1. Plasma and platelet free catecholamine concentrations were measured in 22 normal subjects and in 10 treated and 11 untreated patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.. 2. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations were significantly higher in both treated and untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects. Adrenaline concentrations did not differ.. 3. Platelet noradrenaline levels were higher in untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects.. 4. Positive correlations between the plasma noradrenaline concentration and the platelet noradrenaline concentration were observed in both normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients.. 5. Combining the data for normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients revealed that the plasma noradrenaline concentration correlated positively with the plasma cholesterol concentration. The platelet noradrenaline concentration was also found to correlate with the plasma cholesterol concentration.. 6. Our ...
D.P. Murray, R.D.S. Watson, A.V. Zezulka, R.G. Murray, W.A. Littler; Plasma Catecholamine Levels, Central Haemodynamics and Beta-Blockade in Myocardial Infarction. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 72P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074072Pa. Download citation file:. ...
In a child who has completed treatment for neuroblastoma [patient] do urinary catecholamine metabolites [test] accurately detect relapse [outcome]? Does this vary by initial secreting status of the tumour?. There is no clear answer to the question of how valuable urinary catecholamines are in the detection of relapsing neuroblastoma and it probably depends on which other investigations are being used to identify patients with relapsing disease. The specificity of the test in this context has not been reported, but extrapolating from reports of the initial diagnostic value of catecholamine metabolites would suggest that the test is highly specific and there is no reason why the specificity would be any different in patients with relapsing neuroblastoma compared to those at initial diagnosis. Most reports do not mention having a lower threshold for urine catecholamine levels which would prompt further investigation to detect relapse in patients on follow-up surveillance, compared to the usual two ...
Serial hemodynamic and plasma catecholamine responses were compared among 10 healthy men (27 ± 3 years) ( ± 1 standard deviation) during symptom-limited handgrip (33% maximal voluntary contraction for 4.4 ± 1.8 minutes), cold pressor testing (6 minutes) and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (22 ± 5 minutes). Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured by radioenzymatic assays; ejection fraction and changes in cardiac volumes were assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography. During maximal supine exercise, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations increased three to six times more than during either symptom-limited handgrip or cold pressor testing. Additionally, increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate-pressure product, stroke volume, ejection fraction and cardiac output were significantly greater during bicycle exercise than during the other two tests. A decrease in ejection fraction of 0.05 units or more was common in young normal subjects during ...
Recently it has been demonstrated that catecholamines are produced and used by macrophages and mediate immune response. The aim of this study was to verify if endothelial cells (EC), that are of myeloid origin, can produce catecholamines. We demonstrated by Real Time PCR that genes coding for TH, DDC, DβH and PNMT, enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines, are all expressed in basal conditions in bovine aorta EC (BAEC) and their expression is enhanced in response to 16 hours of hypoxia (fold of basal: TH:4.7 ± 0.15; DDC:3.9 ± 0.21; DβH:4.8 ± 0.23; PNMT:5.01 ± 0.01). This result was confirmed by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, hypoxia enhances norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) release respect to basal conditions (NE:+44,7±11,3; EPI:+51,6±6% of basal). In order to assess the signal transduction pathway that regulates catecholamines synthesis in EC, we overexpressed in BAEC either PKA or the transcription factor CREB, since PKA/CREB activation ...
ONEILL, H.A.; WEBB, E.C.; FRYLINCK, L. and STRYDOM, P.. Urinary catecholamine concentrations in three beef breeds at slaughter. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.5, pp.545-549. ISSN 2221-4062.. Animal welfare has become an important determinant of meat quality with poor animal temperament leading to huge economic losses to the meat industry due to carcass bruising and condemnation. Handling and transport of live animals is a stressful experience for animals. The temperaments of cattle affect their behaviour and differ between breeds, i.e. studies have shown that Bos indicus types are more temperamental than Sanga and Bos taurus types. Catecholamines (CATs) are considered as indicators of stress, because higher concentrations of CATs in brain tissue were noted in animals that are better adapted to stressful situations. In the present study, urinary CATs of three beef breeds were determined immediately post mortem. Brahman cattle represented Bos indicus types, Simmentaler cattle ...
Conjugated catecholamines in blood plasma of blood donors were determined from the difference between the total and the free catecholamines. Total catecholamines were measured after complete hydrolysis of the conjugated amines (heating of acidified samples for 40 min at 95°C). Free catecholamines were determined in untreated plasma. Determinations were performed radioenzymatically. We combined and modified the procedures of Peuler & Johnson (1977) Life Sei 27, 625-636) and Da Prada & Z rcher (1976) Life Sei 29, 1161-1174). The resulting method was less laborious and cheaper ...
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We report the effects of a tyrosine (and phenylalanine)-free amino acid mixture on tyrosine levels, ex vivo catecholamine synthesis and in vivo catecholamine release in brain regions of the rat. Administration of a tyrosine-free amino acid load reduced tissue levels of tyrosine (-50% after 2 h) in all brain regions examined (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum). The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture also reduced DOPA accumulation: this effect was most marked in striatum (-44%) and nucleus accumbens (-34%), areas with a predominantly dopaminergic innervation. Smaller decreases (-20-24%) were detected in other areas (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus). The effect on DOPA accumulation was prevented by supplementing the mixture with tyrosine/phenylalanine. The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not alter 5-HTP accumulation in any region. In microdialysis experiments, the tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not consistently alter striatal extracellular dopamine under basal conditions but markedly, and
1. To determine the reproducibility of a mental arithmetic stress test and a handgrip exercise test, we studied the responses of blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma catecholamines on two occasions, with an interval of at least 1 week, in 24 normotensive and 22 hypertensive subjects.. 2. The se of a single observation of the percentage changes of blood pressure ranged from 3.9 to 9.3% in normotensive subjects and from 3.9 to 7.4% in hypertensive subjects in both tests. For heart rate, these values were 4.9-12.3% in the normotensive subjects and 4.8-5.7% in the hypertensive subjects. However, there was a wide individual scatter of these haemodynamic responses during both tests. The forearm blood flow, only measured during mental arithmetic, had an se of a single observation of 33.7%.. 3. In 10 normotensive subjects the se of a single observation of the change in plasma noradrenaline was 0.16 nmol/l during handgrip exercise and 0.09 nmol/l during mental arithmetic. The ...
24 hour fasting and adrenoreceptor blocking agent influence on adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in ...
