Three researchers from Caltech-Michael Elowitz, professor of biology and bioengineering, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and executive officer for biological engineering; Long Cai, research professor; and Carlos Lois, research professor-have received funding to create the Allen Discovery Center for Cell Lineage Tracing in collaboration with the University of Washington in Seattle and Harvard University. Support for the establishment of the center comes from the Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group, which will provide $10 million over four years with the potential for $30 million over eight years.. The goal of the Allen Center will be to use newly developed technologies to create global maps of cellular development, tracing cells as they divide, move, and differentiate throughout an organisms development, and revealing the relationships between the vast number of diverse cells that make up a single organism.. Last year, Elowitz and Cai collaborated on a gene-editing technique called ...
The somatic mutations present in the genome of a cell accumulate over the lifetime of a multicellular organism. These mutations can provide insights into the developmental lineage tree, the number of divisions that each cell has undergone and the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we describe whole genomes of clonal lines derived from multiple tissues of healthy mice. Using somatic base substitutions, we reconstructed the early cell divisions of each animal, demonstrating the contributions of embryonic cells to adult tissues. Differences were observed between tissues in the numbers and types of mutations accumulated by each cell, which likely reflect differences in the number of cell divisions they have undergone and varying contributions of different mutational processes. If somatic mutation rates are similar to those in mice, the results indicate that precise insights into development and mutagenesis of normal human cells will be possible.
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When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Genetic lineage tracing demonstrates in vivo reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cellsa, Quantification of FACS analyses for Thy1+ cells
The BAP1 tumor suppressor is mutated in many human cancers such as uveal melanoma, leading to poor patient outcome. It remains unclear how BAP1 functions in normal biology or how its loss promotes cancer progression. Here, we show that Bap1 is critical for commitment to ectoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest lineages during Xenopus laevis development. Bap1 loss causes transcriptional silencing and failure of H3K27ac to accumulate at promoters of key genes regulating pluripotency-to-commitment transition, similar to findings in uveal melanoma. The Bap1-deficient phenotype can be rescued with human BAP1, by pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity or by specific knockdown of Hdac4. Similarly, BAP1-deficient uveal melanoma cells are preferentially vulnerable to HDAC4 depletion. These findings show that Bap1 regulates lineage commitment through H3K27ac-mediated transcriptional activation, at least in part, by modulation of Hdac4, and they provide insights into how BAP1 loss ...
From Cell Stem CellBy Stuart P. Atkinson Direct conversion of one somatic cell to another somatic cell type, completely bypassing the pluripotent stage through the forced expression of lineage specific transcription factors has emerged as a large
The present study will contribute not only to progress in regenerative medicine, but also to basic liver biology. Between 2013 and 2014, there was a sensational finding in liver biology4-7. In liver with chronic injury, proliferating LPCs are often observed both in humans and rodents. Given that MHs decrease their proliferative capacity during continuous injury, it was believed for several decades that chronic injury activates the proliferation of a small population of LPCs which are kept dormant in normal livers. Contrary to this hypothesis, recent studies have demonstrated that such LPCs are derived from MHs which are reprogrammed during regeneration under chronic liver injury4-7. Our in vitro study has provided direct evidence for this observation. In addition, considering that in vitro experimental setting makes it easier to manipulate gene expression (e.g. knockdown / overexpression) or intracellular signaling activity (e.g. pathway inhibition), our study may help mechanistic understanding ...
Considerable knowledge of the ontogeny of the endocrine pancreas has been gained in recent years, mainly through the use of two complementary genetic approaches in transgenic mice: gene inactivation...
