CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β regulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 expression in porcine liver during prenatal and postnatal ...
Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates nutrient signaling to regulate cell growth, proliferation, and diverse cellular differentiation. It has been reported that rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR and an immunosuppressant, blocks adipocyte differentiation, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we show that mTOR plays a critical role in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and that mTOR kinase activity is required for this process. Rapamycin specifically disrupted the positive transcriptional feedback loop between CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), two key transcription factors in adipogenesis, by directly targeting the transactivation activity of PPAR-gamma. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that PPAR-gamma activity is dependent on amino acid sufficiency, ...
TNF-a was originally identified as a macrophage product implicated in the metabolic disturbances of chronic inflammation and malignancy. Later on, its biological actions were shown to further extend to anorexia, weight loss, and insulin resistance (7). Elevated adipose tissue expression of TNF-a mRNA has been reported in different rodent models of obesity as well as in clinical studies involving obese patients (23). TNF-a mRNA expression is positively correlated with body adiposity as well as with hyperinsulinemia, showing positive associations with fasting insulin and triglyceride concentrations. TNF-a inhibits the expression of the transcription factor CCAAT/ enhancer binding protein-a (CEBPa) and the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)y2 (8,12,14). Furthermore, TNF-a stimulates the nuclear factor- kB transcription factor (NFkB), which orchestrates a series of inflammatory events, including expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of both endothelial cells ...
TransAM C/EBP α/β Kits are DNA binding ELISAs that quantify the activated transcription factors using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
Choi B.H., Park G.T., Rho H.M. (1999). Interaction of hepatitis B viral X protein and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha synergistically activates the hepatitis B viral enhancer II/pregenomic promoter.. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 2858 - 2865. PubMed DOI:10.1074/jbc.274.5.2858 ...
Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Species, Research Topics, Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
TRIB2兔多克隆抗体(ab84683)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Stress responses are critical for estrogen (E2) to induce apoptosis in E2-deprived breast cancer cells. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is well known as a therapeutic target to prevent stress responses in chronic inflammatory diseases including cancer. However, whether E2 activates NF-κB to participate in stress-associated apoptosis in E2-deprived breast cancer cells is unclear. We demonstrated that E2 differentially modulates NF-κB activity in E2-deprived breast cancer cells according to the treatment time. Because E2 initially has significant potential to down modulate the NF-κB activation, it completely suppresses the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced NF-κB activation. We found that E2 preferentially and constantly enhances the expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) which is responsible for suppression of NF-κB activation by E2 in MCF-7:5C cells. The mTOR signaling pathway promotes repression of NF-κB by C/EBPβ which is confirmed by ...
Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections, defective neutrophil chemotaxis and bactericidal activity, and lack of neutrophil secondary granule proteins. It has been linked to a defect in the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) epsilon. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in SMARCD2 were identified from SGD patients. SMARCD2 is chromatin-remodeling factor, that interacts with CEBP epsilon ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigating protein-protein interactions in living cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. AU - Sun, Yuansheng. AU - Day, Richard. AU - Periasamy, Ammasi. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is now routinely used for dynamic measurements of signaling events inside living cells, including detection of protein-protein interactions. An understanding of the basic physics of fluorescence lifetime measurements is required to use this technique. In this protocol, we describe both the time-correlated single photon counting and the frequency-domain methods for FLIM data acquisition and analysis. We describe calibration of both FLIM systems, and demonstrate how they are used to measure the quenched donor fluorescence lifetime that results from FÃ ¶rster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We then show how the FLIM-FRET methods are used to detect the dimerization of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-Î ± in ...