Levels of serum cortisol, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and urinary catecholamines were collected in 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction on the day of admission to the coronary care unit (samples obtained from 15 patients with diseases other than myocardial infarction were considered as controls). These values were correlated with the presence or subsequent development of left ventricular failure, arrhythmias, shock, or death. Sixteen of 17 infarction patients without the above complications had cortisol levels less than 20 µg%; 10 of 12 patients with complications had higher cortisol levels. All of the infarction patients without complications had plasma FFA levels less than 1100 µEq/liter, while six of nine patients with complications had levels of 1100 µEq/liter or higher. Fourteen of 16 patients without complications had urinary catecholamines less than 12.5 µg%, while seven of 10 patients with complications had levels greater than this. Of interest were a few patients without ...
Concentration-effect curves were obtained using isolated perfused (5 ml min : 25°C) bovine adrenals stimulated with chlorpromazine, caffeine or d-amphetamine. with and without calcium in the medium. The presence of extracellular calcium had no effect on catecholamine release by chlorpromazine or high concentrations of d-amphetamine but enhanced the response to caffeine or low concentrations of d-amphetamine. Procaine (10-3 M) blocked the effect of extracellular calcium but had no effect on drug-evoked secretion in calcium-free medium. Magnesium (5 x 10-3 M), by contrast, blocked drug-evoked release in time absence of calcium. Catecholamine release induced by chlorpromazine (10-3 M), caffeine (10-1 M) or d-amphetamine (5 x 10-2 in calcium-free medium generally paralleled 40Ca and 45Ca efflux from radiocalcium-labeled glands. However, d-amphetamine initially released catecholamines without significant effect on calcium efflux, although release of both substances increased after termination of ...
The properties of adenosine attenuation of catecholamine-elicited increases in peak contractile force, rate of force development, and rate of relaxation were studied in isolated rat atria. Adenosine, at a concentration that did not cause a direct depressant effect by itself, was capable of reducing by approximately 15% the increase in the contractile parameters elicited by isoproterenol. This reduction was not overcome by elevating the catecholamine concentration. The adenosine reduction was prevented by theophylline or the presence of adenosine deaminase. The reduction appears to be independent of the acetylcholine-mediated reduction of catecholamine responses. Adenosine reduced the positive inotropic responses elicited by norepinephrine and epinephrine but not phenylephrine. Adenosine deaminase in oxygenated atria potentiated the catecholamine-elicited contractile responses and reduced the progressive fall of the elevated contractile responses observed with continual catecholamine stimulation. In
Synonyms for Catecholamines in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Catecholamines. 9 words related to catecholamine: endocrine, hormone, internal secretion, noradrenaline, norepinephrine, Adrenalin, adrenaline, epinephrin, epinephrine. What are synonyms for Catecholamines?
The complexities of catecholamine physiology have intrigued physicians and the public alike for centuries. Epinephrine was isolated in 1897 by John Jacob Abel (1), and in parallel in 1901 by the Japanese scientist Jokichi Takamine (2), who called it adrenaline. Quickly the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of catecholamines were appreciated and exploited, but by the second half of the 20th century the adverse effects of chronic exposure were increasingly recognized, including their roles in hypertension and heart failure (HF), eventually yielding β-adrenoceptor blockers as HF therapy.. More recently the notion that short-term effects of catecholamines are temporary and reversible has been challenged. Acute HF in the context of adrenergic "storms" has highlighted that high circulating catecholamine levels can either be toxic or cause acute negative inotropic effects. However, the long-term effects of these acute surges in endogenous or exogenous catecholamines and associated acute ...
DefinitionThis test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenalin), norepinephrine, and dopamine.
The management of patients with pheochromocytomas and the malignant potential of benign pheochromocytomas have challenged physicians for several decades. The usual criteria used to evaluate other types of tumors (e.g., cellular atypia, increased mitotic activity, and vascular or capsular invasion) have not been considered reliable predictors of malignancy in patients with pheochromocytomas.. Goldstein and associates reviewed the presentation, localization, surgical management, pathology and long-term outcomes in patients with pheochromocytomas. During a 48-year period, 104 patients presented to the authors with 108 pheochromocytomas. Before 1968, routine provocative tests included histamine and glucagon stimulation and regi-tine infusion. Beginning in 1968, virtually all patients underwent biochemical confirmation of pheochromocytoma by increased catecholamine and catecholamine metabolite concentration in a 24-hour urine sample or elevated plasma catecholamine concentration.. Historically, ...
Scheme 2. Adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) are oxidized to their respective adrenochromes (Achr and NAchr). The rate constants for the oxidation reactions are not interesting in this context, because the oxidation of catecholamines to adreno-/noradreno-chrome is not monitored. This reaction is simply run for a specified time interval (and then stopped by adding anti-oxidant) for each sample, only changing the catecholamine concentrations, meaning that the same fraction of catecholamines should be oxidized in each run. The adrenochromes tautomerize (rearrange) in alkaline solution to adreno-lutine (Alut) and noradreno-lutine (NAlut) with the respective rate constants kA,1 and kNA,1. Further, the lutines are degraded to non-fluorescent products (Deg) with the rate constants kA,2 and kNA,2. Hence, adrenolutine and noradrenolutine are intermediates, and the only compounds in Scheme 1 and 2 known to fluoresce in the area with excitation range roughly 390-410 nm and emission range roughly 500-530 ...
Catecholamines are used to increase cardiac output and blood pressure, aiming ultimately at restoring/improving tissue perfusion. While intuitive in its concept, this approach nevertheless implies to be effective that regional organ perfusion would increase in parallel to cardiac output or perfusion pressure and that the catecholamine does not have negative effects on the microcirculation. Inotropic agents may be considered in some conditions, but it requires prior optimization of cardiac preload. Alternative approaches would be either to minimize exposure to vasopressors, tolerating hypotension and trying to prioritize perfusion but this may be valid as long as perfusion of the organ is preserved, or to combine moderate doses of vasopressors to vasodilatory agents, especially if these are predominantly acting on the microcirculation. In this review, we will discuss the pros and cons of the use of catecholamines and alternative agents for improving tissue perfusion in septic shock.
