TY - JOUR. T1 - Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case control study on genetic and environmental risk factors. AU - Pomp, E.R.. AU - van Stralen, K.J.. AU - le Cessie, S.. AU - Vandenbroucke, J.P.. AU - Rosendaal, F.R.. AU - Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria. N1 - Open access journal PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even ...
PURPOSE: To define the prevalence and associations of co-morbidity and school attendance in older children with epilepsy (CWE) from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. METHODS: Children aged 6-14 years old with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last five years) were identified in a cross-sectional survey in Tanzania. Co-morbidities were assessed and cases were compared with age-matched controls. RESULTS: Co-morbidity was very common amongst cases (95/112, 85%), with 62/112 (55%) having multiple co-morbidities. Co-morbidities consisted of cognitive impairment (72/112, 64%), behaviour disorder 68/112 (61%), motor difficulties 29/112 (26%), burns and other previous injuries (29/112, 26%). These complications were significantly more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio 14.8, 95%CI 7.6-28.6, p|0.001). Co-morbidity in CWE was associated with structural cause, abnormal electroencephalogram and early onset seizures. Cognitive impairment
AIM: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. METHOD: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12 y) with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last 5 y) were identified in a cross-sectional survey and included in this study. Children who were younger than 6 years were excluded in order to eliminate febrile seizures. Behaviour was assessed using the Rutter scale; children who scored 13 or more were considered to have disordered behaviour. A comparison group was made up of age- and sex-matched children without epilepsy (n = 113; 57 males, 56 females; median age 12 y). RESULTS: Behavioural disorders were diagnosed in 68 of 103 (66%) children with epilepsy and in 19 of 99 (19%) controls. Disordered behaviour was significantly more common in children with epilepsy than in the
Schuchat A, Zywicki SS, Dinsmoor MJ, Mercer B, Romaguera J, OSullivan MJ, Patel D, Peters MT, Stoll B, Levine OS. Risk factors and opportunities for prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis: a multicenter case-control study. Pediatrics. 2000; 105(1 Pt 1): 21-6 ...
Previous studies of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have limitations: (1) some focused on patients with clinically recognized chronic kidney disease (CKD); (2) others identified population-based patients who developed ESRD, but lacked earlier baseline clinical measures to predict ESRD. Our study was designed to address these limitations and to identify the strength and precision of characteristics that might predict ESRD pragmatically for decision-makers--as measured by the onset of renal replacement therapy (RRT). We conducted a population-based, retrospective case-control study of patients who developed ESRD and started RRT. We conducted the study in a health maintenance organization, Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW). The case-control study was nested within the adult population of KPNW members who were enrolled during 1999, the baseline period. Cases and their matched controls were identified from January 2000 through December 2004. We evaluated baseline clinical characteristics
TY - JOUR. T1 - A retrospective case-control study to investigate horse and jockey level risk factors associated with horse falls in Irish Point-to-Point races. AU - Smith, Laura J.. AU - Tabor, Gillian. AU - Williams, Jane. PY - 2020/5. Y1 - 2020/5. N2 - Horse racing as a high-risk sport can pose a significant risk to equine welfare. There have been limited epidemiological reviews of fall risk specific to point-to-point racing. This study aimed to identify horse and jockey level risk factors associated with horse falls and compare these to published findings for Hurdle and Steeplechase racing. The study used a retrospective matched case-control design. Relevant variables were identified, and information was collated for all races in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. Cases and controls were matched with a 1:3 ratio. Controls (n=2,547) were selected at random from all horses that completed in the same race (n=849). Horse and jockey level variables were analysed through univariable analysis to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal outcome of lupus pregnancy. T2 - A retrospective case-control study of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. AU - Petri, Michelle. AU - Allbritton, Jill. PY - 1993/11. Y1 - 1993/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907435016&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907435016&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84907435016. VL - 48. SP - 717. EP - 719. JO - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. JF - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. SN - 0029-7828. IS - 11. ER - ...
XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) is a base excision repair protein that plays a central role in the repair of DNA base damage and strand breaks. A common polymorphism (Arg→Gln) at codon 399 of the XRCC1 gene has been previously linked to functional changes of the gene product and risk of cancers. We evaluated the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the population-based Shanghai Breast Cancer Study involving 1088 cancer patients and 1182 community controls. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood was used in genotyping assays, and exposure information and anthropometrics were collected through in-person interview. Plasma estrogen and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured for 190 postmenopausal breast cancer patients who had donated a pretreatment blood sample and 407 postmenopausal controls. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting potential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transient ischaemic attack, vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment. T2 - a case-controlled study. AU - Guyomard, Veronique. AU - Metcalf, Anthony K. AU - Naguib, Magdi F. AU - Fulcher, Robert A. AU - Potter, John F. AU - Myint, Phyo K. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. KW - aged. KW - aged, 80 and over. KW - case-control studies. KW - cognition. KW - cognition disorders. KW - female. KW - hospitals, university. KW - humans. KW - Ischemic Attack, Transient. KW - male. KW - middle aged. KW - neuropsychological tests. KW - risk assessment. KW - risk factors. KW - severity of illness index. U2 - 10.1093/ageing/afr079. DO - 10.1093/ageing/afr079. M3 - Letter. C2 - 21749995. VL - 40. SP - 641. EP - 644. JO - Age and Ageing. JF - Age and Ageing. SN - 0002-0729. IS - 5. ER - ...
Observations from the current case-control study support the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and SCC. Seropositivity to HPV 10 was the single type from genus-alpha associated with SCC. Seropositivity for cutaneous HPV types in genus-beta overall, and for types 8 and 17 specifically, was significantly associated with SCC in this clinic-based case-control study. In addition, correlations between seropositivity and DNA positivity for the same genus-beta HPV type were observed for HPV types 5, 24, and 17. SCC cases with tumors negative for any genus-beta HPV type were less likely to be seroprevalent for HPV types 20, 36, 9, 15, 38, and 75 than controls.. The positive association observed between SCC and seropositivity to HPV types in genus-beta is consistent with 2 (7, 8) of 5 case-control studies (3, 5, 7, 8, 16) including one study from the United States (7). Type-specific associations observed with SCC for HPV types 8 and 17 in genus-beta agree with findings from case-control ...
BACKGROUND: Different studies have reported an association between HIV infection, antiretroviral therapies, and impaired bone metabolism, but data on their impact on fracture risk are scarce. We studied the association between a clinical diagnosis of HIV infection and fracture risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the ... read more Danish National Health Service registries, including 124,655 fracture cases and 373,962 age- and gender-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 50 (0.40/1000) patients in the fracture group and 52 (0.14/1000) controls had an HIV diagnosis. The risk of any fracture was thus significantly increased among HIV-infected patients (age- and gender-matched OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.99 to 4.18). Similarly, significant increases in the risk of hip (OR = 8.99, 95% CI: 1.39 to 58.0), forearm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.26 to 9.72), and spine fractures (OR = ...
Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), Barretts and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Transdisciplinary Studies of Genetic Variation in Colorectal Cancer (CORECT), Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (ECAC), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL), Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Etiology and Risk (INTEGRAL) Consortium, International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies (InterLymph), Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), Oral Cancer GWAS, Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4), Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan), Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL), Renal Cancer GWAS, Testicular Cancer Consortium (TECAC), Zhang, Y. D., Hurson, A. ...
Hartge1 emphasizes the issues related to response in population-based epidemiologic studies. She notes that epidemiologists do not always document response rates in their publications and that, when available, these rates have declined, particularly among potential control subjects being recruited into case-control studies. In fact, a critical and challenging aspect of population-based case-control study designs is how to develop a scientifically sound and cost-effective method for identifying and enrolling control subjects.. Care must be taken to define the studys population base when developing the approach for control identification. Ideally, this base is the population that spawned the case subjects. Should any member of the control population be diagnosed with the disease under study, it must be guaranteed that the individual would be identified as a member of the case group. The defined population base will depend on the source of case subjects: medical practices or hospitals, health ...
