TY - JOUR. T1 - Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case control study on genetic and environmental risk factors. AU - Pomp, E.R.. AU - van Stralen, K.J.. AU - le Cessie, S.. AU - Vandenbroucke, J.P.. AU - Rosendaal, F.R.. AU - Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria. N1 - Open access journal PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even ...
PURPOSE: To define the prevalence and associations of co-morbidity and school attendance in older children with epilepsy (CWE) from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. METHODS: Children aged 6-14 years old with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last five years) were identified in a cross-sectional survey in Tanzania. Co-morbidities were assessed and cases were compared with age-matched controls. RESULTS: Co-morbidity was very common amongst cases (95/112, 85%), with 62/112 (55%) having multiple co-morbidities. Co-morbidities consisted of cognitive impairment (72/112, 64%), behaviour disorder 68/112 (61%), motor difficulties 29/112 (26%), burns and other previous injuries (29/112, 26%). These complications were significantly more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio 14.8, 95%CI 7.6-28.6, p|0.001). Co-morbidity in CWE was associated with structural cause, abnormal electroencephalogram and early onset seizures. Cognitive impairment
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal outcome of lupus pregnancy. T2 - A retrospective case-control study of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. AU - Petri, Michelle. AU - Allbritton, Jill. PY - 1993/11. Y1 - 1993/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907435016&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907435016&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84907435016. VL - 48. SP - 717. EP - 719. JO - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. JF - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. SN - 0029-7828. IS - 11. ER - ...
XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) is a base excision repair protein that plays a central role in the repair of DNA base damage and strand breaks. A common polymorphism (Arg→Gln) at codon 399 of the XRCC1 gene has been previously linked to functional changes of the gene product and risk of cancers. We evaluated the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the population-based Shanghai Breast Cancer Study involving 1088 cancer patients and 1182 community controls. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood was used in genotyping assays, and exposure information and anthropometrics were collected through in-person interview. Plasma estrogen and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured for 190 postmenopausal breast cancer patients who had donated a pretreatment blood sample and 407 postmenopausal controls. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting potential ...
BACKGROUND: Different studies have reported an association between HIV infection, antiretroviral therapies, and impaired bone metabolism, but data on their impact on fracture risk are scarce. We studied the association between a clinical diagnosis of HIV infection and fracture risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the ... read more Danish National Health Service registries, including 124,655 fracture cases and 373,962 age- and gender-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 50 (0.40/1000) patients in the fracture group and 52 (0.14/1000) controls had an HIV diagnosis. The risk of any fracture was thus significantly increased among HIV-infected patients (age- and gender-matched OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.99 to 4.18). Similarly, significant increases in the risk of hip (OR = 8.99, 95% CI: 1.39 to 58.0), forearm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.26 to 9.72), and spine fractures (OR = ...
Hartge1 emphasizes the issues related to response in population-based epidemiologic studies. She notes that epidemiologists do not always document response rates in their publications and that, when available, these rates have declined, particularly among potential control subjects being recruited into case-control studies. In fact, a critical and challenging aspect of population-based case-control study designs is how to develop a scientifically sound and cost-effective method for identifying and enrolling control subjects.. Care must be taken to define the studys population base when developing the approach for control identification. Ideally, this base is the population that spawned the case subjects. Should any member of the control population be diagnosed with the disease under study, it must be guaranteed that the individual would be identified as a member of the case group. The defined population base will depend on the source of case subjects: medical practices or hospitals, health ...
Few studies have examined perinatal risk factors for NE in sub-Saharan Africa. In this Ugandan population, we found that maternal and newborn infection and inflammation, based on blood cultures, molecular assays and a subset of placentas, are independent risk factors for NE, with the strongest associations seen with fetal inflammation (funisitis) and early neonatal bacteraemia. Neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher for infants with NE exposed to neonatal bacteraemia. Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve survival among encephalopathic infants. Other potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum risk factors were identified, with many antepartum factors mediated by intrapartum events suggesting potential large gains with improvements in intrapartum care.. In our study, funisitis, or infiltration of the umbilical cord with acute fetal inflammatory cells, was a significant risk factor for NE; however, the presence of membrane inflammation alone (isolated histological ...
Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control approach for the study of time-dependent exposure with cohort analysis using Cox regression including time-dependent covariates. A cohort of 1340 subjects with four fixed and seven time-dependent covariates was used for this study. Nested case-control analyses were repeated 100 times for each of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 controls per case, and point estimates were compared to those obtained using Cox regression on the full cohort. Computational efficiencies were evaluated by comparing central processing unit times required for analysis of the cohort at sizes 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 times its initial size. Nested case-control analyses yielded results that were similar to results of Cox regression on the full cohort. Cox regression was found to be 125 times slower than the nested case-control approach (using
The most difficult and most important considerations in planning the protocol of a case-control study are ascertainment of cases, selection of controls and the quality of the exposure measurement. Plans to ensure careful field work are equally important; without attention to data collection, the protocol will be meaningless. In most case-control studies, the measurement problem is magnified because one cannot implement the collection of exposure information at the beginning of follow-up, and instead must rely on interviews, existing records or extrapolation into the past. Consideration of a case-control study as an efficient way to study a cohort helps to resolve some design issues.
Preterm labor is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Ascending lower genital tract infection leads to preterm labor and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This prospective case-control study
Researchers subject to time and budget constraints may conduct small nested case-control studies with individually matched controls to help optimize statistical power. In this paper, we show how precision can be improved considerably by combining data from a small nested case-control study with data from a larger nested case-control study of a different outcome in the same or overlapping cohort. Our approach is based on the inverse probability weighting concept, in which the log-likelihood contribution of each individual observation is weighted by the inverse of its probability of inclusion in either study. We illustrate our approach using simulated data and an application where we combine data sets from 2 nested case-control studies to investigate risk factors for anorexia nervosa in a cohort of young women in Sweden ...
Free Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ ppt, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ slides, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ presentations download ...