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Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
A 75-year-old woman developed left ventricular apical ballooning, shortly after recovering from status epileptics. Plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels were 2.05 ng/ml and 0.48 ng/ml, respectively. Endomyocardial biopsy disclosed patchy areas o
In dogs, rats and rabbits large doses of morphine caused less sedation than smaller doses but greater decreases in brain stem norepinephrine and adrenal catecholamines.. Animals made tolerant to the sedative action of morphine by the subchronic administration of drug had normal levels of brain and adrenal catecholamines. After the administration of large doses of morphine for 60 to 100 days, brain and adrenal catecholamines were supranormal.. The administration of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (1-phenyl-2-hydrazinopropane) caused a significantly greater increase in brain norepinephrine in morphine-tolerant than in control rats.. The injection of nalorphine into morphinetolerant dogs and rabbits produced excitatory "abstinence" syndromes accompanied by decreases in brain norepinephrine and adrenal epinephrine. In the rat the "abstinence" syndrome consisted of sedation and hypothermia, and brain and adrenal catecholamines did not decrease.. Morphine-tolerant dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital ...
A trihydroxyindole fluorescent technique was used to measure the concentration of catecholamines in heart muscle taken from 42 patients undergoing open heart surgery. Noradrenaline was the dominant catecholamine and its depletion in the failing heart was confirmed. The distribution of catecholamines within the heart was such that the highest value, 2.64 +/- 0.68 microgram/g, was found in the nonfailing right atrium and the lowest, 0.53 +/- 0.40 microgram/g, in the failing left ventricle. ...
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. Smoking is an established risk factor for this malignancy but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous reports have provided evidence that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and beta-adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) stimulate the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. But a potential cooperation of these two receptor families in the regulation of pancreatic cancer has not been studied to date. Using two pancreatic cancer cell lines and immortalized pancreatic duct epithelia in vitro, our current data show, that all three cell lines synthesized and released the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline upon exposure to nicotine and that this activity was regulated by the α3, 5 & 7-nAChRs. In accord with the established function of these catecholamines as α-AR agonists, nicotine-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the α-AR antagonist propranolol. ...
1. Plasma catecholamine, haemodynamic and metabolic responses to sustained isometric exercise were studied in eight healthy subjects, who maintained handgrip at the 30% level of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for as long as possible.. 2. The sustained handgrip was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations.. 3. The increase in plasma NA during handgrip was greater than that associated with heavy dynamic work involving large muscle groups.. 4. The results suggest that the known haemodynamic responses to static effort are related to a powerful activation of the adrenergic system, which may result from a reflex mechanism initiated in the exercising muscles. ...
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. Smoking is an established risk factor for this malignancy but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous reports have provided evidence that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and beta adrenergic receptors (β-AR) stimulate the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. However, a potential cooperation of these two receptor families in the regulation of pancreatic cancer has not been studied to date. Using two pancreatic cancer cell lines and immortalized pancreatic duct epithelia in vitro, our current data show that all three cell lines synthesized and released the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline upon exposure to nicotine and that this activity was regulated by α3, α5, and α7-nAChRs. In accordance with the established function of these catecholamines as β-AR agonists, nicotine-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the β-AR antagonist ...
Our laboratory takes a neurochemical approach towards examining neurotransmitter function and the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs. The major research investigates the biochemical organization, regulatory control, pharmacology, and function of catecholamine-containing neurons in the CNS. We also investigate the post-translational mechanisms by which neuronal impulse flow regulates tyrosine hydroxylase and examine the function of dopamine autoreceptors. Our focus recently has been on central dopamine systems and, in particular, on the mesocortical system. These studies, carried out both in rodents and non-human primates, have revealed that the mesotelencephalic dopamine systems are quite heterogeneous, exhibiting distinct physiological and pharmacological properties. Neural grafting is another research interest of our lab. We are currently investigating the function of neural grafts and stem cells in the MPTP primate model of Parkinsons disease.. ...
catecholamine: Any of various naturally occurring amines that function as neurotransmitters and hormones within the body. Catecholamines are characterized by a catechol group (a benzene ring...
Introduction: Stress inhibits the development of tolerance to morphine analgesia via activating Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. Modified catecholamine systems have been reported following morphine tolerance development. In the current study we tried to evaluate changes in the gene expression levels for MAO-A, MAO-B, COMT and thyrosine hydroxylase (TyH) enzymes following ...
Swept potential detection of plasma catecholamines. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Anna M W Taylor, Niall P Murphy, Christopher J Evans, Catherine M Cahill].
Video articles in JoVE about uric acid include Biochemical Measurement of Neonatal Hypoxia, A Convenient Method for Extraction and Analysis with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites, Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification, Application of an In vitro DNA Protection Assay to Visualize Stress Mediation Properties of the Dps Protein, A Simple Fractionated Extraction Method for the Comprehensive Analysis of Metabolites, Lipids, and Proteins from a Single Sample, Application of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Nitric Oxide (NO•) Probes, the geNOps, for Real-time Imaging of NO• Signals in Single Cells, Consensus Brain-derived Protein, Extraction Protocol for the Study of Human and Murine Brain Proteome Using Both 2D-DIGE and Mini 2DE Immunoblotting, HPLC Measurement of the DNA Oxidation Biomarker, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, in
18 Adrenaline and noradrenaline: Most of the synthesis occurs in the adrenergic nerve ending and stored in granular vesicles called chromaffin granules close to the site of release into synaptic cleft . Biosynthesis could also occur in suprarenal medulla and other tissues. The enzyme (N-methyl transferase) which catalyses the conversion of noradrenaline to adrenaline occurs almost exclusively in suprarenal medulla and is therefore missing in the peripheral nerve terminals. Hence noradrenaline is the final step in the synthetic process in most adrenergic nerves. Catecholamines are sympathomimetics that contain the catechol nucleus (e.g. noradrenaline and adrenaline). Catecholamines are stored in synaptic granules in two forms in equilibrium: Bound noradrenaline with ATP and protein is the (inactive part). Free noradrenaline is released by nerve stimulation. Another portion of it is stored in the cytoplasm in free form (cytoplasmic free noradrenaline). ...
Reprint of a review, first published in the Medical Progress Series of The New England Journal of Medicine and here divided into eight chapters. The ninth chapter, "Catecholamines in the Brain," has been added to the original text. Biochemistry, physiology, and pharmacology of catecholamines with special attention to disease states. Indexed and boardbound. ...
Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Your doctor may want to test your levels if he thinks you might have a rare tumor thats affecting your hormone levels.
Principal Investigator:NAGATSU Toshiharu, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research
The depressive and anhedonic response precipitated by CD raises the possibility that dysfunction of the dopamine system is a stable, sometimes latent characteristic of MDD. Following this line of reasoning, central catecholamine dysfunction as evinced by CD may be equally salient in a subset of unaffected relatives who are at genetic risk for developing the disorder.. We plan to extend the phase I project to unaffected relatives of BD and MDD patients in order to evaluate sensitivity to CD as an endophenotype of MDD and BD. In order to maximize our statistical power, we will be recruiting equal numbers healthy low and high-risk relatives. Here, risk is defined on the basis of chronological age (see below for more detail).. Furthermore, it has recently become feasible to conduct genome-wide association studies and quantify the burden of risk alleles carried by an individual. Certainly, the identity of these risk alleles remains unknown or unproven. Nevertheless, Francis McMahons group, with whom ...