Few studies have examined perinatal risk factors for NE in sub-Saharan Africa. In this Ugandan population, we found that maternal and newborn infection and inflammation, based on blood cultures, molecular assays and a subset of placentas, are independent risk factors for NE, with the strongest associations seen with fetal inflammation (funisitis) and early neonatal bacteraemia. Neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher for infants with NE exposed to neonatal bacteraemia. Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve survival among encephalopathic infants. Other potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum risk factors were identified, with many antepartum factors mediated by intrapartum events suggesting potential large gains with improvements in intrapartum care.. In our study, funisitis, or infiltration of the umbilical cord with acute fetal inflammatory cells, was a significant risk factor for NE; however, the presence of membrane inflammation alone (isolated histological ...
Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully
Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control approach for the study of time-dependent exposure with cohort analysis using Cox regression including time-dependent covariates. A cohort of 1340 subjects with four fixed and seven time-dependent covariates was used for this study. Nested case-control analyses were repeated 100 times for each of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 controls per case, and point estimates were compared to those obtained using Cox regression on the full cohort. Computational efficiencies were evaluated by comparing central processing unit times required for analysis of the cohort at sizes 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 times its initial size. Nested case-control analyses yielded results that were similar to results of Cox regression on the full cohort. Cox regression was found to be 125 times slower than the nested case-control approach (using
The most difficult and most important considerations in planning the protocol of a case-control study are ascertainment of cases, selection of controls and the quality of the exposure measurement. Plans to ensure careful field work are equally important; without attention to data collection, the protocol will be meaningless. In most case-control studies, the measurement problem is magnified because one cannot implement the collection of exposure information at the beginning of follow-up, and instead must rely on interviews, existing records or extrapolation into the past. Consideration of a case-control study as an efficient way to study a cohort helps to resolve some design issues.
Preterm labor is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Ascending lower genital tract infection leads to preterm labor and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This prospective case-control study
Researchers subject to time and budget constraints may conduct small nested case-control studies with individually matched controls to help optimize statistical power. In this paper, we show how precision can be improved considerably by combining data from a small nested case-control study with data from a larger nested case-control study of a different outcome in the same or overlapping cohort. Our approach is based on the inverse probability weighting concept, in which the log-likelihood contribution of each individual observation is weighted by the inverse of its probability of inclusion in either study. We illustrate our approach using simulated data and an application where we combine data sets from 2 nested case-control studies to investigate risk factors for anorexia nervosa in a cohort of young women in Sweden ...
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Totals Samples analyzed = 1,438+2,878 = 4,316. Total Cost = 4,316 x $20 = $86,320. With this approach a similar estimate of risk was obtained after analyzing blood samples from only a small sample of the entire population at a fraction of the cost with hardly any loss in precision. In essence, a case-control strategy was used, but it was conducted within the context of a prospective cohort study. This is referred to as a case-control study nested within a cohort study.. Rothman states that one should look upon all case-control studies as being nested within a cohort. In other words the cohort represents the source population that gave rise to the cases. With a case-control sampling strategy one simply takes a sample of the population in order to obtain an estimate of the exposure distribution within the population that gave rise to the cases. Obviously, this is a much more efficient design.. It is important to note that, unlike cohort studies, case-control studies do not follow subjects ...
Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of patients with clinically diagnosed OA (according to ICD10 codes in the SIDIAP database of primary care records for over 5 million people in Catalonia, Spain (2)). Cases were identified in the period between 2008 and 2012 through ICD10 codes of cardiac ischemic events (CIE) (AIM or unstable angina, fatal or not) and cross-checked with hospital discharge diagnosis; 3 controls without CIE were matched to each case by sex, age (±5 years), area and year (±2 years) of first diagnosis of OA. Data were linked with pharmacy invoicing information, encrypted and extracted for analysis. Exposure to NSAIDs, SYSADOAs, opioids, paracetamol and metamizole were analysed. Adjusted multivariate conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratio (OR) for CIE according to drug use. ...
