People ingest castor oil to relieve constipation, to induce labor, and for other naturopathic purposes, but you should never eat whole raw castor beans [source: Times of India].. Castor bean plants are beautiful. They have vibrant, red leaves and they produce red and yellow flowers. Theyre also extremely toxic to both people and animals. Like red kidney beans, castor beans contain high concentrations of a particularly harmful lectin. The lectin in castor beans is called ricin.. Yep, the ricin in castor beans is the same poison that Jesse helped Walter White cook up in Breaking Bad. Its actually very easy to distill ricin from castor beans, and a terrorist tried to poison President Obama and U.S. Senator Roger Wicker with envelopes of the stuff in 2013 [source: Nosowitz].. Even cooking castor beans isnt enough to destroy ricin. In fact, you make the poison using the mash leftover from processing castor beans for their oil [source: CDC]. Castor oil is the only castor bean product thats safe ...
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Find essential growing information on castor beans, including: flower and foliage colors, height and width, seasonal features and special features. Check out more information about the castor bean varieties and explore tips on planting castor beans.
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The properties of a discrete membranous fraction isolated on sucrose gradients from castor bean endosperm have been examined. This fraction was previously shown to be the exclusive site of phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase. The distribution of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and antimycin insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase across the gradient followed closely that of the phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase. This fraction also had NADH diaphorase activity and contained cytochromes b5 and P 450. On sucrose gradients containing 1 mM EDTA this fraction had a mean isopycnic density of 1.12 g/cm3 and sedimented separately from the ribosomes; electron micrographs showed that it was comprised of smooth membranes. When magnesium was included in the gradients to prevent the dissociation of membrane-bound ribosomes, the isopycnic density of the membrane fraction with its associated enzymes was increased to 1.16 g/cm3 and under these conditions the electron micrographs showed that the membranes ...
Mellor, R. B., Roberts, Lynne M. and Lord, J.M. (1980) N-Acetylglucosamine Transfer Reactions and Glycoprotein Biosynthesis in Castor Bean Endosperm. Journal of Experimental Botany, 31(4), pp. 993-1003. ISSN (print) 0022-0957 ...
Ricinus communis (castor bean) Agglutinin (RCA120)-biotin conjugate Secondary Antibodies RCA15-BTN Ricinus communis (castor bean) Agglutinin (RCA120)-biotin conjugate Secondary Antibodies RCA15-BTN
Castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) Stock Footage. csp37107312 - Castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus). Affordable Royalty Free Stock Photography. Downloads for just $2.50, with thousands of images added daily. Subscriptions available for just $39.00. Our stock photo image search engine contains royalty free photos, vector clip art images, clipart illustrations.
Native to Africa, but now commonly grown in gardens as a decorative foliage plant, castor beans sport large leaves on stalks. Castor bean flowers are typically green, but newer varieties of the plant ...
ENTRY T20067 Est Genome DEFINITION Ricinus communis (castor bean) (EST) ANNOTATION KAAS TAXONOMY TAX:3988 LINEAGE Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; eudicotyledons; core eudicotyledons; rosids; eurosids I; Malpighiales; Euphorbiaceae; Acalyphoideae; Acalypheae; Ricinus DATA_SOURCE dbEST ...
Castor seeds Spot prices -December 21 Castor seed arrivals, in 75-kilogram bag: 0,19,000-0,20,000 versus 0,15,000-0,16,000 previous. * Castor seed ready, auction price, in rupees per 20 kilograms: 0,810-0,870 versus 0,820-0,875 previous
Castor seeds Spot prices -September 07 Castor seed arrivals, in 75-kilogram bag: 0,35,000-0,36,000 versus 0,02,000-0,03,000 previous. * Castor seed ready, auction price, in rupees per 20 kilograms: 0,835-0,900 versus 0,830-0,895 previous
The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is grown for its production of castor oil, animal feed and as an ornamental garden specimen. The plant is highly toxic and contains a chemical known as the protein ricin and the alkaloid ricinine. When the plant and beans are boiled, the toxins are removed. The seeds are then ...