Totals Samples analyzed = 1,438+2,878 = 4,316. Total Cost = 4,316 x $20 = $86,320. With this approach a similar estimate of risk was obtained after analyzing blood samples from only a small sample of the entire population at a fraction of the cost with hardly any loss in precision. In essence, a case-control strategy was used, but it was conducted within the context of a prospective cohort study. This is referred to as a case-control study nested within a cohort study.. Rothman states that one should look upon all case-control studies as being nested within a cohort. In other words the cohort represents the source population that gave rise to the cases. With a case-control sampling strategy one simply takes a sample of the population in order to obtain an estimate of the exposure distribution within the population that gave rise to the cases. Obviously, this is a much more efficient design.. It is important to note that, unlike cohort studies, case-control studies do not follow subjects ...
Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of patients with clinically diagnosed OA (according to ICD10 codes in the SIDIAP database of primary care records for over 5 million people in Catalonia, Spain (2)). Cases were identified in the period between 2008 and 2012 through ICD10 codes of cardiac ischemic events (CIE) (AIM or unstable angina, fatal or not) and cross-checked with hospital discharge diagnosis; 3 controls without CIE were matched to each case by sex, age (±5 years), area and year (±2 years) of first diagnosis of OA. Data were linked with pharmacy invoicing information, encrypted and extracted for analysis. Exposure to NSAIDs, SYSADOAs, opioids, paracetamol and metamizole were analysed. Adjusted multivariate conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratio (OR) for CIE according to drug use. ...
467 Background: SV40, a polyomavirus of macaques related to the human BK virus, was a contaminant of polio vaccines used in the U.S. in 1955-62. SV40 causes NHL in hamsters, and 2 recent studies reported detection of SV40 DNA in tumor tissue from ∼40% of human NHL cases. We applied recently developed serological methods to examine the association between SV40 infection and NHL in a large U.S. population-based case-control study. Methods: The NCI-SEER Multicenter Case-Control Study recruited incident HIV-uninfected NHL cases from Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle (1998-2000). Controls were identified through random digit dialing and Medicare files, frequency-matched to cases by sex, age, race, and site. We evaluated sera from 724 cases, 622 controls, and 19 SV40-infected macaques under masked conditions in 2 separate labs. Each lab used virus-like particle (VLP) ELISAs to measure antibodies against SV40 and BK (SV40 results were unavailable for 13 samples in lab B). Logistic regression ...
2007 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, Vol. 16, no 3, 559-565 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating raw eggs, and eating in restaurants were the most important risk factors for salmonellosis. ...
Individual amount details from all databases have been firstly gathered into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.20 The obtained odds ratio, with 95% confidence intervals, approximated the chance of hospital admission for heart failure connected to present usage of person NSAIDs with respect to past use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with modern utilization of any NSAID, when compared with past use of any NSAID. Supplied the significant quantity of associations assessed On this analysis, we utilised the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effects of uncertainty because of multiple comparisons on the outcomes. ...
A case-control study was conducted in high- and low-risk areas of Italy to evaluate reasons for the striking geographic variation in gastric cancer (GC) mortality within the country. Personal interviews with 1,016 histologically confirmed GC cases and 1,159 population controls of similar age and sex revealed that the patients were more often of lower social class and resident in rural areas and more frequently reported a familial history of gastric (but not other) cancer. After adjusting for these effects, case-control differences were found for several dietary variables, assessed by asking about the usual frequency of consumption of 146 food items and beverages. A significant trend of increasing GC risk was found with increasing consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted/dried fish and a combination of cold cuts and seasoned cheeses. The habit of adding salt and the preference for salty foods were associated with elevated GC risk, while more frequently storing foods in the refrigerator, the ...
Individual stage information from all databases were To begin with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed via a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.twenty The obtained odds ratio, with ninety five% self-confidence intervals, approximated the potential risk of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure affiliated with existing utilization of person NSAIDs with regard to earlier use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with recent utilization of any NSAID, get redirected here in comparison with past utilization of any NSAID. Given the substantial amount of associations assessed in this analysis, we utilized the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effect of uncertainty as a result of various comparisons on the outcome ...
This meta-analysis, including a total of 11,957 cancer cases and 14,174 controls from 38 case-control studies, examined the association of three well-characterized polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, and Arg399Gln) with cancer risk. There was no overall effect either in recessive or dominant modeling for the Arg399Gln polymorphism, and compared with the wild Arg/Arg genotype, variant Gln/Gln homozygote was not associated with overall cancer risk. For the Arg194Trp, the variant genotypes (Trp/Trp + Arg/Trp), compared with the wild-type homozygote (Arg/Arg), were associated with a significantly decreased cancer risk (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.98) for all tumor types without between-study heterogeneity. Similarly, we observed a fixed overall 19% increased risk of cancer for the variant genotypes (His/His + Arg/His) of the Arg280His polymorphism, compared with the wild homozygote (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.42). However, considering the relatively small sample size and ...
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Objective To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC) of the skin, a clinic-based case-control study was conducted in Tampa, FL.
In this paper some methodological problems particularly relevant to case-control studies of injury are illustrated by reference to previous childhood injury case-control studies. In contrast to studies of disease, where person time constitutes the observational experience of interest, in injury studies person time engaged in a particular activity to often more appropriate. The implications for the definition of the study base are discussed. The potential for hospital admission bias in injury case-control studies is considered along with potential strategies for avoiding it. The importance of errors in exposure measurement, including those arising from inappropriate induction time assumptions, are illustrated. Finally, the potential for bias resulting from the combination of etiologically unrelated injury outcomes into a single outcome measure is illustrated and discussed. ...