The depressive and anhedonic response precipitated by CD raises the possibility that dysfunction of the dopamine system is a stable, sometimes latent characteristic of MDD. Following this line of reasoning, central catecholamine dysfunction as evinced by CD may be equally salient in a subset of unaffected relatives who are at genetic risk for developing the disorder.. We plan to extend the phase I project to unaffected relatives of BD and MDD patients in order to evaluate sensitivity to CD as an endophenotype of MDD and BD. In order to maximize our statistical power, we will be recruiting equal numbers healthy low and high-risk relatives. Here, risk is defined on the basis of chronological age (see below for more detail).. Furthermore, it has recently become feasible to conduct genome-wide association studies and quantify the burden of risk alleles carried by an individual. Certainly, the identity of these risk alleles remains unknown or unproven. Nevertheless, Francis McMahons group, with whom ...
Nineteen patients with normal renin idiopathic hypertension were arbitrarily classified as salt-sensitive or salt-resistant depending on whether their mean arterial pressure did or did not increase by 8% or more when sodium intake was increased. The
Wednesday my Endo said i have an adrenal tumor. Norepinephrine,Pl- (0-399) mine was 1042 Catecholamine,TOT,PL- (0-699) mine was 1189 My thyroid was still out of whack- TSH- 0.179 Hyper...
Arbutamine is a short-acting synthetic potent nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist that increases heart rate, cardiac contractility, and systolic blood pressure. Arbutamine is a catecholamine for a pharmacological cardiac stress agen. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
That catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, inhibit insulin secretion by activating α2-adrenoceptors in β-cells is well established (23-26). Catecholamines at pharmacological concentrations (µmol/L order) have been reported to exert their insulinostatic action via multiple mechanisms, including Gi/Go protein-mediated inhibition of cAMP production, activation of hyperpolarizing K+ currents, inhibition of Ca2+ currents, and inhibition of exocytotic machinery (1-8). However, signal transduction mechanisms mediating the physiological effects of adrenaline have not yet been identified in primary β-cells. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline were ∼0.2-0.4 nmol/L at rest (27,28) and reached to more than 1 nmol/L during exercise in healthy young men (27). The current study demonstrated that a low concentration of adrenaline (1 nmol/L) strongly attenuated glucose (16.6 mmol/L)- and Ex-4-elicited NSCCs current and membrane depolarization via the α2A-adrenoceptor in β-cells. In ...
The catecholamines - dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are successively derived from tyrosine. Syn-thesis occurs in the nerve terminals and in
Read New Aspects of Storage and Release Mechanisms of Catecholamines Held at Grosse Ledder near Cologne, Germany, October 9th- 12th, 1969 by with Rakuten Kobo.
Phosphodiesterase 3B is activated by inflammatory kinases, leading to attenuated catecholamine signalling in obesity - novel pathway shows potential for drug discovery
A catecholamine blood test measures the amount of three hormones in your body. Find out what the test measures and what the results mean.
Can you pick the catecholamine drug Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by wfusm2017
I want to know if the amount of adrenaline in ones blood system can be measured somehow by a 24-hour collection of urine. I know adrenaline is a catecholamine and that 24-hour collection is required to do a proper catecholamine test; however, Id like to know if adrenaline is measured as one of the catecholamines. Thank you if you can answer this ...
Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nocturnal masseter muscle activity and urinary catecholamine levels in bruxers. AU - Clark, G. T.. AU - Rugh, John D. AU - Handelman, S. L.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Nocturnal electromyographic recordings of masseter muscle activity were performed on 20 bruxist and ten control subjects. Each subject collected two 24-hour urine samples. An analysis of urinary catecholamine content was performed. A positive relationship was found between increased epinephrine content and high levels of nocturnal masseter muscle activity.. AB - Nocturnal electromyographic recordings of masseter muscle activity were performed on 20 bruxist and ten control subjects. Each subject collected two 24-hour urine samples. An analysis of urinary catecholamine content was performed. A positive relationship was found between increased epinephrine content and high levels of nocturnal masseter muscle activity.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019168872&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
en] We investigated hemodynamics and plasma catecholamine concentrations in eight consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected pheochromocytoma. The same anesthesia protocol was used in all patients: a continuous infusion of sufentanil 0.5 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) and isoflurane 0.4% (end-tidal) in 50% N2O/O2. Systolic arterial pressure was maintained between 120 and 160 mm Hg by adjusting an infusion of nicardipine, a calcium-channel blocker, while tachycardia (,100 bpm) was treated by 1-mg boluses of atenolol. Hemodynamics (thermodilution technique) and plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured before surgery, after the induction of anesthesia, after turning the patient to the lateral position, during pneumoperitoneum, during tumor manipulation, after adrenalectomy, and at the end of surgery. Two events resulted in significant catecholamine release: creation of the pneumoperitoneum and adrenal gland manipulation. As a consequence, a twofold increase in ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the reflex control of adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion. Afferent input from carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors was decreased by carotid occlusion or cervical vagal cold block, respectively. Increases in arterial pressure were significantly greater when either intervention was tested in the presence of the other, with the role of the carotid sinus baroreflex being dominant. Neither carotid occlusion nor vagal cold block resulted in a significant increase in plasma epinephrine or norepinephrine concentrations. However, carotid occlusion during vagal block caused a significant increase in plasma epinephrine (+87%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+128%). Likewise, vagal block during carotid occlusion increased plasma epinephrine (+82%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+73%). Similar experiments performed in a group of chemically sympathectomized animals ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute hypertensive response, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 140 mmHg or more within 24 h of onset, is frequently observed in hemorrhagic stroke patients. Although catecholamine surge is pivotal in its pathogenesis, few studies have evaluated the relationship between admission SBP and plasma catecholamine levels.. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out to investigate potential differences in the acute hypertensive reaction between subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by analyzing 200 SAH and 200 SICH patients. In each category, patients were quadrichotomized on the basis of their SBPs in emergency department: less than 140 mmHg, 140-184 mmHg, 185-219 mmHg, and 220 mmHg or more. The plasma catecholamine levels were compared among the four groups. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses were carried out to identify variables correlated with hypertensive emergency (SBP≥185 ...