Citation: Lin, J.T., Chen, G.Q. 2013. Identification of TAG and DAG and their FA constituents in Lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil by HPLC and MS. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 90:1819-1829. Interpretive Summary: Ricinoleate, a hydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of biodegradable plastics, plasticizers, lubricants, cosmetics, paints and surfactants. Castor is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. However castor bean contains toxin, ricin, as well as potent allergens, it is hazardous to grow, harvest and process castor. It is desirable to produce ricinoleate in an oilseed of a transgenic plant lacking these toxic components. Lesquerella fendleri contains no such toxic components. Its oil contains ricinoleate and thus the plant can be developed to produce high level of ricinoleate for industrial uses. Lesquerolate, a C20 homolog of ricinoleate, is the major fatty acid in lesquerella oil. Lesquerolate can also be used for ...
Sucrose Synthesis from Acetate in the Germinating Castor Bean: Kinetics and Pathway (Canvin, D. Beevers. Photograph thanks to Purdue University Libraries, Karnes Archives and Particular Collections. In 1942, Beevers entered the accelerated wartime university plan Bosutinib cell signaling and received a B.Sc. in botany from Kings University in Newcastle upon Tyne (then component of Durham University). He remained at Kings University for Bosutinib cell signaling graduate college, learning CO2 fixation with Meirion Thomas, which led him to a lifelong curiosity in plant metabolic process. After getting his doctoral level, Beevers transferred to Oxford University. He became first associate, and afterwards chief research associate, in plant physiology in the medicinal plant analysis laboratory of W. O. James, an authority on plant respiration. Beevers analysis in Oxford devoted to the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids. He also investigated the uptake of fragile acids and fragile bases by plant ...
The castor beans are the most effective repellent to moles. You might plant them for their beauty or just to keep the moles out of your yard. Common
Download this The Castor Bean Tick photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
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Castor is a non-edible oilseed crop, primarily grown for oil containing an unusual hydroxy fatty acid and ricinoleic acid (80-90%) of the total fatty acids. Commercial exploitation of heterosis in castor was successful in India due to the development of stable pistillate lines from a dominant and epistatic
This work describes the application of clearing on vibratome sections to study the embryo formation in cassava. This procedure provides high-resolution images and reduces significantly the number of sections that need to be analyzed per ovule. This methodology was instrumental for the development of the protocol for embryo rescue in cassava. It has been also applied to monitor the embryo formation response when optimizing seed setting from regular and broad crosses for cassava breeding. Broad crosses between cassava and castor bean (incompatible-euphorbiaceae species) were made aiming to induce doubled haploids through the elimination of the incompatible-male parent genome as done in cereals. Castor bean is widely available and provides continues supply of pollen. Our results suggest that this methodology is easy and effective to assess the response of hundreds of cassava ovules pollinated with castor bean pollen, allowing the identification of multicellular structures in the embryo sac without apparent
Castor bean biochemistry has long been thoroughly analysed in the context of lipids as they are industrially potent metabolites but profiling of other bio-molecules and their control over co-ordinated metabolism are not comprehensive.. Biochemists have made research on castor bean derived enzyme,phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) which is an ubiquitous enzyme,implicated to carbon metabolism.The level and functional activity of this enzyme is variable in castor seed and subjected to different molecular mechanisms for a regulation in functional activity during the course of seed development .Recently, people have identified a modification called mono-ubiquitination in PEPC but its relevance to enzymes activity is not well understood and hence to identify its significance, biochemists have purified the enzyme and subjected for in vitro activity,inhibitor sensitivity and other physiochemical parameters.The results indicated a striking difference in enzyme behaviour between modified and ...
Producing unusual fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants has been a long-standing goal of green chemistry. However, expression of the enzymes that catalyze the primary synthesis of these unusual FAs in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of the desired FA. For example, seed-specific expression of castor (Ricinus communis) fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in only 17% hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) in the seed oil. In order to increase HFA levels, we investigated castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). We cloned cDNAs encoding three putative PDAT enzymes from a castor seed cDNA library and coexpressed them with RcFAH12. One isoform, RcPDAT1A, increased HFA levels to 27%. Analysis of HFA-triacylglycerol molecular species and regiochemistry, along with analysis of the HFA content of phosphatidylcholine, indicates that RcPDAT1A functions as a PDAT in vivo. Expression of RcFAH12 alone leads to a significant decrease in FA content of ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
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Many a granny came armed with a spoonful of castor oil to heal all ills, and studies show that it does indeed have health benefits to offer. Just be sure not to eat the beans from which the oil came. If castor beans are chewed and swallowed, they can release ricin, one of the most toxic poisons known to man. Eating just one or two castor beans can easily cause the demise of the eater. Ricin has been investigated as a warfare agent, and has even been employed by secret agents and assassins. ...
