Unscramble pyrocatechol, Unscramble letters pyrocatechol, Point value for pyrocatechol, Word Decoder for pyrocatechol, Word generator using the letters pyrocatechol, Word Solver pyrocatechol, Possible Scrabble words with pyrocatechol, Anagram of pyrocatechol
Metapyrocatechase which catalyzes the oxygenative ring cleavage of catechol to form alpha-hydroxymuconic epsilon-semialdehyde is encoded by the xylE gene on the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. We have cloned the xylE region in Escherichia coli and determined the nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment of 985 base pairs around the gene. The fragment included only one open translational frame of sufficient length to accommodate the enzyme. The predicted amino acid sequence consisted of 307 residues, and its NH2- and COOH-terminal sequences were in perfect agreement with those of the enzyme recently determined (Nakai, C., Hori, K., Kagamiyama, H., Nakazawa, T., and Nozaki, M. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2916-2922). A mutant plasmid was isolated which did not direct the synthesis of the active enzyme. This plasmid had a DNA region corresponding to the NH2-terminal two-thirds of the polypeptide. From the deduced amino acid sequence, the secondary structure was predicted. Around 10 base pairs upstream
Estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase (E-2/4-H) activity was determined in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy as well as in ovarian steroid hormone-treated ovariectomized uterus. Under the assay conditions used, E-4-H was the predominant catechol estrogen-f
Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by aerobic bacteria is generally divided into an upper pathway, which produces dihydroxylated aromatic intermediates by the action of monooxygenases, and a lower pathway, which processes these intermediates down to molecules that enter the citric acid cycle. Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) are a family of enzymes divided into six distinct groups. Most bacterial genomes code for only one BMM, but a few cases (3 out of 31) of genomes coding for more than a single monooxygenase have been found. One such case is the genome of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, in which two different monooxygenases have been found, phenol hydroxylase (PH) and toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO). We have already demonstrated that ToMO is an oligomeric protein whose subunits transfer electrons from NADH to oxygen, which is eventually incorporated into the aromatic substrate. However, no molecular data are available on the structure and on the mechanism of action of PH. To ...
para-Nitrophenol (PNP) is a highly toxic compound with threats to mammalian health. The pnpE-encoded γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde to maleylacetate in Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3, playing a key role in the catabolism of PNP to Krebs cycle intermediates. However, the catalyzing mechanism by PnpE has not been well understood. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and NAD bound PnpE. In the PnpE-NAD complex structure, NAD is situated in a cleft of PnpE. The cofactor binding site is composed of two pockets. The adenosine and the first ribose group of NAD bind in one pocket and the nicotinamide ring in the other. Six amino acids have interactions with the cofactor. They are C281, E247, Q210, W148, I146 and K172. Highly conserved residues C281 and E247 were identified to be critical for its catalytic activity. In addition, flexible docking studies of the enzyme-substrate system were performed to predict the interactions
Antibodies for proteins involved in arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two genomic regions involved in catechol siderophore production by Erwinia carotovora. AU - Bull, Carolee Theresa. AU - Ishimaru, C. A.. AU - Loper, J. E.. PY - 1994/2/8. Y1 - 1994/2/8. N2 - Two regions involved in catechol biosynthesis (cbs) of Erwinia carotovora W3C105 were cloned by functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants that were deficient in the biosynthesis of the catechol siderophore enterobactin (ent). A 4.3-kb region of genomic DNA of E. carotovora complemented the entB402 mutation of E. coli. A second genomic region of 12.8 kb complemented entD, entC147, entE405, and entA403 mutations of E. coli. Although functions encoded by catechol biosynthesis genes (cbsA, cbsB, cbsC, cbsD, and cbsE) of E. carotovora were interchangeable with those encoded by corresponding enterobactin biosynthesis genes (entA, entB, entC, entD, and entE), only cbsE hybridized to its functional counterpart (entE) in E. coli. The cbsEA region of E. carotovora W3C105 hybridized to ...