A 60 year old hypertensive patient suffered several cerebral infarctions. A phaeochromocytoma was suspected because the excretion rates of vanillylmandelic acid and its methoxy derivatives were raised and the patient had hypertensive crises. No tumour was found, however, by 131mI-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and computed tomography of the abdomen. Moreover, the enhanced orthostatic plasma catecholamine response suggested that the high excretion rates of catecholamine metabolites were more likely to be caused by the syndrome of raised catecholamines after cerebrovascular accidents than a phaeochromocytoma. A phaeochromocytoma should not be diagnosed within several months of cerebral infarction without first excluding the possibility of a hyperadrenergic state induced by cerebral infarction. ...
The role of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of basal catecholamine (CA) secretion was studied in chromaffin cells. Treatment of chromaffin cells with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors produced a dose-dependent increase in basal catecholamine secretion, which paralleled their ability to inhibit NOS activity. This inhibitory profile was similar to that found in neurons, suggesting the constitutive expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in these cells, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. A study of the kinetics and pharmacology of nNOS activity expressed in chromaffin cells in culture indicated that NOS activity is calcium-dependent, increases with time, and is highly dependent on both intracellular concentrations of L-arginine (Km ∼ 4 μM, Vmax = 908 ± 60 pmol/hr × 106 cells) and transport of L-arginine into the cells (exhibiting two affinity constants of k1 = 3.2 ± 0.3 μM and k2 = 126 ± 5.5 μM). The effects of NOS inhibitors on CA secretion were ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Enhanced catecholamine synthesis in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia caused by nerve stimulation: dissociation between ganglionic transmission and catecholamine synthesis. by Mitchell I. Steinberg et al.
Abstract: This study examined whether serotonin transporter (SERT) deficiency influences adrenal serotonin (5-HT), catecholamine and Angiotensin II (Ang II) systems, and the hormonal response to acute restraint stress. Control SERT mice (+/+) expressed high numbers of SERT binding sites in adrenal medulla. Fifteen minutes of restraint stress increased adrenal 5-HT, adrenomedullary tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression and plasma epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine levels without alterations in adrenal catecholamine content. In SERT+/+, these responses coincided with a significant increase in adrenomedullary Ang II AT2 receptor expression. SERT-deficient mice did not express SERT binding sites; their adrenal 5-HT was significantly depleted and further reduced after stress. They had exaggerated stress-induced EPI release into plasma, the increase in TH transcription did not occur, adrenal catecholamine content was decreased compared with SERT+/+, and stress induced a reduction rather than ...
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Results Compared with normoxic conditions, hypoxia increased TH protein expression and catecholamine synthesis and decreased release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in OA/RA synovial cells. This inhibitory effect on TNF was reversed by TH inhibition with α-methyl-para-tyrosine (αMPT), which was particularly evident under hypoxic conditions. Incubation with specific TH cofactors (tetrahydrobiopterin and Fe2+) increased hypoxia-induced inhibition of TNF, which was also reversed by αMPT. To address a possible clinical role of TH+ cells, murine TH+ neuronal cells were generated from mesenchymal stem cells. TH+ neuronal cells exhibited a typical catecholaminergic phenotype. Adoptive transfer of TH+ neuronal cells markedly reduced CIA in mice, and 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes TH+ cells, reversed this effect.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of catecholamines on pulmonary circulation at elevated vascular tone. AU - Barman, Scott A. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The effect of catecholamine stimulation on the longitudinal resistance and compliance distribution in the canine pulmonary vasculature was evaluated under control vascular tone and after vascular tone was elevated using the thromboxane analogue U-46619. The arterial-, venous-, and double-occlusion techniques were used to measure the segmental resistances and compliances in isolated dog lung blood perfused at constant flow. The results of this study indicate that at control vascular tone the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine increase pulmonary vascular resistance and decrease pulmonary vascular compliance through α1- and α2-receptor-mediated stimulation with precapillary α1- and α2-receptors and postcapillary α2-receptors interacting with precapillary and postcapillary β2-receptors. In addition, epinephrine appears to have a ...
Norepinephrine degradation. Catechol-O-methyltransferase is shown in green boxes. Catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT ; EC 2.1.1.6 ) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine , epinephrine , and norepinephrine ), catecholestrogens , and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure. In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the COMT gene . Two isoforms of COMT are produced: the soluble short form (S-COMT) and the membrane bound long form (MB-COMT). As the regulation of catecholamines is impaired in a number of medical conditions, several pharmaceutical drugs target COMT to alter its activity and therefore the availability of catecholamines. COMT was first discovered by the biochemist Julius Axelrod in 1957. Function Catechol-O-methyltransferase is involved in the inactivation of the catecholamine neurotransmitters ( dopamine , epinephrine , and norepinephrine ). The enzyme introduces a methyl group to the catecholamine, which is donated by
Cutibacterium acnes (former Propionibacterium acnes), is a bacterium characterized by high genomic variability, consisting of four subtypes and six major ribotypes. Skin is the largest neuroendocrine organ of the human body and many cutaneous hormones and neurohormones can modulate bacterial physiology. Here, we investigated the effect of catecholamines, i.e., epinephrine and norepinephrine, on two representative strains of C. acnes, of which the genome has been fully sequenced, identified as RT4 acneic and RT6 non-acneic strains. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (10−6 M) had no impact on the growth of C. acnes but epinephrine increased RT4 and RT6 biofilm formation, as measured by crystal violet staining, whereas norepinephrine was only active on the RT4 strain. We obtained the same results by confocal microscopy with the RT4 strain, whereas there was no effect of either catecholamine on the RT6 strain. However, this strain was also sensitive to catecholamines, as shown by MATs tests, as epinephrine
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure. In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the COMT gene. Two isoforms of COMT are produced: the soluble short form (S-COMT) and the membrane bound long form (MB-COMT). As the regulation of catecholamines is impaired in a number of medical conditions, several pharmaceutical drugs target COMT to alter its activity and therefore the availability of catecholamines. COMT was first discovered by the biochemist Julius Axelrod in 1957. Catechol-O-methyltransferase is involved in the inactivation of the catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine). The enzyme introduces a methyl group to the catecholamine, which is donated by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). Any compound having a catechol structure, like catecholestrogens and ...