Research Abstract: Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds serve as raw material for the production of nonedible oil used in medicine and industry, whereas the presence of allergenic and toxic proteins in the residue left after oil extraction precludes the use of this protein-rich by-product in animal feeding. To better understand the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids and to identify proteins with toxic/anti-nutritional properties, extracts of developing and germinating seeds were prepared and prefractionated according to solubility properties of the proteins. An enriched plastid organelle fraction embracing mostly plastids and mitochondria was also prepared. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) reference maps of these fractions were obtained from which nearly 400 proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) mass spectrometry after a search in a National Center for Biotechnology ...
2.3. Scoring of MSAP bands and data analysis According to different sensitivities to methylation of restriction enzyme HpaII and MspI to the CCGG sequence, the methylation states could be classified into following four basic types based on previous reports (Portis et al., 2004): Type Ⅰ pattern represents the non-methylation sites (E-H/E-M, 1/1), Type Ⅱ pattern represents the hemi-methylation sites (E-H/E-M, 1/0), Type Ⅲ pattern represents full-methylation sites (E-H/E-M, 0/1), and Type Ⅳ pattern represents the uninformative sites (E-H/E-M, 0/0).. For each primer, the well-resolved bands were scored as absence (0) and presence (1) with same molecular weight to form a binary matrix. Epigenetic diversity parameters, including the percentage of polymorphic loci (PPB), the expected heterozygosity (He), Shannons Information Index (I), the effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) were estimated and analyzed by using the GenAlEx version 6.501 software (Rod and Petere, 2006). Based on the ...
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In Israel, Evogene announced the signing of a collaboration agreement between its wholly-owned subsidiary Evofuel Ltd. and Insolo Agroindustrial S.A., for the selection and optimization of Evofuels proprietary castor bean varieties in Insolo farms located in Piaui state in northeast Brazil. The two-year collaboration between the two companies will examine the suitability and adaptability of […]. Read More. ...
Arabidopsis stearoyl ACP desaturase: a fatty acid desaturase modulates the activation of defense signaling pathways in plants; amino acid sequence in first source
In some groups (e.g. grains of the family Poaceae) the endosperm persists to the mature seed stage as a storage tissue, in which case the seeds are called "albuminous" or "endospermous", and in others it is absorbed during embryo development (e.g., most members of the family Fabaceae, including the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris), in which case the seeds are called "exalbuminous" or "cotyledonous" and the function of storage tissue is performed by enlarged cotyledons ("seed leaves"). In certain species (e.g. corn, Zea mays); the storage function is distributed between both endosperm and the embryo. Some mature endosperm tissue stores fats (e.g. castor bean, Ricinus communis) and others (including grains, such as wheat and corn) store mainly starches. The dust-like seeds of orchids have no endosperm. Orchid seedlings are mycoheterotrophic in their early development. In some other species, such as coffee, the endosperm also does not develop.[10] Instead, the nucellus produces a nutritive tissue ...
Below are some castor bean seeds. Not sure what type, I just know they will be tall! I got these in a trade also. These seeds are kinda creepy looking… Like a big fat tick that just got done gorging itself. The plants (and seeds) are very poisonous, maybe its a good thing they look kinda like big ticks! Watch out all you nasty squirrels, dont be digging around the wrong plants! ...
R icin toxin, an extremely potent toxin produced from the bean of the ubiquitous Ricinus communis (castor bean plant), has been categorized by the US Center...
Chemical agents differ from biological agents in a number of significant ways. To begin with, the onset of symptoms may occur instantly or within a few hours of exposure, whereas biological agents can take up to weeks to present. Chemical agents are synthesized through some type of industrial process, whereas biological agents are either self-replicating microbes or compounds formed by these microbes such as botulinum toxin (produced by Clostridia; see Chapter 17) or ricin, a natural metabolic product of the castor bean plant, Ricinus communis. Chemical agents act by disrupting normal metabolic function at varying sites throughout the body according to the type of agent used and are categorized into roughly eleven categories (Table 21-1). From a weapons standpoint, not all chemical agents pose a threat as a likely choice for terrorism or as a WMD. In large part this is because of logistical or technical considerations-some require too much volume for easy concealment, others pose difficulties of ...
Background: The potential biodiesel plant castor bean (Ricinus communis) has been in the limelight for bioenergy research due to the availability of its genome which raises the bar for genome-wide studies claiming advances that impact the "genome-phenome challenge". Here we report the application of phytohormone ABA as an exogenous factor for the improvement of storage reserve accumulation with a focus on the complex interaction of pathways associated with seed filling ...