Rhinovirus (RV) role in pathogenesis of severe childhood disease remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between RV molecular subtyping, nasopharyngeal viral loads and viremia with childhood pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples from cases and controls were tested for RV and the 5′ non-coding region sequenced. The cases compared to controls had a similar prevalence of RV detection in the nasopharynx (23 % vs. 22 %, P = 0.66), similar RV species distribution (A, B, C = 44 %, 8%, 44 % vs. 48 %, 7%, 38 %; respectively; P = 0.66) and similar viral load (4.0 and 3.7 log10 copies/mL, P = 0.062). However, RV-viremia was 4.01-fold (aOR 95 % CI: 1.26-12.78) more prevalent among cases (7%) than controls (2%), P = 0.019. Furthermore, among cases and controls RV-C was more commonly associated with viremia (14 % and 4%, P = 0.023), than RV-A (2% and 1%; P = 0.529). Thus RV-viremia could be used as a measure for attributing causality to RV in children hospitalized for pneumonia ...
467 Background: SV40, a polyomavirus of macaques related to the human BK virus, was a contaminant of polio vaccines used in the U.S. in 1955-62. SV40 causes NHL in hamsters, and 2 recent studies reported detection of SV40 DNA in tumor tissue from ∼40% of human NHL cases. We applied recently developed serological methods to examine the association between SV40 infection and NHL in a large U.S. population-based case-control study. Methods: The NCI-SEER Multicenter Case-Control Study recruited incident HIV-uninfected NHL cases from Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle (1998-2000). Controls were identified through random digit dialing and Medicare files, frequency-matched to cases by sex, age, race, and site. We evaluated sera from 724 cases, 622 controls, and 19 SV40-infected macaques under masked conditions in 2 separate labs. Each lab used virus-like particle (VLP) ELISAs to measure antibodies against SV40 and BK (SV40 results were unavailable for 13 samples in lab B). Logistic regression ...
2007 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, Vol. 16, no 3, 559-565 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating raw eggs, and eating in restaurants were the most important risk factors for salmonellosis. ...
Individual amount details from all databases have been firstly gathered into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.20 The obtained odds ratio, with 95% confidence intervals, approximated the chance of hospital admission for heart failure connected to present usage of person NSAIDs with respect to past use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with modern utilization of any NSAID, when compared with past use of any NSAID. Supplied the significant quantity of associations assessed On this analysis, we utilised the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effects of uncertainty because of multiple comparisons on the outcomes. ...
A case-control study was conducted in high- and low-risk areas of Italy to evaluate reasons for the striking geographic variation in gastric cancer (GC) mortality within the country. Personal interviews with 1,016 histologically confirmed GC cases and 1,159 population controls of similar age and sex revealed that the patients were more often of lower social class and resident in rural areas and more frequently reported a familial history of gastric (but not other) cancer. After adjusting for these effects, case-control differences were found for several dietary variables, assessed by asking about the usual frequency of consumption of 146 food items and beverages. A significant trend of increasing GC risk was found with increasing consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted/dried fish and a combination of cold cuts and seasoned cheeses. The habit of adding salt and the preference for salty foods were associated with elevated GC risk, while more frequently storing foods in the refrigerator, the ...
Individual stage information from all databases were To begin with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed via a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.twenty The obtained odds ratio, with ninety five% self-confidence intervals, approximated the potential risk of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure affiliated with existing utilization of person NSAIDs with regard to earlier use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with recent utilization of any NSAID, get redirected here in comparison with past utilization of any NSAID. Given the substantial amount of associations assessed in this analysis, we utilized the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effect of uncertainty as a result of various comparisons on the outcome ...