Background: Elevated levels of circulating estrogens are linked to breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women; however, little is known about the importance of patterns of estrogen metabolism and the role of specific estrogen metabolites (EM). Estrogen metabolism entails hydroxylation at sites C2, C4 or C-16, and conjugation (predominantly via methylation, sulfation or glucuronidation). Recent research, primarily laboratory studies, has focused on the possible carcinogenic role for 4-hydroxyestrogens (4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2)) and 16-alpha-hydroxyestrone (16 - OHE1), and an anti-carcinogenic role for 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2). Further, the catechol estrogen 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) has been postulated to be either weakly estrogenic or antiestrogenic. The recent development of sophisticated laboratory methods to measure these metabolites in sera from large epidemiologic studies may provide clues to breast carcinogenesis and potentially help identify women ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA biotransformation. T2 - Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in Parkinsonian patients. AU - Dousa, M. K.. AU - Weinshilboum, Richard M. AU - Muenter, M. D.. AU - Offord, K. P.. AU - Decker, P. A.. AU - Tyce, G. M.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effects of dose and drug absorption on pathways of biotransformation of L-DOPA in Parkinsonian patients treated with Sinemet, and (2) the extent to which genetically-determined variations in the activities of erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and/or platelet phenol sulfotransferase might be reflected in individual differences in L-DOPA metabolism. In the 19 patients studied, there were negative correlations between dosage or absorption and extent of O-methylation and of sulfation of L-DOPA or its metabolites. Levels of activity for erythrocyte COMT were also reflected in individual ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of catechol O-methyltransferase to the removal of accumulated interstitial catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. AU - Kuroko, Yosuke. AU - Fujii, Takafumi. AU - Yamazaki, Toji. AU - Akiyama, Tsuyoshi. AU - Ishino, Kozo. AU - Sano, Shunji. AU - Mori, Hidezo. PY - 2005/11/11. Y1 - 2005/11/11. N2 - Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays an important role for clearance of high catecholamine levels. Although myocardial ischemia evokes similar excessive catecholamine accumulation, it is uncertain whether COMT activity is involved in the removal of accumulated catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. We examined how COMT activity affects myocardial catecholamine levels during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. We implanted a dialysis probe into the left ventricular myocardial free wall and measured dialysate catecholamines levels in anesthetized rabbits. Dialysate catecholamine levels served as an index of myocardial interstitial catecholamine levels. We ...
Squalene monooxygenase (also called squalene epoxidase) is an enzyme that uses NADPH and molecular oxygen to oxidize squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene (squalene epoxide). Squalene epoxidase catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is thought to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway. In humans, squalene epoxidase is encoded by the SQLE gene. Squalene monooxygenase (SqMO) was formerly referred to as squalene epoxidase (SqE) in the literature. Squalene monooxygenase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase. Flavoprotein monooxygenase form flavin hydroperoxides at the enzyme active site, which then transfer the terminal oxygen atom of the hydroperoxide to the substrate. Squalene monooxygenase differs from other flavin monooxygenases in that the oxygen is inserted as an epoxide rather than as a hydroxyl group. Squalene monooxygenase contains a loosely bound FAD flavin and obtains electrons from NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, rather than binding the nicotinamide cofactor ...
Catalyzes 2 different reactions between oxygene and the acireductone 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene (DHK-MTPene) depending upon the metal bound in the active site. Fe-containing acireductone dioxygenase (Fe-ARD) produces formate and 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate (KMTB), the alpha-ketoacid precursor of methionine in the methionine recycle pathway. Ni-containing acireductone dioxygenase (Ni-ARD) produces methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide and formate, and does not lie on the methionine recycle pathway.
Background Genome characterization of the model PCB-degrading bacterium Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 revealed the presence of eleven central pathways for aromatic compounds degradation, among them, the homogentisate and the homoprotocatechuate pathways. However, the functionality of these central pathways in strain LB400 has not been assessed and related peripheral pathways has not been described. Methodology/Principal Findings The aims of this study were to determine the functionality of the homogentisate and homoprotocatechuate central pathways in B. xenovorans LB400 and to establish their role in 3-hydroxyphenylacetate (3-HPA) and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (4-HPA) catabolism. Strain LB400 was able to grow using 3-HPA and 4-HPA as sole carbon source. A genomic search in LB400 suggested the presence of mhaAB and hpaBC genes clusters encoding proteins of the 3-hydroxyphenylacetate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate peripheral pathways. LB400 cells grown with 3-HPA and 4-HPA degraded homogentisate and
2015 Global 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional market conditions of the 1,4-Dichlorobenzene industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan and China).. The report firstly introduced the 1,4-Dichlorobenzene basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. Then it analyzed the worlds main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.. The report includes six parts, dealing with: 1.) basic information; 2.) the Asia 1,4-Dichlorobenzene industry; 3.) the North American ...