Aim: To evaluate the effect of different approaches to treatment of smoking as a potential confounder in an occupational study of lung cancer. Methods: Data were used from a case-control study on 956 men with lung cancer and 1253 population controls recruited in two northern Italian areas during 1990-1992. The risk of lung cancer associated with 11 selected job titles and eight selected industrial activities was estimated using seven different methods to treat smoking history. To evaluate the confounding effect of smoking, odds ratios obtained using the first six models were compared with estimates from the seventh and most complex model, in which cumulative tobacco consumption and time since cessation were considered. Results: Although crude odds ratios for some of the occupational categories were biased by up to 25%, such bias decreased to less than 10% when a simple model including smoking status (never, ex-, current) was used. Conclusions: In occupational studies on lung cancer risk, ...
Drinking and Smoking and Colorectal Cancer - A Population-Based Case-Control Study among NL Residents, 1999-2003. PhD student: Jinhui Zhao Supervisor: Peizhong Peter Wang Committee: Roy West and Sharon Buehler The Annual Colorectal Meeting, June 16-17, 2008, St Johns, NL. Background....
Epidemiological study of prostate cancer EPICAP: a population-based case-control study in France. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Folate-pathway gene polymorphisms have been implicated in several cancers and investigated inconclusively in relation to prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review, which identified nine case-control studies (eight included, one excluded). We also included data from four genome-wide association studies and from a case-control study nested within the UK population-based Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment study. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of eight polymorphisms: MTHFR C677T (rs1801133; 12 studies; 10,745 cases; 40,158 controls), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131; 5 studies; 3,176 cases; 4,829 controls), MTR A2756G (rs1805087; 8 studies; 7,810 cases; 37,543 controls), MTRR A66G (rs1801394; 4 studies; 3,032 cases; 4,515 controls), MTHFD1 G1958A (rs2236225; 6 studies; 7,493 cases; 36,941 controls), SLC19A1/RFC1 G80A (rs1051266; 4 studies; 6,222 cases; 35,821 controls), SHMT1 C1420T (rs1979277; 2 studies; 2,689 cases; 4,110 controls), and FOLH1 T1561C (rs202676; 5 studies; 6,314 cases;
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the UK, accounting for a third of all female cancer cases, and the second most common cause of cancer death: in England in 2010, the age-standardised rate per 100,000 women-years was 125.7 for incidence and 24.3 for mortality; in addition, in situ breast cancer, that is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS), was diagnosed at a rate of 18 per 100,000 women in 2010 (CRUK, Accessed 28 March 2013 [1]).. In the early nineties, meta-analyses of the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) confirmed the efficacy of mammographic screening for reducing primary breast cancer mortality, and led to the implementation of breast screening programmes in several regions of Europe. One of the most mature and comprehensive of those is the English National Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) which has been in place in England since 1988. A major issue to be addressed by the Department of Healths (England) Policy Research ...
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is the third most rapidly increasing cancer in the United States. HIV-related NHL is responsible for some of the increase since the early 1980s. However, it cannot explain the steady increase in the incidence rates in earlier years, nor the entire increase shown recently. A possible role of environmental exposures is receiving attention. One possibility is that exposure to organochlorines (OCs) may be related to the occurrence of NHL. NCI is currently designing a large population-based case-control study to investigate this hypothesis further by analyzing OC levels in blood collected at the time of interview from cases of NHL and their matched controls. At the time of these interviews, cases in the main case-control study would most likely have already received chemotherapy. If chemotherapy changes the blood levels of OCs, this may lead to misclassification of exposure among cases and eventually to biased risk estimates. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate ...
Unique level data from all databases were To start with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression design.20 The attained odds ratio, with 95% assurance intervals, approximated the chance of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure related to present-day usage of person NSAIDs with regard to previous usage of any NSAID. We also estimated the odds ratio related to modern usage of any NSAID, compared with earlier use of any NSAID. Given the significant amount of associations assessed Within this analysis, we applied the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to evaluate the impact of uncertainty as a result of multiple comparisons on the final results ...
Person amount knowledge from all databases had been To start with gathered right into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression product.twenty The received odds ratio, with 95% self confidence intervals, estimated the potential risk of hospital admission for heart failure connected with existing utilization of specific NSAIDs with respect to earlier utilization of any NSAID. We also estimated the chances ratio linked to modern utilization of any NSAID, in contrast with earlier utilization of any NSAID. Specified the significant range of associations assessed In this particular analysis, we employed the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the impact of uncertainty due to several comparisons on the outcome ...
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass screening program for stomach cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Nose town in Osaka, Japan. The case series consisted of all deaths from stomach cancer during the period 1969-1981 (54 in males and 37 in females). For each case, 3 controls of the same sex and from the same precinct as the case, and born within 5 years of the case birth-year, were selected at random from Nose town residents alive at the date of death of the relevant case. We then investigated whether each case and corresponding controls had ever had screening tests before the date of diagnosis of the case. From the matched analysis of the distribution of screening in case-control combination, the odds ratio of screened vs. unscreened among those who died from stomach cancer compared to those who did not was calculated as 0.595 (90% confidence interval: 0.338-1.045) among males and 0.382 (0.185-0.785) among females. When the screening tests conducted within 12 months of ...
Population-based case-control studies are widely used in epidemiology to investigate the association between environmental or occupational exposures over lifetime and the risk of cancer or other chronic diseases. Many of the exposures of interest are protracted and a huge amount of information is often retrospectively collected for each subject about his/her potential past exposure over lifetime. For example, for occupational exposures, the whole occupational history is usually investigated for each subject, and different methods exist to estimate the average dose of exposure at each past job [1-3]. However, only the cumulated estimated dose of exposure at the index age (age at diagnosis for cases and at interview for controls) is usually used in standard logistic regression analyses. Such approach does not use the (retrospective) dynamic information available on the exposure at different ages during lifetime.. A time-dependent weighted Cox (WC) model has recently been proposed to incorporate ...