I am posting this for Wolfgang Driever (driever at ruf.uni-freiburg.de ) ********************************************************************* Applications are invited for participation at the EMBO Practical Course on DEVELOPMENT, GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF ZEBRAFISH AND MEDAKA March 20-29, 1998, Biologie 1, Freiburg, FRG Organized by: W. Driever, M. Schartl, A. Shima, M. Westerfield EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME * Maintenance of zebrafish and medaka, embryo culture * Embryonic stem cells and chimera production * Production of genetic mosaics by cell transplantation, cell lineage tracing * Gene expression analysis by whole mount in-situ hybridization * Gene transfer by microinjection into the cytoplasm of early embryos and into the oocyte nucleus * Overexpression utilizing synthetic mRNAs * Ploidy manipulation * Mutagenesis screens * Genetic mapping LECTURE PROGRAMME Strategies for mutagenesis screens Genetic mapping and positional cloning strategies Mesoderm development Development of the nervous system ...
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is secreted by a certain subset of CD4+ T cells, called T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, also characterized by the expression of CXCR5 and ICOS and the lineage-specific transcription factor BCL6. But IL-21 production can also be found in other T helper (Tʜ) cell lineages and natural killer T (NKT) cells. IL-21 acts in a autocrine manner on Tfh cells and is critical for antibody production by B cells, it enhances natural killer (NK) cell functions, and promotes proliferation of CD8+ T cells. - Nederland
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
As a model system, they are using embryonic stem (ES) cells to evaluate the role of Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell fate decisions. Signaling through the Notch pathway is critical for appropriate cell fate specification during a variety of developmental processes. The unique capacity of Notch to function both as a cell-surface receptor and transcriptional regulator provides a mechanism by which cell-cell interactions can directly influence gene expression in neighboring cells. This direct communication between cells has two important effects: promoting the self-renewal of uncommitted progenitors and directing equipotent progenitors in the same microenvironmental context to adopt distinct cell fates ...
The immune system may be divided into populations of cells that are functionally and kinetically distinct: long-lived progenitor cells with the capacity to produce many progeny and end-stage effector cells destined to die quickly. As is the case in epithelial tissues or the remainder of the hematopoietic system, progenitor cells are necessary for the maintenance of tissue mass in the face of continuous loss of differentiated progeny. T cell progenitors are found at varying levels of the differentiation tree and include multilineage hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, T lineage-restricted progenitors in the thymus, and naive and "true memory" T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, such as spleen and lymph nodes. In vivo studies in rodents have documented the presence of kinetically distinct subpopulations of T cells, including long-lived populations of cells that retain tritiated thymidine (26, 27), but analogous T cell subpopulations had not previously been demonstrated in humans. ...
Tuomela S, Rautio S, Ahlfors H, Öling V, Salo V, Ullah U, Chen Z, Hämälistö S, Tripathi SK, Äijö T, Rasool O, Soueidan H, Wessels L, Stockinger B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2016) Comparative analysis of human and mouse transcriptomes of Th17 cell priming. Oncotarget. 7(12):13416-28.. Kanduri K, Tripathi S, Larjo A, Mannerström H, Ullah U, Lund R, Hawkins RD, Ren B, Lähdesmäki H, Lahesmaa R. (2015) Identification of global regulators of T-helper cell lineage specification. Genome Med. 7:122. Heinonen MT, Laine AP, Söderhäll C, Gruzieva O, Rautio S, Melén E, Pershagen G, Lähdesmäki HJ, Knip M, Ilonen J, Henttinen TA, Kere J, Lahesmaa R; Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Registry. (2015) GIMAP GTPase family genes: potential modifiers in autoimmune diabetes, asthma, and allergy. J Immunol. 194(12):5885-94.. Moulder R, Bhosale SD, Erkkilä T, Laajala E, Salmi J, Nguyen EV, Kallionpää H, Mykkänen J, Vähä-Mäkilä M, Hyöty H, Veijola R, Ilonen J, Simell T, Toppari J, Knip M, Goodlett ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
In this new paper Itay tested OSKM trans-differenitation method using genetic lineage tracing for expression of endogenous Nanog and Oct4 and for X chromosome reactivation. He found that the vast majority of reprogrammed cardiomyocytes or neural stem cells obtained from mouse fibroblasts by this method pass through a transient pluripotent state, and that their derivation is molecularly coupled to iPSC formation mechanisms.. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Cell Lineage and Developmental Studies in Hearing and Balance (R01) PA-07-127. NIDCD
Русская база знаний Lineage II, все Lineage II - квесты, описания, прохождения, статьи, вещи, классы, пособия, Lineage 2 по-русски, квесты руоффа, база знаний руоффа, локализация Lineage 2.