One physiological stimulus to epinephrine secretion is exercise. This was first demonstrated using the denervated pupil of a cat as an assay,[25] later confirmed using a biological assay on urine samples.[26] Biochemical methods for measuring catecholamines in plasma were published from 1950 onwards.[27] Although much valuable work has been published using fluorimetric assays to measure total catecholamine concentrations, the method is too non-specific and insensitive to accurately determine the very small quantities of epinephrine in plasma. The development of extraction methods and enzyme-isotope derivate radio-enzymatic assays (REA) transformed the analysis down to a sensitivity of 1 pg for epinephrine.[28] Early REA plasma assays indicated that epinephrine and total catecholamines rise late in exercise, mostly when anaerobic metabolism commences.[29][30][31]. During exercise the epinephrine blood concentration rises partially from increased secretion from the adrenal medulla and partly from ...
article{33c2ce44-ae43-4c7b-89f3-7561ca0ab535, abstract = {The Langerhans cells are capable of taking up L-dopa and the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline when exposed to these substances in vitro. Within the cell L-dopa is found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, whereas the catecholamines are confined to cytoplasmic granules. The L-dopa uptake is most probably carrier-mediated and the hypothesis is brought forward that L-dopa enters the cell by exchange diffusion. At present little is known about the nature of the amine uptake mechanism. }, author = {Axelsson, S and Elofsson, Rolf and Falck, Bengt and Sjöborg, Steinar}, language = {eng}, pages = {31--35}, series = {Acta Dermatovenerologica Supplement}, title = {In vitro-uptake of L-Dopa and catecholamines into the epidermal Langerhans cell}, volume = {79}, year = {1978 ...
We characterized a unique mouse line in which the expression of AT1AR is deleted from TH-expressing cells. This deletion was verified by loss of AT1AR binding in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, as well as loss of a functional response to Ang II in the RVLM. At baseline, we observed no effect of this deletion. Subcutaneous infusion of a low dose of Ang II increased BP in both groups, but the increase was significantly delayed in onset (Discussion in the online-only Data Supplement) and reduced in magnitude in the CAT-KO mice. In WT mice, Ang II-dependent hypertension was associated with increased sympathetic activity as evidenced by increased power in the midfrequency band of the mean arterial pressure and HR spectra and activation of ROS production in key brain regions involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity. The CAT-KO mice have an attenuated sympathetic activation in response to Ang II and showed reduced ROS production in the RVLM. Overall, in Ang II-dependent hypertension, ...
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Vesicular exocytosis is a crucial process for living cells by which signalling species such as acetylcholine and catecholamines and other vesicular contents can be secreted into the extracellular environment. Single cell electrochemistry, especially the "semi-artificial synapse" based amperometry, has been used to scrutinize exocytosis dynamics of single vesicles due to its high sensitivity and appropriate temporal resolution. Important characteristics of vesicular release as well as the effects of biological, chemical and physical parameters on them have thus been evaluated for many cell lines. This has led to contest the conventional full release mode. Recently, the view that partial release is the most common for most neurotransmitters stored in dense core vesicles has gained acceptance. However, the fundamental reasons leading to partial fusion remain an open question waiting experimental characterization. In this work, catecholamine release was elicited from PC12 using sufficiently small ...
Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the extent of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment will be based on the results of these tests. Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests. For patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma that causes symptoms, catecholamine levels in the blood and urine will be checked on a regular basis. Catecholamine levels that are higher than normal can be a sign that the cancer has come back. For patients with paraganglioma that does not cause symptoms, follow-up tests such as CT, MRI, or MIBGscan should be done every year. For patients with inherited pheochromocytoma, catecholamine levels in the blood ...
Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of these compounds on catecholamine secretion and calcium influx has also been studied, and both compounds were found to produce a slowly developing inhibitory effect on acetylcholine- or depolarization-stimulated catecholamine secretion and calcium increases without affecting the spontaneous release or the basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These inhibitory effects were observed only at high doses of acetylcholine or high levels of extracellular potassium and required concentrations of SNP or CNP very similar to those that increased cGMP levels. Preincubation with 100 microM zaprinast, a cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor able to increase cGMP levels, mimicked the inhibitory effects of SNP and CNP. We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ...
To further understand the role of neuro-immunological interactions in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we studied the influence of sympathetic neurotransmitters on cytokine production of T cells in patients with RA. T cells were isolated from peripheral blood of RA patients or healthy donors (HDs), and stimulated via CD3 and CD28. Co-incubation was carried out with epinephrine or norepinephrine in concentrations ranging from 10-5 M to 10-11 M. Interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 were determined in the culture supernatant with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-10 were evaluated with intracellular cytokine staining. Furthermore, basal and agonist-induced cAMP levels and catecholamine-induced apoptosis of T cells were measured. Catecholamines inhibited the synthesis of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 at a concentration of 10-5 M. In addition, IFN-γ release was suppressed by 10-7 M epinephrine. Lower catecholamine
Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
100 Capsules 500 mg each Pharmaceutical Grade Hypoallergenic USAGE: Take 1-2 capsules daily, on an empty stomach immediately after arising in the morning, preferably with juice as a carbohydrate source, or as directed by your qualified health consultant. Note: Do not take in conjunction with MAO inhibitor drugs. Not for use by persons with a history of malignant melanoma. Do not use if bipolar, pregnant, suspect pregnancy, or lactating. L-Tyrosine is utilized for the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. Jarrow Formulas® L-Tyrosine is pure crystalline amino acid from microbiolgical fermentation. It is NOT derived from milk. Keep out of the reach of children. Keep tightly closed in a cool, dry place. SUPPLEMENT FACTS Serving Size 1 Capsule Amount % DV -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- L-Tyrosine 500 mg * ---------------------------------------------------------------------
The role of catechol... | The activity of catecholaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus and the medullary visceral zone (MVZ) in rats in response to restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS) was measured by use of dual Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. In RWIS rats Fos immunoreactive (...