Previous studies have provided limited support to the association between tobacco smoking and lymphomas with weak evidence of a dose-response relationship. We investigated the relationship between tobacco smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) through logistic regression spline models. Data were derived from an Italian hospital-based case-control study (1999-2014), which enrolled 571 NHLs, 188 HLs, and 1004 cancer-free controls. Smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed through a validated questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared to never smokers, people smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day showed increased risks of both NHL (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.97) and HL (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 4.87); the risk was particularly elevated for follicular NHL (OR = 2.43; 95% CI:1.31-4.51) and mixed cellularity HL (OR = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.31, 23.97). No excess risk
Menu location: Analysis_Sample Size_Independent Case-Control.. This function gives the minimum number of case subjects required to detect a real odds ratio or case exposure rate with power POWER and two sided type I error probability ALPHA. This sample size is also given as a continuity-corrected value intended for use with corrected chi-square and Fishers exact tests (Schlesselman, 1982; Casagrande et al. 1978; Dupont, 1990).. Information required ...
Methods Three polygenic risk scores (PRS) based on 18 SNPs were investigated in a case-control study of women attending a familial risk clinic. PRS were derived from published general European population allele ORs and frequencies (18-SNPs (SNP18)). In women with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations, 3 SNPs/13 SNPs, respectively, generated the PRS estimates. In total, 364 incident breast cancer cases (112 with BRCA1/2 mutations) were matched with 1605 controls (691 BRCA1/2) by age last mammogram and BRCA1/2 genetic test result. 87 women with cancer before attendance were also considered. Logistic regression was used to measure PRS performance through ORs per IQR and calibration of the observed to expected (O/E) logarithm relative risk when unadjusted and adjusted for phenotypic risk factors assessed by the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) model. ...
World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Cohort and case-control methodologies are the main tools for analytical epidemiological research. Other important types of epidemiological studies mainly for generating hypotheses include cross-sectional and ecological, or correlation studies. The conclusions that can be drawn from findings of these types of studies are, however, much weaker compared to those of cohort and case-control studies. This is not to say that findings from cohort and case-control studies always reflect true associations which can be universally generalized. Epidemiological research is, to a large extent, of an observational character as opposed to experimental research. Experimental research provides data from which firmer conclusions can be made as compared with epidemiological studies. In experimental research, investigators can manipulate one factor while controlling others, and the main research question can be broken down into subquestions with comparatively ...
We read with interest the recent commentaries by Hartge1 and Bernstein2 and would like to comment on them. First, sensitivity analyses can sometimes show that the potential biases from nonresponse are small. However, using reasonable assumptions, sensitivity analyses can also show much more uncertainty of effect measure estimation than anticipated. In these situations, the nonresponse issue has not been solved.3 We therefore believe that for reasons of validity, epidemiologists should give consideration to alternatives to population-based case-control studies, for example, nested case-control or case-cohort studies within prospective cohort studies with high baseline response. Another option (depending on the etiologic scenario) is the application of case-only and case-crossover studies.4 Researchers could also restrict the study base to population segments with anticipated higher response proportions such as people with identifiable telephone numbers.5. Second, with a word count of 3000 words ...
A case-control study of breast cancer, diet, and lactational history was carried out in Brisbane, Australia, between 1981 and 1985. Cases were recruited from both the private and the public health care sectors. The breastfeeding histories of 459 cases and 1,091 controls selected from the electoral roll were analyzed. An odds ratio of 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.55-1.30) for any lactation versus no lactation was observed, with no suggestion of a monotonic trend with increasing duration. This estimate was only slightly altered by multiple logistic regression analysis. A statistically significant nonlinear association was noted for breastfeeding of the first livebom child (x2= 14.8, df = 6; p < 0.05), with a slightly elevated odds ratio for lactations of less than one month, a lowered odds ratio for lactations of one month to three months, and a weakly elevated odds ratio in women breastfeeding for more than nine months. Results for premenopausal women were very similar to those for ...
In a population-based case-control study in Germany, we tested the hypothesis that the CA SSR polymorphism in intron 1 of egfr affects breast cancer risk. Overall, we did not find an association of allelic length of the egfr CA SSR polymorphism with breast cancer risk. However, we observed that the presence of two long alleles, particularly when defined as ≥19 CA repeats, of the egfr CA SSR was associated with a significantly elevated OR among women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, but not among women without such a family history. The differential effects of allelic length of the egfr CA SSR on disease risk by a first-degree family history were statistically significant, even after a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons using three different definitions for the longer allele (P = 0.015 for interaction). This was confirmed in a case-only analysis of the patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible relevance of this common intronic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer in Elderly Patients. T2 - A Multicenter Matched Case-Control Study. AU - Hinoi, Takao. AU - Kawaguchi, Yasuo. AU - Hattori, Minoru. AU - Okajima, Masazumi. AU - Ohdan, Hideki. AU - Yamamoto, Seiichiro. AU - Hasegawa, Hirotoshi. AU - Horie, Hisanaga. AU - Murata, Kohei. AU - Yamaguchi, Shigeki. AU - Sugihara, Kenichi. AU - Watanabe, Masahiko. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Methods: We conducted a propensity scoring matched case-control study of colon and rectal cancer patients aged ≥80 years using data from 41 hospitals between 2003 and 2007. A total of 1,526 colon cancer patients and 282 rectal cancer patients underwent surgery and were included in the analysis. The primary end point was 3-year overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and postoperative complications.Results: LAP and OP were compared in 804 colon cancer patients (402 pairs) and 114 ...
In this extensive population-based, case-control study, we found that parents of patients died significantly less often from a cardiovascular disease than parents of controls. A relation between cardiovascular fitness and being more physically active could not be shown in our study, as neither parental cardiovascular death nor survival was related to the extent to which patients are physically active. As the heritability of cardiovascular diseases is relatively high,16 our results strengthen the concept that a favourable cardiovascular fitness profile is associated with developing ALS. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lower rate of hospital admissions for coronary heart disease,7 less frequent use of medication for hypertension or congestive heart failure,17 and a lower frequency of a history of a myocardial infarction or cardiac arrhythmia6 among patients with ALS compared with the general population or to controls and a lower rate of stroke and myocardial infarction ...
I have atherosclerosis data set matched for age and gender. My doctoral advisory members suggested me to perform conditional logistic regression instead of...