1,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene, 1,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene supplier, 1,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene distributor, CAS 575-38-2, 1,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene manufacturer, 1,7-Dihydroxynaphthalene wholesale
0106] Among dihydroxy compounds serving as a raw material of the polycarbonate resin, examples of aromatic dihydroxy compounds serving as a raw material of the aromatic polycarbonate resin include: [0107] dihydroxybenzenes, such as [0108] 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, [0109] 1,3-dihydroxybenzene (or resorcinol), and [0110] 1,4-dihydroxybenzene, [0111] dihydroxybiphenyls, such as [0112] 2,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, [0113] 2,2-dihydroxybiphenyl, and [0114] 4,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, [0115] dihydroxynaphthalenes, such as [0116] 2,2-dihydroxy-1,1-binaphthyl, [0117] 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0118] 1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0119] 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0120] 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0121] 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0122] 1,7-dihydroxynaphthalene, and [0123] 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0124] dihydroxydiaryl ethers, such as [0125] 2,2-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, [0126] 3,3-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, [0127] 4,4-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, [0128] 4,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyldiphenyl ether, [0129] ...
The Very Best Poison Ivy Remedy - based on my experience, not "theory" or something I read in a book. If the reader has never had a severe case of poison ivy then he cannot comprehend the depths of this suffering. Poison ivy, when it is bad, is not merely itching, but pustules develop and they ooze yellow fluid continually, often as fast as you can wipe it up... and the poison ivy spreads wherever the fluid touches, even to different parts of your body, and the tiniest little spot of poison ivy, even the size of the head of a pin, can feel like a needle sticking into you, as well as the itching. I. I have had poison ivy on nearly half my body and it is torture. The whole plant is toxic but the roots contain even more concentrated poison-in fact, poison ivy and its relatives are some of the most toxic and dangerous poisons on earth! Urushiol, the poison in poison ivy, is so potent, the amount that can fit on the head of a pin is enough to bother 500 people! Extreme care should be undertaken ...
Journal Publications. Choi, D.-W., R.C. Kunz, E.S. Boyd, J.D. Semrau, W.E. Antholine, J.-I. Han, J.A. Zahn, J.M. Boyd, A.M. de la Mora, and A.A. DiSpirito. 2003. The membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and pMMO-NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. J. Bacteriol. 185: 5755 -5764.. Choi, D.-W, W. E. Antholine, Y.S. Do, Jeremy D. Semrau, C.J. Kisting, R.C. Kunz, D. Campbell, V. Rao, S.C. Hartsel, and A.A. DiSpirito. 2005. Effect of methanobactin on the activity and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the membrane associated methane monooxygenase on Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. Microbiology 151, 3417-3426.. Choi, D.-W, C.J. Zea, Y.S. Do, J.D. Semrau, W.E. Antholine, M.S. Hargrove, N.L. Pohl, E.S. Boyd, G. G. Geesey, S.C. Hartsel, P.H. Shafe, M.T. McEllistrem, C.J. Kisting, D. Campbell, V. Rao, A.M. de la Mora, and A.A. DiSpirito. 2006. Spectral, Kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of Cu(I) and Cu(II) binding by methanobactin from Methylosinus ...
2-nitropropane dioxygenase: FAD-enzyme which converts 2 moles 2-nitropropane to 2 moles acetone or converts a nitroalkane to hydrogen peroxide + an aldehyde + nitrite
D-arabino-3-Hexulose 6-phosphate was prepared by condensation of formaldehyde with ribulose 5-phosphate in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase from methane-grown Methylococcus capsulatus. The 3-hexulose phosphate was unstable in solutions of pH greater than 3, giving a mixture of products in which, after dephosphorylation, allulose and fructose were detected. A complete conversion of d-ribulose 5-phosphate and formaldehyde into d-fructose 6-phosphate was demonstrated in the presence of 3-hexulose phosphate synthase and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (prepared from methane-grown M. capsulatus). d-Allulose 6-phosphate was prepared from d-allose by way of d-allose 6-phosphate. No evidence was found for its metabolism by extracts of M. capsulatus, thus eliminating it as an intermediate in the carbon assimilation process of this organism. A survey was made of the enzymes involved in the regeneration of pentose phosphate during C1 assimilation via a modified pentose phosphate cycle. On the basis ...