Molecular profile of CD34-lineage- cells differentiated with IL-15 plus IL-21. Panel A: Molecular features of cytokine-differentiated CD34-lineage- cells. The e
Hematopoietic cells have been reported to convert into a number of non-hematopoietic cells types after transplantation/injury. Here, we have used a lineage tracing approach to determine whether hematopoietic plasticity is relevant for the normal deve
Software lineages arise through purchase and reproduction. Lineages are tracked by storing lineage-relevant information in variable regions of software instances and/or in a central database according to methods disclosed.
Function: May play a role in the response to environmental stress. Appears to act upstream of the JUN N-terminal pathway. May play a role in hematopoietic lineage decisions and growth regulation ...
I thought you might be interested in looking at ZTE Axon 7 Lineage OS 14.1 High Res Output not working.. https://forum.powerampapp.com/topic/10038-zte-axon-7-lineage-os-141-high-res-output-not-working/?do=findComment&comment=38952 ...
What is the difference between Fate and Destiny? Fate is believed to be inevitable and unchangeable whereas destiny can be changed by an individual.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess two fundamental characteristics, the capacity for self-renewal and the sustained production of all blood cell lineages. The fine balance between HSC expansion and lineage specification is dynamically regulated by the interplay between external and internal stimuli. This review introduces recent advances in the roles played by the stem cell niche, regulatory transcriptional networks, and metabolic pathways in governing HSC self-renewal, commitment, and lineage differentiation. We will further focus on discoveries made by studying hematopoiesis at single-cell resolution. RECENT FINDINGS: HSCs require the support of an interactive milieu with their physical position within the perivascular niche dynamically regulating HSC behavior. In these microenvironments, transcription factor networks and nutrient-mediated regulation of energy resources, signaling pathways, and epigenetic status govern HSC quiescence and differentiation. Once HSCs begin ...
CiteWeb id: 20050000212. CiteWeb score: 2801. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2005.01.016. Regulatory T cell-mediated dominant tolerance has been demonstrated to play an important role in the prevention of autoimmunity. Here, we present data arguing that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 acts as the regulatory T cell lineage specification factor and mediator of the genetic mechanism of dominant tolerance. We show that expression of Foxp3 is highly restricted to the subset αβ of T cells and, irrespective of CD25 expression, correlates with suppressor activity. Induction of Foxp3 expression in nonregulatory T cells does not occur during pathogen-driven immune responses, and Foxp3 deficiency does not impact the functional responses of nonregulatory T cells. Furthermore, T cell-specific ablation of Foxp3 is sufficient to induce the identical early onset lymphoproliferative syndrome observed in Foxp3-deficient mice. Analysis of Foxp3 expression during thymic development suggests that this mechanism is ...
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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Ascl1+ progenitors did not significantly generate RGCs at any time point. Although we cannot formally rule out that a biologically relevant, rare RGC subtype(s) derives from the Ascl1 lineage, our data strongly argue against this possibility. First, Ascl1-GFP and pan-Brn3 co-expression data suggests that this putative subtype would have to be exceedingly rare during development (one cell or fewer per retina) (binomial distribution, P,0.00001, see Table S5 in the supplementary material). Second, whereas Brn3a/b/c expression might not label all ganglion cell subtypes (Badea and Nathans, 2011), retrograde dextran uptake labels all RGCs; nonetheless, we did not observe a significant number of Brn3+ or dextran-labeled RGCs in the Ascl1 lineage.. Retroviral lineage-tracing studies have shown that all seven retinal cell types derive from a common progenitor population (Turner and Cepko, 1987; Turner et al., 1990). However, throughout most of retinal development, several cell types are being formed ...