This analysis of several distinct case-control studies provides evidence for consistent associations between a locus on chromosome 9p21.3 and CAD and MI. The magnitude and direction of the effect in each of the present study samples are consistent with the 4 previous genome-wide analyses that uniformly identified this locus as the strongest genetic signal for CAD.3-6 Together, the comprehensive replication across multiple samples evaluated in the present studies provides unequivocal evidence that variants at this locus increase the risk of CAD and MI in individuals of European ancestry.. We observed associations of the chromosome 9p21.2 locus with CAD in both cross-sectional case-control studies and subjects who developed the disease in the prospective PRIME study. Likewise, we found similar associations in men and women and in various subgroups defined by age or other cardiovascular risk factors. We also confirmed that the associations are independent of these risk factors.. The striking ...
... : A case-control study is an analytical study which compares individuals who have a specific disease (cases) with a group of individuals without the disease (controls)....
Results have been inconsistent between studies of lung cancer risk and ionizing radiation exposures among workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS). The purpose of this nested case-control study was to evaluate the relationship between lung cancer risk and external ionizing radiation exposure while adjusting for potential confounders that included gender, radiation monitoring status, smoking
Details of the design of this hospital-based case-control study have been reported previously (10). This article reports an extension of the previous report of 400 subjects to 600 subjects (300 cases and 300 controls) and focuses on the role of diabetes and abnormalities in glucose tolerance, as defined by the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the classification of diabetes (11). Cases were defined as consecutive patients between the ages of 30 and 60 years (inclusive) who were admitted to the coronary care unit of the hospital with a first acute MI. The diagnosis of acute MI required a history of typical chest pain lasting at least 20 min, a standard 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showing ST elevation of 2 mm or more in two or more contiguous leads and subsequent evolution of cardiac enzymes. Controls were selected from outpatients attending the hospital clinic for refraction, otorhinolaryngology evaluation or a general physical examination or from inpatients admitted for cataract ...
To examine the possible role of body size and reproductive factors in pancreatic cancer, data were analyzed from a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China. Cases n=451 were permanent residents of Shanghai, 30-74 years of age, newly diagnosed with pancreatic cancer between October 1,1990, and June 30,1993. Deceased cases...
A case-control study was conducted in 2013 to investigate the use of pituitary-derived hormones from sheep as a potential risk factor for the presence of atypical scrapie in Great Britain sheep holdings. One hundred and sixty-five holdings were identified as cases. Two equal sets of controls were se
The IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway plays an important role in coronary artery disease (CHD); however, few studies have explored how variants in IL-33/ST2 genes influence CHD risk. Here, we examined the association between genetic variants in IL-33, ST2, and IL-1RAcP of the IL-33/ST2 axis and the risk of CHD. We conducted a case-controlled study with 1146 CHD cases and 1146 age- and sex-frequency-matched controls. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-33, ST2, and IL-1RAcP were genotyped by Sequenom MassArray and TaqMan assay. Logistic regression was used to analyze these associations. The SNP rs4624606 in IL-1RAcP was nominally associated with CHD risk. The AA genotype was associated with a 1.85-fold increased risk of CHD (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.36; p = 0.045) compared to the TT genotype. Further analysis showed that AA carriers also had a higher risk of CHD than TT + TA carriers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.85-3.35; p = 0.043). However, no significant
In 1985, Potterat et al demonstrated the importance of social venues where sex partners meet.8 Since then, the inclusion of social venues has been inconsistent in STI investigations. However, the current network study and the previous case-control study of this outbreak11 re-emphasise the notion that social venues, such as the motel bar in this study, may be essential and, in this case, the only factor defining individuals at risk of infection. Secondly, our findings confirm that sexual network analysis can allow the linkage of seemingly isolated outbreaks from geographically distant communities.16 This notion also emphasises the fact that targeting individuals in isolation, rather than considering their complete sexual space and geography,3,17 may limit the impact of interventions. On a practical note, we confirm that asking clients about local "pickup joints" is successful in delineating the extent and pattern of gonorrhoea transmission within sexual networks, while allowing access to a ...
Introduction A case-control study is designed to help determine if an exposure is associated with an outcome (i.e., disease or condition of interest). In theory, the case- control study can be described simply. First, identify the cases (a group known to have the outcome) and the controls (a group known to be free of the…
There is strong evidence that inflammatory mediators play a key role in the progression to heart failure in patients with systemic hypertension (HTN). The present study aimed to identify a set of cytokines that are associated with early left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction as captured by echocardiography in patients with HTN in a cross-sectional case-control study nested within the FLEMish study on ENvironment, Genes and Health Outcome. We identified three groups of participants from the cohort: normotensive subjects (normotension; n = 30), HTN with normal LV structure and function (HTN [LV-]; n = 30), and HTN with evidence of adverse LV remodeling (HTN [LV+]; n = 50). We measured cytokines using a 63-plex Luminex platform. Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis, we constructed three latent variables from the measured cytokines that explained 35%-45% of the variance between groups. We identified five common cytokines (interleukin 18, monokine induced by gamma interferon,
Data on control-informant agreement from four published case-control studies of Alzheimer s disease are compared, using both the kappa statistic and proportion of agreement for the presence and absence of exposures. Agreement was best for exposures involving lifestyle, medical interventions or disorders of more recent origin, and worst for...
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine whether seniority and the presence of CV risk factors affect the variability of prolactin serum concentration. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective and cross-sectional case-control study PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS This research included 93 patients (35 male and 58 female) between 50 and 88 years of age (median 67), all with present CV risk factors. The samples were taken from the general practitioners dispensary. For the purposes of this research, some of the data were taken from the online database, and other tests were done additionally, such as biochemical examination, as well as the prolactin test. Variance analysis was done in different groups, as well as the correlation via multivariate analysis (MANOVA) RESULTS There were eleven parameters tested in this research. Significant results for prolactin serum concentration were found in CRP (p = 0.17) and KEK (p = 0.001) CONCLUSION CV risk factors in people older than 50 years of age that could affect the ...
