Effects of two lipid sources as a supplement on the growth and chemical composition of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822 ...
The present study demonstrates that all three pathways for urea production, argininolysis, uricolysis and the OUC, are expressed during early development of C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present finding (Fig.2) that urea accumulates in C. gariepinus larvae also suggests that the relatively high rates of urea excretion observed previously (Terjesen et al., 1997) represent metabolically produced urea. When the excretion data of Terjesen et al. (Terjesen et al., 1997) are employed, it can be estimated that urea accumulation accounts for less than 10% of total urea production (urea-N accumulation + excretion). Nevertheless, urea-N concentrations in fed C. gariepinus larvae are higher than in adult C. gariepinus tissues (Fig.2B), and two- to 10-fold higher than in rainbow trout and Atlantic cod larvae at first-feeding (Wright et al., 1995; Chadwick and Wright, 1999).. This is the first study to report expression of the uricolytic enzymes in early life stages of a teleost. Recently, Vigetti et al. ...
P450 aromatase is the key enzyme that converts aromatizable androgens to estrogens. It is coded by the gene that exists in two forms: ovarian type and..
Fulltext - Combined Effect of Origanum majorana and Sodium Acetate on the Quality Attributes of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Patties During Refrigerated Storage
The supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) of fish oil was studied using the viscera and skin of African catfish as a raw material and the CO2 as supercritical fluid solvent. A central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction variables. The response variable (Y) oil yield was executed against the four independent variables namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and the soaking time. The statistical analysis showed, pressure was the most significant linear factor on oil yield. Furthermore, the oil yield was varied with the interaction effects of pressure, temperature and flow rate. Optimum points were obtained within the studied variables range at 65°C temperature, 35 MPa pressure, 2.6 mL/min flow rate and 3.6 h soaking time with maximum oil yield 66.96 and 40.6% from viscera and skin, respectively. The principal fatty acids in terms of concentration were oleic and docosahexaenoic acids respectively. The main objective of ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as components of innate immunity system have been isolated from fish and other species. In this study, the crude proteins extracted with gradient ammonium sulfate...
An investigation was conducted to identify the allochthonous microbiota (entire intestine) and the autochthonous microbiota in proximal intestine (PI) and distal intestine (DI) of four species of Indian air-breathing fish (climbing perch; Anabas testudineus, murrel; Channa punctatus, walking catfish; Clarias batrachus and stinging catfish; Heteropneustes fossilis) by PCR based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). High similarities of the allochthonous microbiota were observed between climbing perch and murrel, walking catfish and stinging catfish, indicating similar food behavior. The autochthonous microbiota of PI and DI from climbing perch and murrel revealed more similarity, than the result obtained from walking catfish and stinging catfish. The autochthonous microbiota of climbing perch and murrel were similar with regard to the allochthonous microbiota, but no such similarity was observed in case of walking catfish and stinging catfish. The fish genotype and intestinal bacteria ...
Abstract: The effects of different concentrations of cassava effluent on eggs and larvae of Clarias gariepinus were evaluated in this study. Based on the range finding test, five concentrations of the effluent 0% (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8% were tested. There was significant difference (p< 0.05) in the percentage fertlisation of C. gariepinus eggs subjected to the various treatments. The higher concentrations of cassava effluents, 8, 6 and 4% were very toxic, less than 20% hatching success. The hatching percentage was inversely proportional to the effluent concentration (from 90.00±1.0% in the control to 16.00±1.5% in 8% cassava effluent concentration). Hatching started (22.0±1.0) hours after fertilization in control media (0% concentration) and lasted for 24.5±0.1 h while hatching began at 23.0±0.5 and 24.5±0.5 h in the 2 and 8% concentrations. There was significant (p< 0.05) difference in MT50 in all the tested concentrations. The MT100 were not similar (p< 0.05) in all the tested ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Cu(SO4) toxicity on gill and
Introduction. To date, approximately 200 species of piscine trypanosomes are known (Gupta & Gupta 2012). In nature, trypanosome infections are common, especially where the leech vector is abundant. The effect of a trypanosome infection depends solely upon the hosts energy resources, and the impact ranges from physiological (Tandon & Chandra 1977), metabolic, pathological (Lom & Dykova 1984), biochemical (Gupta & Gupta 1986) and asymptomatic, to behavioural anomalies and syndromes (Barber, Hoare & Krause 2000). Haematological techniques are important for the assessment of the impact of trypanosome infections on fish health (Shah & Altindag 2004). Osman, Fadel and Ali (2009) reported that Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) infected with Trypanosoma mukasai Hoare, 1932 showed significant decreases in total serum protein, albumin, globulin levels, albumin/globulin ratios and cholesterol concentrations. These authors also noted an increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine ...