With the work in this thesis I have aimed to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms behind the development of different blood cell lineages with a specific focus on B cell development.. To understand the interplay between extracellular signaling and transcription factor networks in early lymphoid development we investigated the functional collaborations of FLT3 and IL7R. We found that signaling via FLT3 and IL7R act in powerful synergy on proliferation of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). In addition to a role in expansion of progenitor cells we provided evidence for that IL7R signaling play a crucial role in B-cell commitment. IL7 deficient mice display a dramatic block in development before functional lineage restriction in the Ly6D+ CLP-compartment. The few Ly6D+CLPs that do develop have reduced mRNA levels of transcription factor EBF1, a protein with crucial functions in lineage restriction and activation of the B-lymphoid program. One crucial function of EBF1 is to activate Pax5. Even ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stomach Organ and Cell Lineage Differentiation. T2 - From Embryogenesis to Adult Homeostasis. AU - Willet, Spencer G.. AU - Mills, Jason C.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecular-cellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we highlight the current state of the literature relating to specification of gastric cell lineages from embryogenesis to adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on substantial gaps in knowledge about stomach specification that we think should be tackled to advance the field. For example, it has long been assumed that adult gastric units have a granule-free stem cell that gives rise to all ...
The present study uses highly purified T cells, Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, and analyses at the cellular and molecular level to reexamine the paradigm of local immune privilege in the eye. Our current data considerably extend what has been known about the suppressive ability of ocular fluids and provide new information on the likely fate of a T cell that enters the eye and undergoes TCR ligation in the ocular environment. The entire differentiation program for Th1 as well as for Th17 was shut down and diverted toward de novo Foxp3+ Treg induction. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of STAT1 and its target, the Th1 lineage-specific transcription factor T-bet, were both inhibited, phosphorylation of STAT3, which is triggered by IL-6R ligation and induces the Th17 lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt (29), was not affected, and neither was expression of IL-6Rα. This suggests that inhibition of RORγt by AH was not through the IL-6-induced STAT3 pathway. Because Foxp3 was shown to bind to ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes ...
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We originally defined Lgr5 as a Wnt target gene, transcribed in colon cancer cells. Two knock-in alleles revealed exclusive expression of Lgr5 in cycling, columnar cells at the crypt base. Using an inducible Cre knock-in allele and the Rosa26-LacZ reporter strain, lineage tracing experiments were performed in adult mice. The Lgr5+ve crypt base columnar cells (CBC) generated all epithelial lineages throughout life, implying that it represents the stem cell of the small intestine and colon. Similar obserations were made in hair follicles and stomach epithelium.. Single sorted Lgr5+ve stem cells can initiate ever-expanding crypt-villus organoids in 3D culture. Tracing experiments indicate that the Lgr5+ve stem cell hierarchy is maintained in these organoids. We conclude that intestinal crypt-villus units are self-organizing structures, which can be built from a single stem cell in the absence of a non-epithelial ...
Lineage determination is an important part of the analysis of viral sequence data. Previously this has depended on phylogenetic analysis in order to identify distinct clades within the phylogenetic trees. This method is time consuming and dependent on a set of empirical rules for clade identification. An alternative approach is to use clustering. Clustering is commonly used to identify operational taxonomic units in next generation sequencing data. In this paper we use clustering in order to rapidly identify viral segment lineages and clades without the need for tree construction.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lineage determination in mixed phenotype acute leukemia. T2 - Response to marcondes et al.. AU - Fuda, Franklin. AU - Chen, Weina. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84898544513&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84898544513&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. DO - 10.1002/cyto.b.21159. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24470224. AN - SCOPUS:84898544513. VL - 86. SP - 150. EP - 151. JO - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. JF - Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry. SN - 1552-4949. IS - 3. ER - ...