UGT2B7 (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-2B7) is a phase II metabolism isoenzyme found to be active in the liver, kidneys, epithelial cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract and also has been reported in the brain. In humans, UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-2B7 is encoded by the UGT2B7 gene. The UGTs serve a major role in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. UGT2B7 has unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol, suggesting that it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent estrogen metabolites. This enzyme is located on the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membranes of cells. Its function is to catalyse the conjugation of a wide variety of lipophilic aglycon substrates with glucuronic acid, using uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. Together with UGT2B4, UGT2B7 is capable of glucosidation of hyodesoxycholic acid in the liver, but, unlike the 2B4 isoform, 2B7 is also able to ...
Our findings strongly suggest that the inhibitory effects of estradiol on GMC growth are mediated via CYP450-derived metabolites. Treatment of GMCs with estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, or 2-methoxyestradiol, but not estrone, estriol, 16α-hydroxyestradiols, estrone sulfate, hydroxyestrone, or methoxyestrone, inhibits serum-induced GMC growth, and 2-hydroxyestradiol or 2-methoxyestradiol are more potent than estradiol in this regard. Importantly, 3-methylcholantherene and phenobarbital, CYP450 inducers12 with no affinity for ERs, enhanced the inhibitory effects of estradiol. Moreover, 1-aminobenzotriazole, a broad spectrum CYP450 inhibitor13 with no affinity for ERs,6 abrogated the antigrowth effects of estradiol both in the presence and absence of CYP450 inducers (see schematic representation in Figure 1). Our conclusion that the inhibitory effects of estradiol on GMC growth are mediated via CYP450-derived metabolites is further supported by the well-established findings that the CYP1A1 and ...
Bjørnstad, Linn; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tomter, Ane Berg; Falnes, Pål & Andersson, K. Kristoffer (2011). Spectroscopic and Magnetic Studies of wild-type and mutant forms of the FeII and 2-oxoglutarate dependent decarboxylase ALKBH4. Biochemical Journal. ISSN 0264-6021. 434(3), s 391- 398 . doi: 10.1042/BJ20101667 Vis sammendrag The FeII/2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily comprises proteins that couple a wide range of oxidation reactions to decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. A member of this class of mononuclear non-heme iron proteins is the E. coli DNA/RNA repair enzyme AlkB. In this work, we describe the magnetic and optical properties of the yet uncharacterized human AlkB homologue ALKBH4. Through EPR and UV-Vis spectroscopy studies, we address the iron binding environment of the proposed catalytic centre of wild-type ALKBH4 and an FeII binding mutant. We could observe a novel unusal ferric high spin EPR active species in presence of sulfide with gmax 8.2. The ...
Zingiber officinale (ZO, family Zingiberaceae) has been reported for its antiemetic activity against cancer chemotherapy induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. Current study was designed to investigate ZO for potential usefulness against cisplatin induced vomiting in pigeon and its effects on central and peripheral neurotransmitters involved in the act of vomiting. Zingiber officinale acetone fraction (ZO-ActFr) was investigated for attenuation of emesis induced by cisplatin in healthy pigeons. Neurotransmitters DA, 5HT and their metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 5HIAA were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector in area postrema, brain stem and intestine. Antiemetic effect of ZO-ActFr was correlated with central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels in pigeon. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg i.v.) induced emesis without lethality upto the observation period. ZO-ActFr (25, 50 & 100 mg/kg) attenuated cisplatin induced emesis ~ 44.18%, 58.13% (P | 0.05)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Salicylate degradation by a cold-adapted Pseudomonas sp. AU - Ahn, Eunsol. AU - Choi, Ki Young. AU - Kang, Beom Sik. AU - Zylstra, Gerben J.. AU - Kim, Dockyu. AU - Kim, Eungbin. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Pseudomonas sp. strain MC1 was characterized as a cold-adapted, naphthalene-degrading bacterium that is able to grow in a broad temperature range of 5-30°C. MC1 harbors a catabolic plasmid, designated pYIC1, which is almost identical to the archetypal NAH7 plasmid from the mesophilic bacterium Pseudomonas putida G7. On pYIC1, the catabolic genes for naphthalene degradation are clustered in two operons: nahAa-Ab-Ac-Ad-B-F-C-Q-E-D encoding the conversion of naphthalene to salicylate, and nahG-T-H-I-N-L-O-M-K-J encoding the conversion of salicylate through meta-cleavage pathway to pyruvate and acetyl CoA. NahH, the bona fide extradiol dioxygenase in MC1 salicylate metabolism, is thermolabile and is a cold-adapted enzyme. The thermal profiles of the NahH enzyme activities ...