The hybrid of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ♀ × blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) ♂ (C × B) is the best catfish for pond culture. The current technology, artificial fertilization and handstripping is labor intensive, time consuming, and requires sacrifice of mature 5 ~ 6 year old blue catfish males. Xenogenic catfish produced by transplanting blue catfish stem cell into the gonads of triploid channel catfish could reduce the generation interval to produce blue catfish and might result in channel catfish males that are able to produce blue catfish sperm, and increase the efficiency of C × B hybrid catfish embryo production. Gonadal cell size and type of 90 ~ 100 day - old fry (TL: 5 ~ 6 cm), two - year old juvenile (TL: 25 ~ 30cm) and mature adults (TL: 65 ~ 70 cm) blue catfish was examined. Gonads of all ages of fish contained oogonia (12 ~ 15 μm diameter, distinct nucleus 7 ~ 8 μm) and spermatogonia (12 ~ 15 μm, distinct nucleus 6 ~ 7.5 μm). Male juvenile blue catfish, which ...
Study on biotransformation of �-fatty acid from fish oil was carried out. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been chosen to be the biocatalyst for biotransformation of w fatty acids extracted from Malaysian catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The lipid from freeze-dried catfish flesh was extracted using a modified Folch method and the mixture of chloroform and methanol was used as a solvent. The crude lipid substrate was added to the bacterial culture and incubated for 4 days. After conversion, the products were analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical result showed that several fatty acids and cholesterol were found in the product. However, the fatty acids and cholesterol contents before and after biotransformation were different. The cholesterol content increased while �-fatty acid contents decreased after biotransformation process. It can be concluded that the bacterial cells had oxidized the �-fatty acids to yield precursors which can be utilized as starting ...
Castration of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis for different duration (up to 4 weeks) in the preparatory-prespawning phase resulted in varied effects on plasma testosterone and seminal vesicle (SV) biochemical parameters in a duration-dependent manner. Although plasma testosterone was significantly reduced at all duration of castration in comparison to sham control values, a duration-dependent increase was noticed in the castrates after week 1. SV-somatic index (SVSI) increased significantly and steadily during castration except in week 1. Concentrations of total proteins decreased initially in week 1, and increased subsequently to the sham control level in week 2 and significantly above the sham control values in weeks 3 and 4. Hexosamine concentration was significantly low in weeks 1 and 2, and was restored in weeks 3 and 4. Fructose concentration decreased significantly in weeks 1, 2 and 3, and increased significantly in week 4. In contrast, glucose concentration increased significantly in week 1,
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TOPIKAL EKSTRAK KOLAGEN KULIT IKAN LELE SANGKURIANG (Clarias Gariepinus var) TERHADAP TNF-α DAN JUMLAH FIBROBLAST PADA LUKA BAKAR DERAJAT DUA TIKUS WISTAR
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Catfish from Lunsklip Fisheries were fed almost exclusively on untreated waste, rich in polyunsaturated fat, from the trout slaughterhouse on this farm. This waste, consisting largely of fat rich innards, was dumped into the catfish pond where it decomposed until consumed by the fish. These fish showed a high prevalence of pansteatitis as expected under such nutritional conditions, and provided the study with a positive reference population (Table 1). In the Olifants Gorge, analysis of stomach contents showed that catfish fed predominantly on fish as well as insects and small reptiles that had been washed into the river during flood conditions. On the Mozambique border where the Olifants River flows into Lake Massingir and where the sand-bottomed pools and rapids have been inundated with clay deposits, sampled catfish appeared to be feeding off the surface of the clay, and ingesta consisted of algal detritus and clay. In the Sabie River, the Sabiepoort has also been partially inundated with clay ...