SUSSEL, A.A.B.; POZZA, E.A.; CASTRO, H.A. and LASMAR, E.B.C. Gray mold incidence and severity under different temperature, wetness period and conidial concentration. Summa phytopathol. [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.30-34. ISSN 0100-5405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-54052011000100005.. The effect of temperature (15, 20, 25 and 28 ºC), wetness period (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours) and conidia concentration (0, 1x102, 1x103, 1x104, 1x105 and 1x106 conidia/mL-1) on the incidence and severity of gray mold caused by Amphobotrys ricini in castor bean (Ricinus communis) bunches were evaluated. The conidia concentration effect was evaluated fixing the temperature at 25ºC and the wetness duration at 48 hour. The temperature and wetness duration were evaluated fixing the conidial concentration at 1x105 conidia mL-1. The plants were evaluated as to the incidence of fruit wiht symptons and severity in each bunch. The area under incidence progress curve (AUIPC) and under severity progress curve ...
The tall castor beans have amazed my little friend who lives on the property behind me. I will have to put some in his yard he tells me.Last year he and his siblings picked every blossom from some hollyhocks I had back there to use in their make believe plays. I asked him where they were and he said they had blown over into their yard, eyes rolling into the back of his head. I asked him to always ask, and we are still friends. Hard to get too upset over children having fun. I aways liked to sit under the huge leaves of these castors and make believe I was in a jungle when I was his age ...
An oilseed press is a machine that lies at the center of vegetable oil extraction. This is due to the fact that this technology is designed to release oil from oilseeds. Multiple oilseed press layouts have been developed over time to complete this process, with each having its own distinct set of advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, the products that are created by oilseed presses, namely oil and oilseed meal, possess great nutritive benefits for humans and livestock respectively. The oilseed press, being at the center of the oil-extraction process, is joined with various other pieces of equipment and procedures that form a pre- and post-extraction system. Breaking it down to its simplest formulation, the process that oilseed presses carry out appears is quite simple. Oilseed presses essentially extrude or press vegetable oil from oil-bearing seeds, which include soybean, sunflower, peanut, safflower, canola, sesame, niger, castor bean, linseed, mustard, coconut, olive, and oil palm. The ...
How the bloodsuckers overcome the variety of substrates and manage to cling on to various surfaces is shown by a current study by Dr. Dagmar Voigt and Professor Dr. Stanislav Gorb. The results of their experiments with the castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) have been recently published in the Journal of Experimental Biology.
The perfect poison: Ricin used in 3 recent cases - JACKSON Miss. (AP) - The key ingredient - castor beans - is easy to find. Crude instructions for extracting the lethal poison in them can be found on the Internet. And it doesnt require a chemi...
Most plants contain lectins, some of which are toxic, inflammatory, or both. Many of these plant and dairy lectin are resistant to cooking and digestive enzymes. Grain lectins, for example, are quite resistant to human digestion but well suited for ruminants like cattle who have multi-chambered stomachs. Therefore, lectins are present in our food and are often resistant to our digestion and some have been scientifically shown to have significant GI toxicity in humans. Others have been shown to be beneficial and maybe even cancer protecting. Either way plant and animal proteins are foreign proteins to the body and are dealt with by digestion and our immune system in a positive or negative manner. The human digestive system was created to handle a variety of plant and animal proteins through the process of digestion and elimination. Some plant and animal proteins or lectins are severely toxic to humans and can not be eaten without causing death like those in Castor beans and some mushrooms. Other ...
Toxins produced by plants and bacteria pose a significant threat to humans, as emphasized by the recent effects of cucumber-borne Shiga toxin in Germany. Now, new research published on July 21st by the Cell Press journal Developmental Cell provides a clearer view of the combination of similar and divergent strategies that different toxins use to invade a human host cell.. Ricin is a highly toxic protein derived from the castor bean plant that has raised concerns as a potentially lethal biological weapon. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is a sometimes deadly protein produced by a common bacterium that can infect the lungs and urinary tract. "Although from very different origins, both PE and ricin share several points in common," says senior study author, Dr. Fr©d©ric Bard from the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Singapore. "Like many other toxins, they have evolved mechanisms for hijacking intracellular membrane transport processes." Previous research has identified some of the proteins ...