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A Neuronal lineage marker is an endogenous tag that is expressed in different cells along neurogenesis and differentiated cells such as neurons. It allows detection and identification of cells by using different techniques. A neuronal lineage marker can be either DNA, mRNA or RNA expressed in a cell of interest. It can also be a protein tag, as a partial protein, a protein or an epitope that discriminates between different cell types or different states of a common cell. An ideal marker is specific to a given cell type in normal conditions and/or during injury. Cell markers are very valuable tools for examining the function of cells in normal conditions as well as during disease. The discovery of various proteins specific to certain cells led to the production of cell-type-specific antibodies that have been used to identify cells. The techniques used for its detection can be immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, methods that utilize transcriptional modulators and site-specific recombinases ...
As described above, gene knockout approaches have so far provided insights into the roles of the epigenetic machinery in regulating lineage choice and later in lineage maintenance during T-lymphocyte development. Despite an assumption of dramatic effects because of their global roles in gene regulation, a lack of one factor does not result in an apparent developmental arrest or severe lineage skewing in most cases. It is likely that this reflects redundant functions among related factors and pathways, which in turn secure robustness in regulating lineage-specific gene programmes. The majority of the factors described above have at least one homologue or functionally similar molecule, which may compensate and mask the true impact of a single ablated repressive pathway. In addition, there is an alternative possibility that co-activators and co-repressors recruited directly by transcription factors are sufficient to guide cells to their appropriate lineages. If that is the case, what is the role of ...
Martti Ahtisaari discusses his life and work as a worldwide peacemaker and the challenges that face peace negotiators in todays conflict zones. In summary, although all MED KO mice are embryonic lethal, they die at totally different developmental phases with distinctive phenotypes, suggesting important and particular roles for particular person Mediator subunits throughout growth. General, as a grasp coordinator, Mediator coordinates transcription and cell lineage specification/improvement to ensure that the correct genes are expressed at the right time and place and with the required intensity and period. Since a mediator is neutral, unhealthy information from the mediator is generally not met with the identical reactive devaluation as would greet that same dangerous news if damaged by a litigation adversary.. Following his/her appointment, the mediator will contact the parties or their counsel to repair a date for the holding of the primary assembly. Then again, Mediator can leverage Observer ...
Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion hybrids, but almost exclusively in response to injuries or inflammation.
We agree with Tang et al7 that "…the fate of mature or contractile SMCs" requires direct in vivo lineage tracing. Although Nemenoff et al11 did not provide data elucidating the ultimate fate of phenotypically modulated SMCs, neither did Tang et al,7 despite their claims. Surprisingly, Tang et al7 only presented data at a single 5-day time point after wire injury in their smMHCCre/eGFP Rosa26-EGFP mice (Figure 7D and Online Figure XIV in Tang et al7), and then, for reasons that are not clear, they switch to use of nonlineage tracing rats for all subsequent time points. Because the authors do not analyze cell fates beyond 5 days of injury and because their lineage tracing mouse is noninducible such that any cell that transiently expresses SM MHC will activate their lineage tracing gene and be labeled, they cannot draw any conclusions as to whether or not resident differentiated medial SMCs contributed to vascular remodeling after wire injury. In addition, it is unclear whether Tang et al7 ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
Two defining characteristics of stem cells are their multilineage differentiation potential (multipotency or pluripotency) and their capacity for self-renewal. Growth factors are well-established regulators of stem cell ...
Heterokaryons provide a model system in which to examine how tissue-specific phenotypes arise and are maintained. When muscle cells are fused with nonmuscle cells, muscle gene expression is activated in the nonmuscle cell type. Gene expression was studied either at a single cell level with monoclonal antibodies or in mass cultures at a biochemical and molecular level. In all of the nonmuscle cell types tested, including representatives of different embryonic lineages, phenotypes, and developmental stages, muscle gene expression was induced. Differences among cell types in the kinetics, frequency, and gene dosage requirements for gene expression provide clues to the underlying regulatory mechanisms. These results show that the expression of genes in the nuclei of differentiated cells is remarkably plastic and susceptible to modulation by the cytoplasm. The isolation of the genes encoding the tissue-specific trans-acting regulators responsible for muscle gene activation should now be possible. ...
A robust protocol to monitor neural populations by time-lapse video-microscopy followed by software-based post-processing is described. ...
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...