For all callichthyid pages.. Burgess, W.E. 1987. Corydoras and related catfishes - a completeintroduction. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, 128p.. Burgess, W.E. 1989. An atlas of freshwater and marine catfishes.A preliminary survey of the Siluriformes. T.F.H. Publications,Neptune City, 784p.. Gee, J.H. 1976. Buoyancy and aerial respiration: factors influencing theevolution of reduced swim-bladder volume of some Central American catfishes (Trichomycteridae, Callichthyidae, Loricariidae, Astroblepidae).Canadian J. Zool., 54(7):1030-1037.. Gee, J.H. & J.B. Graham, 1978. Respiratory and hydrostatic functions of the intestine of the catfishes Hoplosternum thoracatum and Brochis splendens (Callichthyidae). Journal of Experimental Biology, 74:1-16.. Gosline, W.A. 1940. A revision of the Neotropical catfishes of the familyCallichthyidae. Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin, 2(1):1-36.. Howes, G.J. 1983. The cranial muscles of loricarioid catfishes, their homologies and value as taxonomic characters ...
Amino acid analyses and peptide mapping were performed for the four main haemoglobins from the armoured catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis; component I, which is functionally distinct from the others, is structurally unique, whereas components II, III and IV, functionally indistinguishable, are closely related in structure. Compositional difference indices are calculated for the four components and for the two major haemoglobins from the trout Salmo irideus, and the results are discussed in terms of structural relationships and evolutionary history of fish haemoglobins. ...
We assessed the effects of body lipid content on the resting metabolic rate and specific dynamic action (SDA) of the southern catfish Silurus meridionalis. Obese and lean fish were obtained by feeding the fish with two different feeds at 27.5 degrees C for 4 weeks prior to the experiment. The fish w …
INTRODUCTION. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of many economical freshwater fishes that are cultured in Nigeria for its excellent biological characteristics such as fast growth, popular taste and high economic value. Unfortunately, high mortality acts as an important limiting factor for aquaculture businesses as result of wound and infections sustained by the fish. Wound has been defined as a disruption of normal anatomical structure and more importantly function. Therefore, healing is the complex and dynamic process that results in the restoration of anatomical continuity and function (Lazarus et al 1994).. A wound may be produced by chemical, physical, thermal, microbial or immunological action on the tissue, causing discomfort and making it more prone to infection and other troublesome complications (Ingold 1993). Wounds normally heal in a very orderly and efficient manner characterised by four distinct, but overlapping phases: haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and ...
Welcome to the wonderful world of the Corydoras.``With 155 described species so far and still more to come the Corydoras ``are one of the most popular catfish in the World.. Category: Freshwater / Catfish ...
Ever wondered how many catfish there are? Matt Clarke has the answer. There are now over 3,000 species of catfish spanning more than 36 families, plus many more species waiting to be described. Hundreds of these are commonly kept by fishkeepers. Catfish account for one out of every 20 known vertebrate animals.. Thanks to projects such as the All Catfish Species Inventory (ACSI), which is funding research by catfish ichthyologists, descriptions of new species are at an all-time high. Among the most notable recent discoveries is Lacantunia enigmatica, which was placed in its own family.. This item was first published in the September 2009 issue of Practical Fishkeeping magazine. It may not be reproduced without written permission. ...
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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - in press. Abstract. Doradidae is a monophyletic catfish family endemic to continental South America, and composed of 93 valid species here placed in 31 genera. Existing phylogenetic hypotheses for Doradidae are derived from comprehensive analyses of morphological data, and a single molecular-based study on a limited subset of taxa. To provide a robust molecular phylogeny commensurate with those based on morphology, we gathered original and published sequence data for 86 species-level taxa (at least 70 valid species plus 16 new or questionably nominal species) and all genera of Doradidae, as well as ten species (9 genera) of Auchenipteridae and three species and genera of Aspredinidae as outgroups. 3011 base pairs were aligned for two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal RNA) and one nuclear gene (recombination activating gene 1), and analyzed for a total of 143 specimens (130 doradids, 10 auchenipterids and 3 aspredinids). ...