We demonstrate sensitive spatially resolved detection of physiological chromophores that emit in the ultraviolet (,330 nm). An atypical laser source (a visible wavelength femtosecond optical parametric oscillator), and an unconventional collection geometry (a lensless detector that detects the forward-emitted fluorescence) enable this detection. We report the excitation spectra of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, together with near-UV emitters serotonin and tryptophan, in the range of 550-595 nm. We estimate the molecular two-photon action cross section of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be 1.2 mGM (1 GM, or Goppert Mayor, is equal to 10-58 m4 s-1 photon-1), 2 mGM, and 43 mGM, respectively, at 560 nm. The sensitivity achieved by this method holds promise for the microscopic imaging of vesicular catecholamines in live cells.. © 2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
We demonstrate sensitive spatially resolved detection of physiological chromophores that emit in the ultraviolet (,330 nm). An atypical laser source (a visible wavelength femtosecond optical parametric oscillator), and an unconventional collection geometry (a lensless detector that detects the forward-emitted fluorescence) enable this detection. We report the excitation spectra of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, together with near-UV emitters serotonin and tryptophan, in the range of 550-595 nm. We estimate the molecular two-photon action cross section of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be 1.2 mGM (1 GM, or Goppert Mayor, is equal to 10-58 m4 s-1 photon-1), 2 mGM, and 43 mGM, respectively, at 560 nm. The sensitivity achieved by this method holds promise for the microscopic imaging of vesicular catecholamines in live cells.. © 2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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14:0 NPS PC Substrate for Lp-PLA2 Enzyme Activity Assay Gram quantities available! Contact us today!. SJK Global Vanilmandelic Acid (VMA) Assay is a quantitative immunoassay for measuring VMA in human urine.. VMA is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines: epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Catecholamines are secreted by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.. Urinary VMA is elevated in patients with catecholamine secreting tumors including pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.. VMA levels in urine are also related to adrenal medulla hyperplasia (AMH). Research shows that medulla hyperplasia, hypertension, nocturnal hypoxemia and congestive heart failure may lead to elevated Vanilmandelic acid in patients urine. ...
While this herb is said to boost brain power in general, gotu kola is also considered to be an adaptogen, which means it lowers stress. Stress has an incredibly abhorrent affect on our brains ability to process information and to see things clearly -acting rapidly via catecholamines and more slowly via glucocorticoids. Catecholamine actions involve beta adrenergic receptors and also availability of glucose, whereas glucocorticoids biphasically modulate synaptic plasticity over hours and also produce longer-term changes in dendritic structure that last for weeks - dumbing us down, essentially, with every shallow breath and wrinkled eye-brow. Gotu Kola can help to minimize this reaction ...
Adrenal Glands are the bodies main protection against acute and chronic stress. The glands are yellow, pyramid-shaped and sit on the superior surface of the kidneys in the thoracic abdomen (Griffen & Ojeda, 2000). Part of the endocrine system the adrenal glands release hormones as a response to stressors. Adrenal glands are covered by a connective tissue, which is then covered by a layer of fat for protection and insulation. In general they weigh approximately 5 grams, measure 30 mm wide, 50 mm long and about 10 mm thick. These sizes change as secretory demands increase or decrease.The glands are comprised of two parts; the adrenal cortex, which releases steroid hormones, protects against immediate stress or injury and the adrenal medulla, which releases catecholamines which instigate the mobilization of glucose and fatty acids and prepare body organs for action during acute stress. Thus the relationship of the glands with the nervous system is that of a responsive nature to stimulants (in this ...
Decreased sympathetic activation of adipose tissue due to impaired catecholamine synthesis or sensitivity has been observed in obese patients (Reynisdottir et al., 1994; Stallknecht et al., 1997;Horowitz and Klein, 2000; Jocken et al., 2008). Obesity is commonly associated with blunted whole-body catecholamine-induced lipolysis (Horowitz and Klein, 2000). This is thought to occur through a number of mechanisms, including leptin resistance (Myers et al., 2010), as well as the reduced expression of β-adrenergic receptors (Reynisdottir et al., 1994) or increased expression of α2-adrenergic receptors (Stich et al., 2002). White adipose tissue and cultured isolated adipocytes from obese human and mouse models exhibit decreased cAMP-stimulated lipolysis and fat oxidation, due to reduced energy expenditure from decreased mitochondrial uncoupling (Yehuda-Shnaidman et al., 2010). This desensitization to adrenergic activation is also a feature of childhood onset obesity (Bougneres et al., 1997; Enoksson ...
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Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
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Although stress in fetal life not only increases fetal catecholamine concentration but also decreases fetal growth, there have been few studies that define the specific role of catecholamines in mediating the fetal response to stress. None, however, have investigated effects on fetal amino acid or protein metabolism, processes that should be affected during aberrant fetal growth. Therefore, hormone concentrations as well as oxygen, glucose, lactate, and amino nitrogen, leucine, and protein metabolism were measured with and without norepinephrine infusion in fetuses of eight pregnant ewes (118-125 days of gestation). Transumbilical uptake of oxygen increased during norepinephrine infusion, whereas uptake of glucose remained constant and that of lactate and amino acids fell. The proportion of fetal oxidative metabolism that could be supported by transplacental uptake of exogenous substrates was , 1, indicating that endogenous substrates were used to maintain fetal oxidative metabolism and ...
The research team, led by Roger Y. Tsien, professor in UCSDs Departments of Pharmacology and Chemistry and Biochemistry and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, found that high levels of insulin can block stress hormones known as catecholamines, which normally cause the release of cellular energy. Adrenaline is the best known example of a catecholamine. For normal metabolism to occur, the body needs a balanced input of insulin and catecholamines. One of the actions of insulin --, the main energy storage hormone, is to block activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) enzyme. After a meal, insulin levels go up, and the body stores energy primarily as triglycerides, or fat, in adipose tissue to be used later. When energy is needed, catecholamine triggers activation of PKA, and energy is released. But in people with Type II diabetes, the hormonal balance has been thrown off, because the body continues to produce and store more triglyceride instead of breaking down the fat as released energy ...
The effect of 0.5-1.0 microM taxol, a potent promoter of microtubule polymerization in vitro, was studied on the secretory activity of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Taxol was found to have a dual effect: the long-term effect (after a 1-h incubation) of taxol was to induce almost complete inhibition of catecholamine release, whereas after a short incubation (10 min) a massive, nicotine-independent release of catecholamine was produced. From results obtained using the patch-clamp technique to study the Ca++-dependent K+ channels (Ic channels), it was possible to conclude that taxol probably provokes an augmentation of free [Ca++]i in the cytoplasm, values increasing from 10(-8) M at rest to several 10(-7) M. The increased spontaneous release of stored neurohormones and the increased frequency of opening of Ic channels occur simultaneously and could both originate from a rise of [Ca++]i upon taxol addition. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that 13-h taxol treatment ...
PNMT / PENT, 0.1 ml. The product of this gene catalyzes the last step of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway, which methylates norepinephrine to form epinephrine (adreline).
Im curious if these findings can tell me something about my metabolism. Im unable to interpret them. During a 24-hour urinary catecholamine test,...
This covers the inhaled β-agonists used for bronchodilation. Information on catecholamines and sympathomimetics with activity on β-receptors is covered under adrenergic vasoactives.. ...