We aim to investigate possible maternal- and pregnancy-related factors associated with the development of Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) in children of mothers with probable gestational infection. This case-control study, we recruited mother-infant pairs between May 2015 and October 2017 in a pediatric infectious disease clinic in Rio de Janeiro. Inclusion criteria required either that the mother reported Zika infection symptoms during pregnancy or that the infant presented with clinical or imaging features of the CZS. Exclusion criteria included detection of an alternative cause for the patients presentation or negative polymerase chain reaction assays for Zika in all specimens tested within 12 days from the beginning of maternal symptoms. Infants with CZS (CDC definition) were selected as cases and infants without CZS, but with probable maternal Zika virus infection during pregnancy, were selected as controls. Maternal and pregnancy-related informations were collected and their relationship to the
Results of epidemiological studies need to be expressed in understandable terms if they are to be of practical use to clinicians and policy makers. Case-control studies are often used to study adverse effects of treatment; odds ratios from these are used to express the magnitude of adverse effects, but are not intuitively understandable estimates of risk. A more understandable and informative means of expressing the risk of adverse events in case-control studies is "the number of patients needed to be treated for one additional patient to be harmed". This is calculated from the odds ratio and the unexposed event ratemdash;that is, the rate of occurrence of the adverse event of interest in people not exposed to the treatment. ...
Although the lack of statistically significant differences for these parameters in the total, unstratified group is disappointing, this problem may possibly be overcome by using global plaque measurements (eg, total plaque volume) rather than those restricted to the most stenosed slice, which may not be sufficiently representative of disease in the entire lesion. Whereas total plaque volume and plaque composition probably should be used as primary endpoints for larger trials, other parameters, such as longitudinal and radial position of the plaque, will be useful secondary or tertiary endpoints. The outcome of the study may also have been affected by the case-control design.. Case-control studies are susceptible to bias when sampling subjects from two populations, in this instance a decade apart. The choice of the control group to match the severity of coronary atherosclerosis exhibited by the treatment group when 10 years younger raises the question of match validity. The two groups may have ...
Case-control studies, which are always retrospective, compare those who have had an outcome or event () with those who have not (). Cases and controls are then evaluated for exposure to various and thus should never be selected on the basis of their exposure to the risk factors under investigation. Cases and controls generally are matched according to specific characteristics (eg, age, sex, or duration of disease) to reduce by these variables. However, if the matched variables are inextricably linked with the exposure of interest (not necessarily with the disease or outcome of interest), matching may confound the analysis (see
Case-control studies, which are always retrospective, compare those who have had an outcome or event () with those who have not (). Cases and controls are then evaluated for exposure to various and thus should never be selected on the basis of their exposure to the risk factors under investigation. Cases and controls generally are matched according to specific characteristics (eg, age, sex, or duration of disease) to reduce by these variables. However, if the matched variables are inextricably linked with the exposure of interest (not necessarily with the disease or outcome of interest), matching may confound the analysis (see
Hi guys... so glad I found this board. I need help with a matched case-control study. I had an outcome of interest TMC and matched 1 case of TMC
Michael Bilow and Eleazar Eskin, together with Fernando Crespo, Zhicheng Pan, and Susana Eyheramendy, recently released a novel method for accurate joint modeling of clinical phenotype and disease status. This approach incorporates a clinical phenotype into case/control studies under the assumption that the genetic variant can affect both.. Genetic case-control association studies have found thousands of associations between genetic variants and disease. Most studies collect data from individuals with and without disease, and they often search for variants with different frequencies between the groups. Jointly modelling clinical phenotype and disease status is a promising way to increase power to detect true associations between genetics and disease. In particular, this method increases potential for discovering genetic variants that are associated with both a clinical phenotype and a disease.. However, standard multivariate techniques fail to effectively solve this problem because their ...
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A case control study was designed to determine the relationship between occupation, smoking, and common histologic types of lung cancer with data collected during the Third National Cancer Survey. A total of 181,027 cancer cases were diagnosed in nine geographic areas. A random sample of 7,518 cancer cases revealed little difference between respondents and non respondents in age, race, sex, marita
Case-control study The study is described as a case-control study. Please clarify, see Lewallen S, Courtright P. Epidemiology in Practice: Case-Control Studies. Community Eye Health. 1998;11:57-58. Description of the study design The relation between the studied hypothesis and the statistical analyses is unclear. This information is important for evaluating the validity of the findings. Please…
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Normal TNF production by P2s and P3′s MDDCs upon 48 h of stimulation with fungal compounds. (A and B) MDDCs from four healthy control individuals (white ba
Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you cant attend live, attend at your convenience.. ...
First, she conducted an international series of case-control studies using modern laboratory techniques that ended up demonstrating that HPV infection by certain genotypes of HPV is unequivocally one the strongest cancer risk factors ever found. Her subsequent work also produced precise estimates of relative risks that permitted defining the HPV genotypes that had to be targeted for prevention. Likewise, it was from this enormous and persuasive series of case-control studies and from collaborative work that she had led as part of the International Biological Study of Cervical Cancer (IBSCC) that came the realization that HPV infection was not only the unequivocal central cause of cervical cancer but it should also be viewed as a necessary one No other cancer prevention paradigms (e.g., smoking-lung cancer, HBV-liver cancer) have this distinction ...
The owner of the building that houses the Berkeley Patients Group has put it up for sale, further fueling whispers that the federal government sent a letter ordering the cannabis dispensary to shut down. Gordon Commerical Real Estate is listing the property at 2747 San Pablo Avenue, which is owne
Gould, A.; Ho, K.M.; Dobb, G., 2010: Risk factors and outcomes of high-dependency patients requiring intensive care unit admission: a nested case-control study
This happens quite a bit with papers submitted to third and fourth tier journals, but watch out for it anywhere. The authors claim to have done a matched case-control study, where there is indeed matching. However, the selection of participants in the study is based on the exposure variable, rather than the outcome. Why is this important? Well, for one, the design informs the structure of the analyses. But even more fundamentally, I am really into definitions in science because they allow us to make sure we are talking about the same thing. And the definition of a case-control study is that it starts with the end -- that is to say, the outcome defines the case. So, if you are exploring whether a Cox-2 inhibitor is associated with mortality from heart disease, do not tell me that your "cases" were defined by taking the Cox-2 and controls were the ones that did not take it. If you are enrolling based on exposure, even if you are matching on such variables as age, gender, etc., this is still a ...