ABSTRACT: Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is now routinely used for dynamic measurements of signaling events inside living cells, including detection of protein-protein interactions. An understanding of the basic physics of fluorescence lifetime measurements is required to use this technique. In this protocol, we describe both the time-correlated single photon counting and the frequency-domain methods for FLIM data acquisition and analysis. We describe calibration of both FLIM systems, and demonstrate how they are used to measure the quenched donor fluorescence lifetime that results from F?rster resonance energy transfer. We then show how the FLIM-FRET methods are used to detect the dimerization of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein-a in live mouse pituitary cell nuclei. Notably, the factors required for accurate determination and reproducibility of lifetime measurements are described. With either method, the entire protocol including specimen preparation, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation-induced gene expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. T2 - CCAAT/enhancer binding protein interacts with and activates the promoters of two adipocyte-specific genes.. AU - Christy, R. J.. AU - Yang, V. W.. AU - Ntambi, J. M.. AU - Geiman, D. E.. AU - Landschulz, W. H.. AU - Friedman, A. D.. AU - Nakabeppu, Y.. AU - Kelly, T. J.. AU - Lane, M. D.. PY - 1989/9. Y1 - 1989/9. N2 - Previous studies have shown that differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes leads to the transcriptional activation of a group of adipose-specific genes. As an approach to defining the mechanism responsible for activating the expression of these genes, we investigated the binding of nuclear factors to the promoters of two differentiation-induced genes, the 422(aP2) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) genes. DNase I footprinting and gel retardation analysis identified two binding regions within the promoters of each gene that interact with nuclear factors present in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein zeta (mouse, aa620-633) Antibody (internal region), Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody validated in WB, E (AF3888a), Abgent
In this work, we have shown that the transcription factor C/EBPβ directly regulates the expression of the C3 gene, and that this control could be relevant for the pro-inflammatory effects of this transcription factor. By microarray analysis and RT-PCR we showed that the hippocampal content of C3 transcripts was depleted in C/EBPβ −/− mice. The analysis of the C3 promoter showed that this gene was directly induced by C/EBPβ through a C/EBPβ consensus site located at −616/-599 position from the transcription start site. In accordance with these data, LPS induced the expression of C3 in glial cells, at least in part, through the induction of C/EBPβ since the repression of LPS-induction of C/EBPβ by shRNA interference blocked C3 increase. On the contrary, C/EBPβ overexpression by transient transfection induced C3 expression. Additionally, treatment of these cultures with LPS induced the levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β and COX-2, which were significantly reduced in those ...
CEBPD (C/EBP delta) is a member of the CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors characterized by a b-Zip domain that mediates dimerization and DNA binding. CEBPD is induced in response to acute stressors such as cytokine stimulation, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), corticosteroids, radiation and hypoxia. We have previously reported that CEBPD has dual functions in breast cancer by both attenuating or enhancing oncogenic pathways depending on context (Balamurugan and Sterneck, 2013, Mendoza-Villanueva et al., 2016). Recent studies reveal that elevated Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the pathology of several diseases including cancer. Limiting supply of nutrients and oxygen in growing tumor cells disrupts the protein folding homeostasis resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR includes pathways that support adaptation to stress, and that are also implicated in promoting malignant features and therapy resistance ...
The transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is a master regulator of granulopoiesis and regulates the switch between proliferating, uncommitted progenitors and cell-cycle-arrested, differentiated myeloid cells. Usage of two alternative translation initiation sites in the CEBPA mRNA results in expression of a full-length C/EBPα protein p42 (42 kDa) and a shorter p30 isoform (30 kDa). CEBPA mutations are found in 9-15% of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients. N-terminal frameshift mutations in the CEBPA gene lead to selective ablation of p42 expression, while C-terminal mutations disrupt the dimerization and DNA-binding ability of C/EBPα. AML patients harbor either mono- or biallelic CEBPA mutations (CEBPAmo or CEBPAbi) and both genotypes are frequently associated with concurrent mutations in other genes. The most commonly co-occurring mutations in both groups are loss-of-function mutations in the methylcytosine dioxygenase TET2 (44.4% in CEBPAmo / 34.8% in CEBPAbi). ...
Pharmacodynamic studies, including micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA)-181 family and target gene expression, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha gene (CEBPA) expression, and genes involved in erythroid ...
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Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. It is a calcium-independent and phospholipids-dependent protein kinase. It is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and has been shown to reside specifically in the cell nucleus. This protein kinase can regulate keratinocyte differentiation by activating the MAP kinase MAPK13 (p38delta)-activated protein kinase cascade that targets CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA). It is also found to mediate the transcription ...
The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor, which was first identified as a regulator of differentiation and inflammatory processes mainly in adipose tissue and liver; however, its function in the brain was largely unknown for many years. Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that C/EBPβ is implicated in inflammatory process and brain injury, since mice lacking this gene were less susceptible to kainic acid-induced injury. We first performed cDNA microarrays analysis using hippocampal RNA isolated from C/EBPβ +/+ and C/EBPβ −/− mice. Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies were done to evaluate C/EBPβ and C3 levels. Transient transfection experiments were made to analyze transcriptional regulation of C3 by C/EBPβ. To knockdown C/EBPβ and C3 expression, mouse astrocytes were infected with lentiviral particles expressing an shRNA specific for C/EBPβ or an siRNA specific for C3. Among the genes displaying
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Having analysed data with TRANSFAC system, we may assume that the disturbed attachment of such factors as (C/EBP(CCAAT enhancer binding protein) Hoxa-3,Sp1 (serine protease inhibitor) or GATA-1, (GATA nucleotide sequence) may have an impact on IGF-1 protein synthesis, but we did not observed any significant correlation between promoter P1 polymorphism and serum IGF-1 levels ...