United States Patent Oflice Patented Dec. 1, 1970 3,544,502 LATEX STABILIZED WITH SALTS F POLYMETHYLATED MUCONIC ACIDS Jackson S. Boyer, Claymont, Del., and Richard D. Cassar, West Chester, Pa., assignors to Sun Oil Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of New Jersey No Drawing. Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 691,199, Dec. 18, 1967. This application May 23, 1968, Ser. No. 731,619 Int. Cl. C08c 7/10; C08d 7/10 U.S. Cl. 26029.7 16 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Stabilized aqueous latex emulsion compositions and methods of their preparation, comprising a rubber latex emulsion containing 0.05 to 10.0 weight percent based on the weight of the whole composition of the alkali and/ or the alkaline earth metal salts of certain polymethylated muconic acids. CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS The present application is a continuation-in-part of copending application, Ser. No. 691,199 and is also related to patent applications, Ser. Nos. 691,129; 691,152 and 691,153, all filed on ...
Albany, NY, March 4, 2015-- Transparency Market Research has released a new market report titled Muconic Acid Market- Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014- 2020. According to the report, the global muconic acid market was valued at USD 54.21 million in 2013 and is anticipated to reach USD 86.54 million by 2020, expanding at a CAGR of...
The upper operon of the TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida encodes a set of enzymes which transform toluene and xylenes to benzoate and toluates. The genetic organization of the operon was characterized by cloning of the upper operon genes into an expression vector and identification of their products in Escherichia coli maxicells. This analysis showed that the upper operon contains at least five genes in the order of xylC-xylM-xylA-xylB-xylN. Between the promoter of the operon and xylC, there is a 1.7-kilobase-long space of DNA in which no gene function was identified. In contrast, most of the DNA between xylC and xylN consists of coding sequences. The xylC gene encodes the 57-kilodalton benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The xylM and xylA genes encode 35- and 40-kilodalton polypeptides, respectively, which were shown by genetic complementation tests to be subunits of xylene oxygenase. The structural gene for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, xylB, encodes a 40-kilodalton polypeptide. The last gene of ...
Tolcapone (brand name Tasmar) is a drug used to treat Parkinsons disease (PD). It is a selective, potent and reversible nitrocatechol-type inhibitor of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). It has demonstrated significant liver toxicity, which has led to suspension of marketing authorisations in a number of countries. In comparison with entacapone, another nitrocatechol COMT inhibitor, tolcapone has a longer half life (2.9 hours vs. 0.8 hours) and can better penetrate the blood-brain barrier, acting both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. However, entacapone is less toxic for the liver. Tolcapone is used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa or levodopa/benserazide medications. Levodopa is a prodrug for dopamine, which reduces Parkinson symptoms; carbidopa and benserazide are aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) inhibitors. Without administration of tolcapone, the beneficial effects of levodopa tend to wear off more quickly, ...
論文Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the degradation pathway of 2-nitrobenzoate by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7査読有学術雑誌共著岩木 宏明;T.Muraki;M.Taki;Y.Hasegawa;H.Iwaki;P.C.K.Lau;adipic acid;green chemistry;Acinetobacter;gene cloning;Biodegradation;Cyclohexanol;Appl. Enviorn. Microbiol.69巻3号 1564-1572頁2003年3月 英文The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate.In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that enocompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes.The gene cluster, designated nbaEX HJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same derection.The nbaC and nbaDgene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3carboxymuconate-6semialdehyde ...
Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (homogentisic acid oxidase, homogentisicase) is an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to 4-maleylacetoacetate. Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase or HGD is involved in the catabolism of aromatic rings, more specifically in the breakdown of the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. HGD appears in the metabolic pathway of tyrosine and phenylalanine degradation once the molecule homogentisate is produced. Homogentisate reacts with HGD to produce maleylacetoacetate, which then is further used in the metabolic pathway. HGD requires the use of Fe2+ and O2 in order to cleave the aromatic ring of homogentisate. homogentisate 4-maleylacetoacetate The active site of Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was determined through the crystal structure, which was captured through the work of Titus et al. Through the crystal structure the active site was found to contain the following residues; His292, His335, His365, His371, and Glu341. Homogentisate binds in the active ...
Looking for 4-methylaniline? Find out information about 4-methylaniline. any of three amino derivatives of toluene. Ortho, meta , and para isomers of toluidines are known . Toluidines are readily soluble in organic solvents but... Explanation of 4-methylaniline
To address the decontamination of (1) toxic organic compounds such as naphthene and catechol found in the tailings ponds, natural pathways that can break down the toxic chemicals can be utilized. The toxic organic compounds can be broken down into molecules that are metabolizable by all organisms, such as 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (2-HMS)3. Catechol is a prime candidate to function as a hub for the funneling and subsequent degradation of other toxic compounds found in abundance, such as naphthene, anthracene, and fluorene into 2-HMS (Figure 1)3,4,5. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (xylE) is found in Pseudomonas putida and hydrolyzes catechol into 2-HMS, which can enter the citric acid cycle6. In 2010, the Lethbridge iGEM team confirmed that xylE when introduce to E. coli hydrolyzes catechol to 2-HMS demonstrating and that this critical step can successfully be performed to convert toxic chemicals to metabolic intermediates7. XylE is inefficient on its own, especially in vitro, due to instability ...
In order to determine which enzymes would most benefit from metabolic channeling in the catechol degradation pathway, we used a cellular simulation tool, developed in our lab, called Cell++. It allows us to place enzymes of choice in a compartment within a cellular environment and calculates the effect of localization on metabolite concentrations in a user-defined biochemical pathway (Sanford et al. 2006). We gathered kinetic data of the five enzymes in the degradation pathway and investigated the effects of localizing pairs of sequential enzymes (i.e. catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase and muconate cycloisomeras) on metabolite concentrations. Four co-localization simulations were performed in Cell++ along with a control simulation where no enzymes were co-localized. The initial metabolite in the simulation environment, catechol, was added into the simulation environment and the simulation environment was run for 10,000 iterations to observe the effect on catechol degradation in each simulation. The ...
BACKGROUND L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), a norepinephrine (NE) prodrug, is investigational for orthostatic hypotension, which occurs commonly in Parkinsons disease. Adjunctive anti-parkinsonian drugs might interact with L-DOPS. We tested whether L-aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase inhibition by carbidopa (CAR) attenuates L-DOPS conversion to NE and blocks the pressor effect of L-DOPS, whereas catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition by entacapone (ENT) interferes with L-DOPS metabolism and augments the pressor effect. METHODS Twelve patients with autonomic failure took 400 mg of L-DOPS with 200 mg of placebo (PLA), CAR, or ENT on different days. Plasma L-DOPS, NE, and deaminated NE metabolites (dihydroxyphenylglycol [DHPG], dihydroxymandelic acid [DHMA]) were measured. RESULTS L-DOPS+PLA and L-DOPS+ENT increased systolic pressure similarly (by 27 ± 8 and 24 ± 9 mm Hg at 3 hours). L-DOPS+CAR did not increase pressure. The peak increase in plasma NE (0.57 ± 0.11 nmol/L) averaged less
Salah satu penyebab kegagalan perawatan endodontik adalah mikroba yang bertahan di dalam sistem saluran akar, termasuk Enterococcus faecalis. Senyawa yang terdapat pada ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe yang terdiri dari gingerol, paradol, shogaol, zingerone dan minyak atsiri diduga merupakan golongan senyawa bioaktif yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui efek antimikroba ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe (EERJ) terhadap Enterococcus faecalis. Penelitian bersifat eksperimental laboratorik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan kertas cakram steril yang ditetesi ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe (Zingiber offcinale Rosc.) dengan konsentrasi 5%, 10%, 20% dan 40% dan klorheksidin 0,2% sebagai kontrol positif serta kertas cakram steril yang ditetesi akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif pada medium Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) yang telah dibiakkan bakteri Enterococcus faecalis. Cakram diinkubasi pada suhu 37o selama 24 jam. Data yang diukur adalah diameter zona hambat ...
Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize
N-butyl-4-methylaniline 10387-24-3 NMR spectrum, N-butyl-4-methylaniline H-NMR spectral analysis, N-butyl-4-methylaniline C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Ralstonia eutropha strain E2 (previously Alcaligenes sp.) is a phenol-degrading bacterium expressing phenol-oxygenating activity with a low Ks (the apparent half-saturation constant in Haldane's equation) and an extremely high KSI (the apparent inhibition constant). To identify the molecular basis for these novel cellular kinetic properties, a 9.5 kb DNA fragment that allowed Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c (Phl- Cat+) to grow on phenol as the sole carbon source was cloned from strain E2 into plasmid pRO1614. PAO1c harbouring this plasmid (designated pROE217) transformed phenol to catechol, indicating that this fragment contains gene(s) for phenol hydroxylase. The cloned genes consist of eight complete ORFs, designated poxRABCDEFG. The products are homologous to those of dmpRKLMNOPQ of Pseudomonas sp. CF600, sharing 30--65% identity: this suggests that the phenol hydroxylase is a multicomponent enzyme. The kinetic constants for phenol-oxygenating activity of PA01c(pROE217) were determined, and these
BACKGROUND: Endogenous sex hormones are well-established risk factors for breast cancer; the contribution of specific oestrogen metabolites (EMs) and/or ratios of specific EMs is less clear. We have previously identified a CYP3A7*1C allele that is associated with lower urinary oestrone (E1) levels in premenopausal women. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether this allele was associated with specific pathway EMs. METHODS: We measured successfully 12 EMs in mid-follicular phase urine samples from 30 CYP3A7*1C carriers and 30 non-carriers using HPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: In addition to having lower urinary E1 levels, CYP3A7*1C carriers had significantly lower levels of four of the 2-hydroxylation pathway EMs that we measured (2-hydroxyestrone, P=1.1 × 10-12; 2-hydroxyestradiol, P=2.7 × 10-7; 2-methoxyestrone, P=1.9 × 10-12; and 2-methoxyestradiol, P=0.0009). By contrast, 16α-hydroxylation pathway EMs were slightly higher in carriers and significantly so for 17-epiestriol (P=0.002). ...
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1,2-Dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), an industrial solvent, is a potent hepatotoxicant in Fischer-344 (F-344) rats. Bioactivation of 1,2-DCB by cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver and subsequent activation of Kupffer cells (KC), the resident liver macrophages, are required for the development and progression of liver damage. The mechanisms by which KC cells become activated in chemical induced liver injury are unknown. The studies described in this dissertation utilized 1,2-DCB as a model hepatotoxicant to test the hypothesis that KC activation following 1,2-DCB induced liver injury is triggered by molecular and cellular events in hepatocytes that lead to the expression of proteins known to activate inflammatory cells. The administration of 1,2-DCB (3.6mmol/kg, i.p.) to F-344 rats or incubation of 1,2-DCB (3.6 umol) with primary cultured hepatocytes of F-344 rats produces an intracellular oxidative stress as assessed by the production of glutathione disulfide. The binding activity of transcription ...
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In this investigation, single and hybrid immobilization techniques for whole cells of Pseudomonas sp. SA01 were employed to enhance phenol degradation rate. The single immobilization was achieved using alginate (2-4%) and pectin (3-5%) together with the combined immobilization systems which consisted of alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate capsules. The freely suspended cellsof Pseudomonas sp. SA01 was able to degrade phenol in concentrations up to 1000 mg/L 84 h. The complete degradation of the same concentration of phenol by cells entrapped in alginate (3%), in hybrid immobilization system alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA), and in PVA-alginate encapsulated cells were achieved as low as 30 h. However, the cells immobilized in pectin (5 %) could degrade the same concentration of phenol at 35 and 40 h respectively. The cell loading capacity is increased in PVA-alginate hybrid capsules owing to the reduction of cell leakage from the beads, resulted in higher activity ...