This happens quite a bit with papers submitted to third and fourth tier journals, but watch out for it anywhere. The authors claim to have done a matched case-control study, where there is indeed matching. However, the selection of participants in the study is based on the exposure variable, rather than the outcome. Why is this important? Well, for one, the design informs the structure of the analyses. But even more fundamentally, I am really into definitions in science because they allow us to make sure we are talking about the same thing. And the definition of a case-control study is that it starts with the end -- that is to say, the outcome defines the case. So, if you are exploring whether a Cox-2 inhibitor is associated with mortality from heart disease, do not tell me that your "cases" were defined by taking the Cox-2 and controls were the ones that did not take it. If you are enrolling based on exposure, even if you are matching on such variables as age, gender, etc., this is still a ...
In the clinical trials arena, the observational studies are among the important categories of study designs. This is because; in order to address some of the investigative questions, the randomized controlled trials will not always be indicated. In these cases, the observational studies will be the best way to address those investigative questions.
A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not. Also called a retrospective study ...
Since databases differed with respect to covered populations, as well as type and standard of element of obtainable covariates, we evaluated the robustness with the pooled estimates utilizing a meta-analytic method by the use of the subsequent method. To begin with, we independently fitted a conditional logistic regression design to estimate the effect of each and every particular person NSAID inside Each individual database. In order to avoid computational issues (that is definitely, design convergence failure as a result of sparse facts), only unique NSAIDs with not less than 5 exposed cases have been considered within the design ...
For the reason that databases differed with respect to protected populations, as well as type and level of element of available covariates, we evaluated the robustness in the pooled estimates using a meta-analytic strategy by way of the subsequent course of action. Firstly, we individually fitted a conditional logistic regression product to estimate the impact of each and every individual NSAID inside of Every database. To prevent computational troubles (that is definitely, model convergence failure on account of sparse data), only particular person NSAIDs with at the very least five exposed cases were being regarded as in the model ...
allelic P-value=0.31, X2=1.01 for case-control, P...... allelic P-value=0.31, X2=1.01 for case-control, P-value=0.47, X2=0.52 for family-based; genotypic P-value=0.47, X2=1.49 for case-control, P-value=0.59, X2=1.04 for family-based; X2=1.5, TDT P-value=0.22, Relative risk (95% CI)=0.6 (0.35¨C1.1) More... ...
Provides set of functions aimed at epidemiologists. They include commands for measures of association and impact for case control studies and cohort studies. They may be particularly useful for outbreak investigations and include univariate and stratified analyses. The functions for cohort studies include the CS(), CSTable() and CSInter() commands. The functions for case control studies include the CC(), CCTable() and CCInter() commands. ...
TA is characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the aorta and its major branches. It is clinically characterized by exacerbations and remissions. A previous study revealed that serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with active TA15. Moreover, Tripathy, et al observed increased constitutional TNF-α expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 patients with TA16. We also observed the significant increase of TNF-α level in patients with active TA. The results suggest that TNF-α is a useful marker for monitoring the activity of TA, similar to endothelin 1 and circulating endothelial cells27. However, the role of genetic variations of the TNF-α gene promoter in TA susceptibility has not been investigated. In this case-control study, 5 polymorphisms were identified in the TNF-α promoter region by genomic sequencing. Although the frequency of −863CA/AA genotypes in patients with TA was lower compared with that of the control group, the significance of ...
Cancer, Risk, Association, Cancers, Consumption, Smoking, Population, Mortality, Case-control Study, Odds Ratios, Regression, Tobacco, Breast, Confidence Intervals, Logistic Regression, Women, Role, Alcohol Consumption, Diet, Health
A case-control study was conducted to assess the association between exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) and lung cancer. 300 lifelong nonsmoking lung
A meta-analysis published in 2014 based on a total of 15 case-control studies with 8333 cases and 36036 controls concluded that rs4132601 was associated with increased ALL risk in Caucasians and Hispanics but not among Asians.[PMID 25012940] ...
Jurczyszyn A, Gozzetti A, Gdula-Argasińska J, Czepiel J, Vij R, Fiala M, Valls DJ, Mądry K, Waszczuk-Gajda A, Grosicki S, Barchnicka A, Crusoe E, Hungria V, Gentile M, Mele G, Ksieniewicz M, Vesole DH, Castillo JJ. Similar survival outcomes in patients with biclonal versus monoclonal myeloma: a multi-institutional matched case-control study. Ann Hematol. 2017 Aug 1. doi: 10.1007/s00277-017-3084-9. ...
Hello, I have the following problem: I have to analyze two variables, both continuous (they are results of body tests). Since I have cases only and I...
In a market dominated by multinational companies, homegrown company, Advanced Enzymes Technologies Limited has performed commendably, clocking revenues of Rs 175 Crore (As of December 2011) and chalked out an ambitious plan for the year on year growth of 30-35 percent to reach the Rs 100 crore mark. Read more ...
In a market dominated by multinational companies, homegrown company, Advanced Enzymes Technologies Limited has performed commendably, clocking revenues of Rs 175 Crore (As of December 2011) and chalked out an ambitious plan for the year on year growth of 30-35 percent to reach the Rs 100 crore mark. Read more ...
Tests of association between SNPs or pairs of SNPs and binary phenotypes, in case-control / case-population / case-control-population studies.. ...
