg or effective ko. The method represents the key part of the combined-method, stationary-liquid, approach for relative permeability in tight gas sands (Dacy, SPE 135427). Generally the pulse decay method requires a fraction of the time needed by the steady-state plug method. Pulse Decay Permeability (plug) method: ...
and little understood separation of potassium within the cells and sodium in the serum and tissue fluids of the body suggested that the cell membrane might show a selective permeability for potassium. EXPERIMENTAL. Method. Human venous blood .
The magnetic permeability characterises the permeability or magnetic conductivity of materials. The relative permeability of vacuum is 1.
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From viruses to organelles, fusion of biological membranes is used by diverse biological systems to deliver macromolecules across membrane barriers. Membrane fusion is also a potentially efficient mechanism for the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics to the cellular cytoplasm. However, a key shortcoming of existing fusogenic liposomal systems is that they are inefficient, requiring a high concentration of fusion-promoting lipids in order to cross cellular membrane barriers ...
Hysteresis effects in two-phase flow in porous media are important in applications such as waterflooding or gas storage in sand aquifers. In this paper, we develop a numerical scheme for such a flow where the permeability hysteresis is modeled by a family of reversible scanning curves enclosed by irreversible imbibition and drainage permeability curves. The scheme is based on associated local Riemann solutions and can be viewed as a modi. cation of the classical Godunov method. The Riemann solutions necessary for the scheme are presented, as well as the criteria that guarantee the well-posedness of the Riemann problem with respect to perturbations of left and right states. The numerical and analytical results show strong influence of the permeability hysteresis on the flow. In addition, the numerical scheme accurately reproduces the available experimental data once hysteresis is taken into account in the model.