Les metal·lotioneïnes (MTs) són unes metal·loproteïnes de baix pes molecular i un elevat contingut en residus de cisteïna que els confereixen una gran capacitat per coordinar i intercanviar ions metàl·lics pesants. A més dels residus de cisteïna, existeixen altres lligands no proteics, com els lligands sulfur àcid-làbils, que també poden participar en la coordinació metàl·lica. Lestudi de les capacitats coordinants de les MTs ha permès classificar-les segons la seva preferència metàl·lica en Zn-tioneïnes i Cu-tioneïnes, així com demostrar lexistència duna gradació entre aquests dos tipus extrems de MTs, donant lloc a un conjunt de proteïnes amb característiques intermèdies que podrien comportar-se com Cu-tioneïnes o Zn-tioneïnes depenent de les necessitats específiques de la cèl·lula. En els mamífers es troben 4 isoformes de metal·lotioneïna (MT1, MT2, MT3 i MT4). Aquestes 4 isoformes tenen 20 cisteïnes conservades en la seva seqüència proteica, i ...
An activated carbon, CarbochemTM-PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H2, in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal conjugation of catechol group onto hyaluronic acid in coronary stent substrate coating for the prevention of restenosis. AU - Lih, Eugene. AU - Choi, Seul Gi. AU - Ahn, Dong June. AU - Joung, Yoon Ki. AU - Han, Dong Keun. PY - 2016/2/13. Y1 - 2016/2/13. N2 - Although endovascular stenting has been used as an interventional therapy to treat cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases, it is associated with recurrent vascular diseases following stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. In this study, a metallic stent was coated with dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid with different ratios of catechol group to improve hemocompatibility and re-endothelialization. Especially, we were interested in how much amount of catechol group is appropriate for the above-mentioned purposes. Therefore, a series of dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid conjugates with different ratios of catechol group were synthesized via a carbodiimide coupling reaction. Dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid ...
The gene cluster, coding for the chlorocatechol sp. of hereditary, biochemical, and ecological areas of the connections of several chloroaromatic substances with microorganisms in the biosphere within a broad work to comprehend the fate of the chemicals in the surroundings also to develop book bioremediation strategies (22, 33, 37). Among the principles to emerge out of this body of function is the department of biodegradative routes into higher and lower pathways that are linked with the central intermediate chlorocatechol (38). Hereditary research of chlorocatechol sp. stress P51 and sp. stress PS12: an entire mineralization pathway seems to have advanced through transposon-mediated recruitment of toluene or benzene dioxygenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase genes following to a gene cluster coding for an gene cluster, hereafter known as the gene cluster) in the trichlorobenzene-degrading stress sp. stress P51 (41) within a Tnchlorocatechol catabolic genes are organized within an operon and ...
β,β-Carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase cleaves β,β-carotene into two molecules of retinal, and is the key enzyme in the metabolism of β,β-carotene to vitamin A. The enzyme has been known for more than 40 years, yet all attempts to purify the protein to homogeneity have failed. Recently, the successful cloning and sequencing of an enzyme with β,β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase activity from chicken, as well as from Drosophila, has been reported. Here, we describe in detail our attempt to enrich the chicken β,β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase to such an extent as to allow determination of partial amino acid sequences, which were then used to design degenerate oligonucleotides. Screening of a chicken duodenal expression library yielded a full-length clone containing a coding sequence of 1578bp. Functional expression in Escherichia coli and in eukaryotic cell lines confirmed that we had cloned the first vertebrate dioxygenase that cleaves β,β-carotene at the central 15,15′-double bond. By ...
Chlorobenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with an aromatic, almond-like odor. Some of it will dissolve in water, but it readily evaporates into air. It does not occur naturally in the environment. Chlorobenzene production in the United States has declined by more than 60% from its peak in 1960. It was used in the past to make other chemicals, such as phenol and DDT. Now chlorobenzene is used as a solvent for some pesticide formulations, to degrease automobile parts, and as a chemical intermediate to make several other chemicals.