Complete information for C4BPA gene (Protein Coding), Complement Component 4 Binding Protein Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Background The up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) has frequently been observed in macrophages in age-associated disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the role of macrophage CEBPD in the pathogenesis of RA is unclear. Methodology and Principal Findings We found that the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) score and the number of affected paws in Cebpd−/− mice were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type (WT) mice. The histological analysis revealed an attenuated CIA in Cebpd−/− mice, as shown by reduced pannus formation and greater integrity of joint architecture in affected paws of Cebpd−/− mice compared with WT mice. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed decreased pannus proliferation and angiogenesis in Cebpd−/− mice compared with WT mice. CEBPD activated in macrophages played a functional role in promoting the tube formation of endothelial cells and the migration and proliferation of synoviocytes. In vivo DNA
CEBPA mutations in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: data analysis in a Chinese population Long Su, SuJun Gao, XiaoLiang Liu, YeHui Tan, Lu Wang, Wei Li Cancer Center, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Peoples Republic of China Background: This study was aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and prognoses of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with CEBPA mutations. Patients and methods: Three hundred and forty-five patients with de novo AML were retrospectively analyzed with regard to CEBPA mutations, clinical characteristics, therapeutic responses, and long-term outcomes. Results: CEBPA mutations were detected in 59 patients (17.10%), with 47 cases harboring double mutations and 12 cases harboring single mutations. In those with a normal karyotype (NK), 44 cases (25.29%) were detected with CEBPA mutations. The following characteristics were observed in CEBPA-mutated patients: most (66.10%) of them were M1 or M2; they presented with higher peripheral white blood
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (CEBPD) is expressed in hypoxic kidney tubular cells in vivo. (a) Mice were exposed to 8% O2 for 6 h using a hypoxia chamber
Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which PPARδ agonists control expression of 14-3-3ε, a key antiinflammatory protein in endothelial cells.12 Our data not only provide evidence that PPARδ modulates expression of YWHAE gene and 14-3-3ε protein under resting conditions but also demonstrate that this nuclear receptor upregulates 14-3-3ε expression by targeting transcription via a PPRE-independent pathway involving colocalization of C/EBPβ and PPARδ on YWHAE promoter. Several lines of evidence support these conclusions. First, PPARδ agonists regulated YWHAE promoter activity in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Concordantly, YWHAE promoter was upregulated by PPARδ overexpression, whereas specific PPARγ and PPARα ligands had no effect on YWHAE promoter under our experimental conditions. Second, PPARδ activation increased 14-3-3ε mRNA and protein expression in both primary and spontaneously transformed endothelial cell lines, whereas PPARδ knockdown depressed basal and ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [D Venturelli, R Martinez, P Melotti, I Casella, C Peschle, C Cucco, G Spampinato, Z Darzynkiewicz, B Calabretta].
The transcription factor C/EBP? is required for regulation of the balance between differentiation and proliferation during the early stages of myelopoiesis. The...
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Liver is a unique tissue which is able to regenerate in response to partial hepatectomy (PH) and after injury. My laboratory investigates the role of transcript...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon, also known as CEBPE and CRP1, is a type of ccaat-enhancer-binding protein. CEBPE is its human gene and is pro-apoptotic. The protein encoded by this gene is a bZIP transcription factor which can bind as a homodimer to certain DNA regulatory regions. It can also form heterodimers with the related protein CEBP-δ. The encoded protein may be essential for terminal differentiation and functional maturation of committed granulocyte progenitor cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with specific granule deficiency, a rare congenital disorder. Multiple variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of only one has been determined. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000092067 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000052435 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CEBPE CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon". Antonson P, Stellan B, Yamanaka R, ...
A recent paper in Nature Medicine showed that Down syndrome brains have reduced expression of Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) and identified C/EBP beta as a transcription factor for SNX27. Down syndrome results in overexpression of miR-155, a chromosome 21-encoded microRNA that negatively regulates C/EBP beta, thereby reducing SNX27 expression. SNX27 is a brain-enriched […]. ...
Principal Investigator:YAMADA Michiyuki, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Functional biochemistry
G protein alpha S兔多克隆抗体(ab97629)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
TY - JOUR. T1 - A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB (ABIN1) controls Toll-like receptor-mediated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β activation and protects from inflammatory disease. AU - Zhou, Jingran. AU - Wu, Ruiqiong. AU - High, Anthony A.. AU - Slaughter, Clive A.. AU - Finkelstein, David. AU - Rehg, Jerold E.. AU - Redecke, Vanessa. AU - Häcker, Hans. PY - 2011/11/1. Y1 - 2011/11/1. N2 - Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on innate immune cells and trigger inflammation upon detection of pathogens and host tissue injury. TLR-mediated proinflammatory-signaling pathways are counteracted by partially characterized anti-inflammatory mechanisms that prevent exaggerated inflammation and host tissue damage as manifested in inflammatory diseases. We biochemically identified a component of TLR-signaling pathways, A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB (ABIN1), which recently has been linked by genome-wide association studies to the inflammatory diseases systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis. We ...