What that boils down to is if you have castor beans, you better not suggest youre going to do anything with them," Tolley said after the verdict. Dan Summer, Crumps attorney, said he respected the jurys decision. "They did what they thought was the right thing to do," he said. "All I can ask for is a fair trial and I believe the court gave us a fair trial." McKinnon said after the verdict that he didnt immediately have a comment. Adams and Crump were among four men arrested in November 2011 after recordings were made by an undercover informant who attended their meetings at homes, during car rides and at a Waffle House restaurant. The other two men, Dan Roberts and Frederick Thomas, pleaded guilty in April 2012 to conspiring to get an unregistered explosive and an illegal gun silencer. Story sentenced them each to serve five years in prison. The law enforcement informant, Joe Sims, was a key witness for the prosecution. Sims had contacted the FBI in mid-2010 when he was in jail facing child ...
Some history: Toxicology as a formally recognized scientific discipline is relatively new (mid 1900s) although the science itself is thousands of years old. Consider the potential results of early trial and error experiences of hunter-gatherers for whom identifying a toxic plant or animal was a life or death situation. Some of the most poisonous substances known today are naturally produced chemicals including Ricin from castor beans or tetrodotoxin from the puffer fish. Early humans careful observation of plants or animals with toxic characteristics such as frogs containing curare, were put to use not only for avoidance of toxic substances but for weapons as well. Additionally, many naturally derived poisons were likely used for hunting, medicinals (the Egyptians were aware of many toxic substances such as lead, opium and hemlock as early as 1500 BCE), and eventually for the political poisonings practiced, for example, by the early Greeks and Romans. As humans sought to better understand ...
Some history: Toxicology as a formally recognized scientific discipline is relatively new (mid 1900s) although the science itself is thousands of years old. Consider the potential results of early trial and error experiences of hunter-gatherers for whom identifying a toxic plant or animal was a life or death situation. Some of the most poisonous substances known today are naturally produced chemicals including Ricin from castor beans or tetrodotoxin from the puffer fish. Early humans careful observation of plants or animals with toxic characteristics such as frogs containing curare, were put to use not only for avoidance of toxic substances but for weapons as well. Additionally, many naturally derived poisons were likely used for hunting, medicinals (the Egyptians were aware of many toxic substances such as lead, opium and hemlock as early as 1500 BCE), and eventually for the political poisonings practiced, for example, by the early Greeks and Romans. As humans sought to better understand ...
Since the first plant genome sequence was obtained for the plant Arabidopsis in 2000, scientists have gene-sequenced everything from cannabis to castor bean.
Canadian General-Towers (CGT) new Vehreo coverstock uses recycled post consumer waste and biological-based feedstocks as key ingredients in a material composition with an overall sustainable content that exceeds 40%.. "Vehreos composition is a vinyl-coated fabric with bio-based and recycled content. The backing fabric is made with 100% recycled yarn, and the PVC film has a minimum 20% bio-based and recycled content," Margaret Soares, Product Development Specialist for CGT Ltd., told SAE Magazines.. CGTs commercially available coverstock uses Unifi Inc.s Repreve-branded fabric as the supporting textile for the flexible skin. The Repreve fabric is 100% PET (polyethylene terephthalate) hybrid polyester. A bio-based formulation that includes soybean oil and castor bean oil serves as the flexible skin.. During the proprietary production process, approximately 1.5% of the edge trims skin is recycled and accounts for approximately 4% of the coverstocks content by weight.. "The formulation in the ...
The biggest champion of bio fuel is the Brazilian government, which sees bio fuels reliance on domestically grown crops as a vehicle for bringing rural segments of the population out of crippling poverty. In Brazils north-eastern Sert?o, bio fuels increased demand for castor beans, a staple of the local economy, is expected to create thousands of jobs. The national government has also stepped up its efforts in the region by providing tax breaks to families that cultivate the raw materials used in bio fuel.. In a collaborative effort, the Brazilian automobile industry has produced a new fleet of flex-fuel cars, which run on both ethanol and gasoline. According to the most recent data, these hybrid vehicles account for 70% of car sales in Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro, low income consumers who can?t afford their own flex fuel cars, can get a piece of the action by riding in this citys public buses, many of which are being converted to run on bio fuel. From an environmental standpoint, ethanol is ...
Castor bean tickThe city of Yekaterinburg has purchased at least 45,000 doses of the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis to be given to preferential categories of citizens, including seniors and school children.