Aim Little is known about the acute effects of furosemide use on the risk of hip fracture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between furosemide use and acute risk of hip fracture in older people in Taiwan. Methods We carried out a retrospective nationwide case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 4523 older adults aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed hip fracture from 2000 to 2013 were identified as the cases. Additionally, 4523 older adults aged ≥65 years without hip fracture were randomly selected as the controls. The cases and the controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year and month of hip fracture diagnosis. Furosemide use was defined as "current," "recent" or "past" if the furosemide prescription was filled ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for explantation due to infection after sacral neuromodulation. T2 - a multicenter retrospective case-control study. AU - Myer, Emily N.B.. AU - Petrikovets, Andrey. AU - Slocum, Paul D.. AU - Lee, Toy Gee. AU - Carter-Brooks, Charelle M.. AU - Noor, Nabila. AU - Carlos, Daniela M.. AU - Wu, Emily. AU - Van Eck, Kathryn. AU - Fashokun, Tola B.. AU - Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin. AU - Chen, Chi Chiung Grace. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Sacral neuromodulation is an effective therapy for overactive bladder, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Infection after sacral neurostimulation is costly and burdensome. Determining optimal perioperative management strategies to reduce the risk of infection is important to reduce this burden. Objective: We sought to identify risk factors associated with sacral neurostimulator infection requiring explantation, to estimate the incidence of infection requiring explantation, and identify associated microbial pathogens. ...
Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values |0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP
We have carried out a pilot case-control study of childhood leukaemia and exposure to benzene assessed by repeated individual measurements made on average 2 years after diagnosis. The pilot study included side-investigations aimed at evaluating the performance of two biological indicators of benzene exposure in children, at estimating amount and direction of a possible participation bias and at assessing the relation between estimated exposures to benzene and ELF magnetic fields.. Owing to the relatively low incidence of childhood cancers (10-15 for 100 000 person-years in the 0-14 year range in most industrialised countries), the case-control approach is the design of choice for analytical epidemiological studies about potential risk factors for these diseases. Such a study design, however, is inherently prone to measurement errors stemming from the retrospective reconstruction of the exposures of interest, and to differential participation leading to control samples not being representative of ...
Improved medical care and advances in surgical techniques have increased life expectancy for children with complex CHD, but developmental delays, poorer academic achievement and behavior, and neurological morbidity remain a challenge.18,19 Stroke is a potentially preventable factor that may contribute to worsened neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our study found that CHD is strongly associated with childhood stroke, with a 19-fold increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke in children between the ages of 29 days and 20 years.. We found that the children with cardiac surgery for CHD were at the greatest risk for stroke. Pediatric heart surgery, while life-saving, is complicated by a high proportion of thrombotic events20 and has been associated with a higher risk of delayed development and neurological abnormalities.18,21 Our study included only children with symptomatic strokes, but many of the radiographically identified perioperative infarcts in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary fatty acids and colorectal cancer. T2 - A case-control study. AU - Theodoratou, Evropi. AU - McNeill, Geraldine. AU - Cetnarskyj, Roseanne. AU - Farrington, Susan M.. AU - Tenesa, Albert. AU - Barnetson, Rebecca. AU - Porteous, Mary. AU - Dunlop, Malcolm. AU - Campbell, Harry. PY - 2007/7/15. Y1 - 2007/7/15. N2 - Fatty acid effects on colorectal cancer risk were examined in a national prospective case-control study in Scotland (1999-2006), including 1,455 incident cases and 1,455 matched controls. Three conditional logistic regression models adjusted for energy (residual method) and for other risk factors were applied in the whole sample and were stratified by sex, cancer site, age, and tumor staging. Total and trans-monounsatu rated fatty acids and palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids were dose-dependently associated with colorectal cancer risk, but these effects did not persist after further energy adjustment. Significant dose-dependent reductions in risk were associated ...
Background: Bricklayers may be at increased risk of lung cancer, although a firm association has not been established. We examined this association within the EAGLE (Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology) study, a population-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 2002 and 2005. Methods: For men in selected occupations in the construction sector we calculated smoking-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For bricklayers we estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the attributable community risk (ACR). Results: We found increased lung cancer risk for bricklayers (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12-2.21; 147 cases, 81 controls). The PAF was 3.9% (95% CI 0.7-7.0), corresponding to an ACR of 4.1 cases annually per 100,000 men (95% CI 0.7-7.3) in the whole community. Among bricklayers, there were increased risks for squamous cell (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.32-3.13, 56 exposed cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.29-4.07, 21 exposed cases), ...
Because aggregation of cancers at different sites can occur in families, cancer could be considered as a broad phenotype with shared genetic factors. Here, we report results from a multi-centre case-control study of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with particular emphasis on a history of cancer in first-degree relatives and the risk of lung cancer. From 2002 to 2006, 733 NSCLC patients treated surgically were recruited in 8 European countries and matched to 1312 controls, by centre, sex and age. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression models to test the association between a history of cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of NSCLC. A family history of lung cancer was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for early-onset (54years or younger) NSCLC of 4.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-21.90). A family history of gastric cancer was associated with an OR for NSCLC of 1.82 (95% CI=1.08-3.06) and for late-onset (55years or older) NSCLC of 2.92 (95% CI=1.10-7.75). Our findings provide
The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC) has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma) in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455). Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to
Background: Studies have linked asthma death to either increased or decreased use of medical services. Methods: A population based case-control study of asthma deaths in 1994-8 was performed in 22 English, six Scottish, and five Welsh health authorities/boards. All 681 subjects who died were under the age of 65 years with asthma in Part I on the death certificates. After exclusions, 532 hospital controls were matched to 532 cases for age, district, and date of asthma admission/death. Data were extracted blind from primary care records. Results: The median age of the subjects who died was 53 years; 60% of cases and 64% of controls were female. There was little difference in outpatient attendance (55% and 55%), hospital admission for asthma (51 % and 54%), and median inpatient days (20 days and 15 days) in the previous 5 years. After mutual adjustment and adjustment for sex, using conditional logistic regression, three variables were independently associated with asthma death: fewer general ...
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