Amelogenin gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during enamel biomineralization. Studies show that C/EBP alpha is a transactivator of the mouse amelogenin gene acting at the C/EBP alpha cis-element located in the -70/+52 minimal promoter that also contains a reversed CCAAT box (-58/-54). Similar to the C/EBP alpha binding site, this CCAAT box is required for the basal promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that NF-Y is directly bound to this reversed CCAAT box. Co-transfection of C/EBP alpha and NF-Y synergistically increases the promoter activity. Protein-protein interactions between C/EBP alpha with NF-Y are identified by a co-immunoprecipitation analysis.; A protein/DNA array technique is utilized to identify a transcriptional factor named YY1. YY1 represses both the basal amelogenin promoter activity and C/EBP alpha-mediated transactivation. Furthermore, YY1 repression is independent of its DNA binding capacity.; C/EBP alpha contains four highly ...
Lexpressió cortical androgen dependent del KAP està afectada en hipotiroïdisme postnatal. La síntesi puntual de T3 a partir del dia 11 postnatal, comença una resposta cortical feble de KAP que va augmentant cap als dies 15-16, que és quan es produeix un pic fisiològic de T4 i el desenvolupament puberal dels ratolins. Donat que les CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) participen en respostes mitjançades per T3 i que en el promotor del KAP existeixen quatre elements de resposta consens per a C/EBPs, hem analitzat la seva participació en la resposta androgènica de KAP mitjançada per T3. La detecció de p42C/EBPa y p35C/EBPb es troba correlacionada amb lexpressió del KAP, apareixent en extractes renal nuclears de ratolins masles control i hipotiroïdals induïts amb T3 durant els dies 7-21 postnatals, però no en els hipotiroïdals no tractats. Mitjançant transfeccions transitòries es mostrava com C/EBPa i C/EBPb eren capaces dinduir respostes màximes del promotor del KAP i que ...
Cebpa - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN303099G1|/strong|, Cebpa gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system. C/EBPβ, one of C/EBPs is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH ...
Adipocytes play an important role in energy storage and metabolism. Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. It is controlled by complex actions involving gene expression and signal transduction. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life in adipose tissues and can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes according to the energy balance. The proliferation and differentiation of these preadipocytes contribute to increases in adipose tissue mass. In vitro study indicates that different tissue-derived preadipocytes exhibit differently in lipid accumulation, adipogenic transcription factor expression, and TNF?-induced apoptosis. It has also been demonstrated that there is a close relationship between adipocyte differentiation and many physiological and pathological processes including fat metabolism, energy balance, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and breast cancer. HPA-s from Bioarray Research ...
S100 Protein Alpha, Beta antibody LS-C657333 is a PE-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human S100 Protein Alpha, Beta. Validated for ELISA and WB.
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The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has previously been shown to facilitate adipocyte differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and enhancing the transactivation by the adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP). We show here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor pivotal for adipogenesis, promotes adipocyte differentiation more efficiently in the absence of RB. PPARgamma and RB were shown to coimmunoprecipitate, and this PPARgamma-RB complex also contains the histone deacetylase HDAC3, thereby attenuating PPARgammas capacity to drive gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. Dissociation of the PPARgamma-RB-HDAC3 complex by RB phosphorylation or by inhibition of HDAC activity stimulates adipocyte differentiation. These observations underscore an important function of both RB and HDAC3 in fine-tuning PPARgamma activity and adipocyte differentiation.. Keywords: Thiazolidinediones. ...
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab3522 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P…G Protein alpha Inhibitor 1+2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
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Another study applying ChIP-seq for two different TFs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α) in the livers of five vertebrates species provides an alternative view of conservation of TF-binding events (Schmidt et al., 2010). This work demonstrated that the majority of binding events are species specific, rather than consistently localized in conserved regions. Binding to conserved sequences in one species was rarely indicative of binding to the homologous sequence in others. These differences in binding were consistently observed between human and mouse in the livers of both species, and also in the livers of aneuploid mice harbouring human chromosome 21. Binding to the human chromosome in mouse was representative of binding to the endogenous chromosome in human, rather than binding to mouse chromosomes (Wilson et al., 2008) (Fig. 4). The differences in binding between species are therefore unlikely to be due to non-equivalence in the assayed tissue. Similarly, ...