Discussion. Studies concerning the population structure of fishes are very important because they provide many elucidating answers about species ecology (Agostinho et al., 1994). Several aspects of the life strategy of the species about energy allocation for growth, reproduction or maintenance are interpreted through the analyses of population structure (Benedito-Cecílio & Agostinho, 1997). In the upper Paraná River floodplain, I. labrosus is a benthophagous species (Fugi, 1993; Fugi et al., 1996; Peretti & Andrian, 2004), living close to the bottom. Thus, the largest abundance of I. labrosus found at the Campina site could be associated with the characteristics of that site and with the feeding habit of the species. According to Holzbach et al. (2005), the largest capture of Steindachnerina insculpta, also found at the Campina site, would be related to the presence of the Cantú River mouth which has conditions that support its development, such as vast marginal vegetation, calm and clear ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - in press. Abstract. The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the ...
Citation: Chatakondi, N.G. 2013. Recent improvements in channel x blue hybrid catfish fry production facilitates higher production and adoption in the catfish industry. Aquaculture Conference Proceedings. P. 8. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus - a leading aquaculture species in United States for past several years has declining production trends, largely due to higher cost of inputs, inefficiencies in production, and competition from lower-priced imports. With the interest of increasing the efficiency of catfish aquaculture production, channel catfish females have been crossed with blue catfish males to produce a channel x blue hybrid catfish. Hybrid catfish have higher growth rates, survival and processing yield than commonly raised channel catfish. Presently, an increasing number of catfish farmers are raising hybrid catfish in production ponds to harness the superiority of hybrid catfish. Hybrid fry production is a hormone-based synchronization ...
Bailey, R.M., and G.R. Smith. 1981. Origin and geography of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakesbasin. Canadian J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 38:1539-1561.. Bailey, R. M. and D. J. Stewart. 1984. Bagrid catfishes from Lake Tanganyika, with a key and descriptions of new taxa. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan 168:1-41.. Baron, V.D., A.A. Orlov, and A.S. Golubtsov. 1996a. African catfishes. A new group of weakly electric fish. Izvestiya RAN. Ser. Biol., (1): 106-111. (in Russian). Baron, V. D., A. A. Orlov, and A. S. Golubtsov. 1996b. Discovery of electric discharges in the African catfish Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Siluriformes: Bagridae). Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 349 (4): 565-567. (in Russian). Baskin, J.N. 1973. Structure and relationships of the Trichomycteridae. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, New York. 389 p.. Bornbusch, A.H., and J.G. Lundberg. 1989. A new species of Hemisilurus (Siluriformes, Siluridae) from the Mekong River, with comments on its relationships and ...
Life is full of risks. Getting the next meal or defending your territory can be hazardous. David McKenzie from the CNRS Montpellier, France, explains that animals gamble with fate for several reasons. Some animals have to place themselves at risk when foraging to satisfy a high metabolic rate, while others are simply bolder: and fish are no exception. McKenzie is also intrigued by air-breathing fish and was puzzled why less than 2% of fish have evolved the ability. Air is a rich source of oxygen but breathing it is risky, so it made me wonder if it might be linked to personality, says McKenzie, explaining that fish that breathe at the surface are vulnerable to predation. Knowing that Brazil is gripped by an invasion of air-breathing African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus), McKenzie decided to visit his collaborator Tadeu Rantin at the Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil, to find out whether it takes courage for the catfish to breathe air or whether they simply surface to satisfy ...
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Bacterial populations in some organs, viz., liver, spleen, kidney, gill, and arborescent organ of the catfish Clarias batrachus were enumerated followed by determination of resistance for antibiotics and metals. The total viable counts in these organs, observed, were 2.24x10(4), 2.08x10(4), 1.44x10(4), 1.23x10(4), and 6.40x10(3) colony-forming units/mL, respectively. The random bacterial isolates from these fish organs showed resistance in decreasing order for colistin (98%), ampicillin (82%), gentamycin (34%), carbenicillin (28%), tetracyline (20%), streptomycin (12%), and ciprofloxacin (02%). Most of the isolates exhibited an increasing order of tolerance for the metals (microg/mL) copper (100), lead (200), manganese (400), cadmium (200), and chromium (50), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from |50 to 1600 microg/mL. These observations indicate that the significant occurrence of bacterial population in organs of fish with high incidence of resistance for antibiotics and metals may
A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Hyperosmotic Stress on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Male Catfish, Clarias gariepinus
Ontogenetic Development of Weberian Ossicles and Hearing Abilities in the African Bullhead Catfish. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Data on 10 measural and 5 meristic characters in 5 samples of Clarias were compared for a total of 125 individuals, and the systematic relationships among species or populations were analysed using principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis. Multivariate statistics between species resulted in a 100% correct classification with apparent morphological gaps, and between two population of C. fuscus was 93.5% good classification with no gaps. Multivariate comparisions of body form among species, supported by biochemical results, indicate that 5 samples of Clorias can be grouped into three species, namely, C.fuscus, C.batrachus and C.lazera, and the first two can be found in China. The best character for classifying the three species was gill raker. It is considered that discriminant function analysis and principal component analysis can be used to classify the morphologically close related species such as C.fuscus and C. batrachus.