兒茶酚胺(英語:Catecholamines)是具有兒茶酚核的(苯乙)胺類化合物的統稱,是由腎上腺產生的一類應激擬交感「鬥或逃」(Fight or Flight)激素。最重要的兒茶酚胺是腎上腺素(Epinephrine)、去甲腎上腺素(正腎上腺素)和多巴胺(Dopamine),均是從苯丙氨酸和酪氨酸合成。不少精神興奮劑也是兒茶酚胺的類似物。. 兒茶酚胺有去甲腎上腺素(NAd)、腎上腺素(Ad)、多巴胺(DA),過多的兒茶酚胺分泌可能導致高血壓和心肌梗塞。而低水平的兒茶酚胺可能引起低血壓、心肌缺血等的發生 、在臨床上兒茶酚胺常被用來治療神經源性、心源性、中毒源性休克早期,但過多劑量可能導致局部組織壞死或者腎臟衰竭。. ...
The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
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Biomimetic poly(catecholamine) coatings have gained much attention in recent years due to their versatility as functional materials. Despite this, only limited methods are available to modify the function and property of poly(catecholamine) coatings, primarily through post-modification methods. Our approach
BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin. We identified a natural nonsynonymous variant of catestatin, Gly364Ser, that alters human autonomic function and blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS - Gly364Ser heterozygotes and controls underwent physiological and biochemical phenotyping, including catecholamine production, chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. Case-control studies replicated effects of the gene on blood pressure in the population. Gly364Ser displayed diminished inhibition of catecholamine secretion from cultured neurons. Gly/Ser heterozygotes displayed increased baroreceptor slope during upward deflections (by ≈47%) and downward deflections (by ≈44%), increased cardiac parasympathetic index (by ≈2.4-fold), and decreased cardiac sympathetic index (by ≈26%). Renal norepinephrine excretion was diminished by ≈26% and epinephrine excretion by ≈34% in Gly/Ser ...
Neonatal sympathectomy using a combined treatment with antiserum to nerve growth factor and guanethidine during the first 4 weeks after birth was carried out in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Bilateral adrenal demedullation was performed in 4-week-old sympathectomized SHR and WKY rats. The development of hypertension in SHR was prevented by sympathectomy, but the blood pressure (BP) was still higher than in age-matched WKY rats. Demedullation reduced the BP of sympathectomized SHR to the same level as that of WKY rats. Heart rates of SHR and WKY rats were not affected by the treatments. Morphometric measurements of the mesenteric arteries showed that sympathectomy significantly reduced the medial mass in the mesenteric arteries of SHR, mainly through a reduction in the number of smooth muscle cell layers. In sympathectomized SHR, demedullation increased the lumen size of muscular arteries under maximally relaxed conditions, which might explain the ...
Results:. Pheochromocytomas were associated with increases in plasma concentrations of metanephrines that were greater and more consistent than those in plasma catecholamine concentrations. No patient with a pheochromocytoma had normal plasma concentrations of both normetanephrine and metanephrine. The sensitivity of these tests was 100% (52 of 52 patients [95% CI, 94% to 100%]), and the negative predictive value of normal plasma concentrations of metanephrines was 100% (162 of 162 patients). Tests for plasma catecholamines yielded eight false-negative results and a sensitivity of 85% (44 of 52 patients [CI, 72% to 93%]). The negative predictive value of normal plasma concentrations of catecholamines was 95% (156 of 164 patients). Tests for urinary metanephrines yielded five false-negative results and a sensitivity of 89% (41 of 46 patients [CI, 76% to 96%]). Because no statistical difference was noted in the number of false-positive results between tests for plasma metanephrines (15%) and tests ...
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is characterized by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the structurally normal heart. It is typically triggered by physical activity, emotional stress or catecholamine infusion. Ventricular tachycardia can lead to dizziness, syncope, seizures, ventricular fibrillation and sudden death.. The Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia NGS panel consists of nine genes: ANK2, CALM1, CALM2, CALM3, CASQ2, KCNJ2, RYR2, TECRL and TRDN.. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis of the catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia genes is also offered as a panel. Additionally, CTGT offers a comprehensive test (both NGS and CNV panels) for these genes. Panel genes are also offered as individual sequencing and deletion/duplication tests unless otherwise indicated.. ...
Our findings showed a clear association between the orthostatic plasma norepinephrine level and symptom severity in patients with POTS. The orthostatic plasma norepinephrine level of POTS patients also associated with the increment of heat rate from supine position to standing. Especially, we found that the effectiveness of metoprolol in POTS children was related to the level of orthostatic plasma norepinephrine. Our results indicate that plasma level of norepinephrine , 3.59 pg/ml is an indicator of the effectiveness of metoprolol in children and adolescents with POTS.. Children with POTS often have symptoms of OI, such as syncope, dizziness, chest distress, chest pain, headache, palpitation, fatigue, and so on [1]-[4]. Additionally, the recurrent symptoms usually create physical and psychological stresses in childrens daily lives, both at home and school [5],[23],[24]. Therefore, an effective treatment, to improve symptoms, is necessary for the children with POTS.. No definite cause of ...
A method for simultaneous determination of polyamines and catecholamines in cell extracts by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with UV detection at 254 nm was established at the first time. The polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and catecholamines (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and epinephrine) were extracted from PC-12 cells and were derivatized with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. Different derivatization conditions such as temperature, ratio of derivatization reagents and incubation time were investigated to find the best reaction condition which gave the highest detection sensitivity for polyamines and catecholamines. The influence of running buffer and additives on the separation such as pH, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations and various additives was also investigated. Separation was achieved within 20 min with good repeatability in a 100 mM boric acid buffer containing 10 mM SDS and 10 mM 18-crown-6 at a pH of 9.5. The detection limit
Phaeochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours that produce catecholamines and numerous secretory proteins and peptides, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), a vasoactive peptide with influences on blood pressure. The production of catecholamines and NPY by phaeochromocytomas is highly variable. This study examined influences of hereditary factors and differences in catecholamine production on tumour expression of NPY, as assessed by quantitative PCR, enzyme immunoassay and immunohistochemistry. Phaeochromocytomas included hereditary adrenaline-producing tumours (adrenergic phenotype) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), predominantly noradrenaline-producing tumours (noradrenergic phenotype) in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, and other adrenergic and noradrenergic tumours where there was no clear hereditary syndrome. NPY levels in phaeochromocytomas from VHL patients were lower (P,0.0001) than in those from MEN 2 patients for both mRNA (84-fold difference) and the peptide (99-fold ...