Abstract -The size structure of a predator population can cause differences in the relative survival of different prey length classes whereby the biggest prey may reach a safe size because of the size-dependent character of predation. In the present study, the diet of European catfish was investigated to examine if catfish feeding can prevent cyprinids from reaching such a size refuge. In the lake studied, catfish was stocked for biomanipulation purposes to reduce unwanted roach and bream populations. Crayfish and roach were the most important prey items of catfish. If only species composition in the diet was considered, no clear changes were recorded in relation to catfish size. However, the length of roach as prey significantly increased with catfish length. Catfish were significantly larger than the other piscivorous fish in the lake, but took relatively smaller roach in comparison with similar-sized pike or pikeperch. Nevertheless, because of the high mean length of catfish, roach cannot ...
The 2008 Farm Bill mandated the creation of such a program, to be administered by USDAs Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), which was supposed to be implemented by December 2009, reports Food and Water Watch.. "In 2013, Americans consumed more than 305 million pounds of catfish, 78 per cent of which was imported, mostly from Viet Nam," said Food & Water Watch Executive Director Wenonah Hauter.. "Americans want to be sure that the catfish they eat and feed their families is safe, yet bowing to pressure from importers and other nations, the Obama administration continues to hold up the implementation of this important rule. Enough is enough.". The Food and Drug Administration currently regulates catfish. Domestic catfish processors are subject to FDA inspections once every five to 10 years and only two percent of imported catfish gets inspected.. The new inspection program would subject domestic catfish processors to daily USDA inspection, and imported catfish, much of which is raised in ...
This report comprises two studies conducted from 2012 to 2015 to estimate population size, survival rates, and movements of invasive blue catfish in Chesapeake Bay tributaries. The first study of population-size and survival was conducted in the James River, VA (Population Size and Survival Rates of Invasive Blue Catfish in Tidal Waters of the James River Subestuary). The second study on movement and survival of blue catfish was conducted in the Potomac River, the natural boundary between Maryland and Virginia (Movement Patterns and Survival Rate of Blue Catfish in a Non-Native Habitat Estimated with a Tagging Study). The Executive Summary of this report provides a synopsis of both studies.
Read "Trends in chromosome evolution in the genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae): a new perspective about the correlation between diploid number and chromosomes types, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Title: Physical map construction and physical characterization of channel catfish genome. Name: Xu, Peng. Degree: PhD. Chair: Zhanjiang Liu. Resides: FAA Library. University: Auburn. Location: Auburn, Alabama. Date: 2007. Pages: 111. Keywords: channel catfish genome, gene mapping, genetics. Abstract: Catfish is the major aquaculture species in the United States. To enhance genome studies involving linkage mapping, comparative mapping and linkage map and physical map integration, over 20,000 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) end sequences were generated and a BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque) genome was constructed using four color fluorescence-based fingerprinting. A total of 25,195 BAC ends were sequenced, generating 20,366 clean BAC end sequences (BES) with an average reading length of 557 bp. The total reading length of 11,414,601 bp represented approximately 1.2% of the catfish genome. Based on this survey, the catfish genome was found to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish. AU - Chen, Ailu. AU - Wang, Ruijia. AU - Liu, Shikai. AU - Peatman, Eric. AU - Sun, Luyang. AU - Bao, Lisui. AU - Jiang, Chen. AU - Li, Chao. AU - Li, Yun. AU - Zeng, Qifan. AU - Liu, Zhanjian "John". PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ...
This study reports the presence of large mucous cells lining the large renal collecting ducts and opisthonephric ducts of the Australian freshwater catfishes Tandanus tandanus and Tandanus tropicanus. Histologic examination of the renal tissue from four other species of Australian freshwater catfishes suggests that this feature is unique to the two species of Tandanus studied. The potential functions of renal mucous secretion in T. tandanus and T. tropicanus are discussed.. ...
Discussion. The confident assertion of internal features as phylogenetically informative characters for Trichomycterus has as major impediment the lack of pertinent information in the vast majority of its constituting species. However in those species whose anatomy has been studied in some detail - e.g.,Trichomycterus boylei Nichols, 1956, T. duellmani and T. roigi Arratia & Menu-Marque, 1984 in Arratia & Menu-Marque, 1984; T. areolatus Valenciennes, 1846, T. nigricansValenciennes, 1832 (type-species of the genus), T. punctulatusValenciennes, 1846 and T. rivulatus Valenciennes, 1846 (also asT. gracilis Valenciennes, 1846) in Arratia, 1998; T. guianensis (Eigenmann, 1909) and T. punctulatus in Adriaenset al., 2010; T. candidus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1949) in Barbosa & Costa, 2003b; and T. potschi Barbosa & Costa, 2003, T. celsae and T. lewi Lasso & Provenzano, 2003,T. maracaya Bockmann & Sazima, 2004, T. diabolus Bockmann, Casatti & de Pinna, 2004,T. pradensis Sarmento-Soares, Martins-Pinheiro, Aranda ...
Serum samples were taken from gravid female catfish 0 to 24 h after injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) and pimozide (PIM) to monitor the serum steroid hormone levels during the off seasons (February) and the peak of the natural breeding period (August). A parallel study was also conducted to compare egg production, fertilization, hachuring and larval rates upon yolk resorption from spawns of hormone-treated fish. Serum E2 levels were significantly different only with varying times after injection (PI); a marked increase occurred at 13 h, but the elevation was higher in fish induced to ovulate during the peak (16.8 ng/ml) than off season(7.7ng/ml). Hormone-treated fish showed higher serum testosterone (T) levels during the peak season (17-23 ng/ml) than those injected during the off season (10-20 ng/ml) at 4-12 h PI. Serum 17¤, 20ß-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one (DHP) levels og hormone-treated fish during the off season were only about half the level (0.29 and ...
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Reis, R.E. 2003. Callichthyidae (Armored catfishes). p. 291-309. A R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander i C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil ...
Reis, R.E. 2003. Callichthyidae (Armored catfishes). p. 291-309. A R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander i C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil ...
As in all loricariids, these species have a suckermouth. They use their mouth as well as the pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin areas, to interact with the rocky river-bottom. The comb-toothed inferior mouth of Hypostomus is able to grasp green algae on the river bottom. With the help of the suckermouth, which anchor the fishes, in conjunction with the arched design of pectoral and pelvic fin spines, they are also able to remain upright while exploring this substratum. In addition, their large, concave caudal fin is associated with fast locomotion over short distances.[8] Also like other loricariids, Hypostomus species exhibit plates of armor over their body.[1] The colouration among Hypostomus species varies. They may have a white ground color and black spots, or brown and spotted, or even black with red, gold, or white spots. Abdomen also varies in color from white to black and may be spotted or not.[1] The caudal fin is forked with the lower lobe longer than upper. Most species have stout ...
I took apart my necklace and restrung it into two necklaces one for me and one for Squeaker. I have had some success with my necklace helping my Fibromyalgia, so I wasnt ready to give it up entirely. After Squeaker feel asleep I put the necklace on her and gave her the medicine. The night was great. A year of nights like that and by golly we both might feel rested. :) What took me by surprise was the next day. Squeaker was happy, awake, and calm. Now I know some of that comes from a good nights sleep but this is better than I seen her behave in probably a month. About lunch time Squeaker took of her necklace and put it aside. But still remained a happy girl, who wanted to eat. Not just soft foods what ever she wanted and no crying about it. Oh and by the way we had not given her ANY pain killers. By nap time Squeaker was still feeling so good she didnt want to sleep. Im sure most parents would say just let her skip nap, yeah not happening here. When your child is that sleep deprived for that ...
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