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Objective To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC) of the skin, a clinic-based case-control study was conducted in Tampa, FL.
In this paper some methodological problems particularly relevant to case-control studies of injury are illustrated by reference to previous childhood injury case-control studies. In contrast to studies of disease, where person time constitutes the observational experience of interest, in injury studies person time engaged in a particular activity to often more appropriate. The implications for the definition of the study base are discussed. The potential for hospital admission bias in injury case-control studies is considered along with potential strategies for avoiding it. The importance of errors in exposure measurement, including those arising from inappropriate induction time assumptions, are illustrated. Finally, the potential for bias resulting from the combination of etiologically unrelated injury outcomes into a single outcome measure is illustrated and discussed. ...
Aim: To evaluate the effect of different approaches to treatment of smoking as a potential confounder in an occupational study of lung cancer. Methods: Data were used from a case-control study on 956 men with lung cancer and 1253 population controls recruited in two northern Italian areas during 1990-1992. The risk of lung cancer associated with 11 selected job titles and eight selected industrial activities was estimated using seven different methods to treat smoking history. To evaluate the confounding effect of smoking, odds ratios obtained using the first six models were compared with estimates from the seventh and most complex model, in which cumulative tobacco consumption and time since cessation were considered. Results: Although crude odds ratios for some of the occupational categories were biased by up to 25%, such bias decreased to less than 10% when a simple model including smoking status (never, ex-, current) was used. Conclusions: In occupational studies on lung cancer risk, ...
The inpatients medical record database 2005‐2015 of Sichuan provincial peoples hospital was examined. All individuals with a primary diagnosis of RA were included as cases, and those of osteoarthritis (OA) were included as controls, which consisted of the unmatched dataset. Then, RA cases and OA controls were matched by sex and age at 1:1 ratio, forming the matched dataset. The morbidity of CVD (including ischemia heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), et al), stroke and arthrosclerosis were extracted from the database, so as the demographic data and comorbidities related to CVD. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of CVD in RA adjusted for demographics and comorbidities using the unmatched dataset. Sensitivity analysis was conducted 1) considering interaction terms between RA and comorbidities, and 2) using multivariable conditional logistic regression for the matched dataset ...
Drinking and Smoking and Colorectal Cancer - A Population-Based Case-Control Study among NL Residents, 1999-2003. PhD student: Jinhui Zhao Supervisor: Peizhong Peter Wang Committee: Roy West and Sharon Buehler The Annual Colorectal Meeting, June 16-17, 2008, St Johns, NL. Background....
Epidemiological study of prostate cancer EPICAP: a population-based case-control study in France. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Folate-pathway gene polymorphisms have been implicated in several cancers and investigated inconclusively in relation to prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review, which identified nine case-control studies (eight included, one excluded). We also included data from four genome-wide association studies and from a case-control study nested within the UK population-based Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment study. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of eight polymorphisms: MTHFR C677T (rs1801133; 12 studies; 10,745 cases; 40,158 controls), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131; 5 studies; 3,176 cases; 4,829 controls), MTR A2756G (rs1805087; 8 studies; 7,810 cases; 37,543 controls), MTRR A66G (rs1801394; 4 studies; 3,032 cases; 4,515 controls), MTHFD1 G1958A (rs2236225; 6 studies; 7,493 cases; 36,941 controls), SLC19A1/RFC1 G80A (rs1051266; 4 studies; 6,222 cases; 35,821 controls), SHMT1 C1420T (rs1979277; 2 studies; 2,689 cases; 4,110 controls), and FOLH1 T1561C (rs202676; 5 studies; 6,314 cases;
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the UK, accounting for a third of all female cancer cases, and the second most common cause of cancer death: in England in 2010, the age-standardised rate per 100,000 women-years was 125.7 for incidence and 24.3 for mortality; in addition, in situ breast cancer, that is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS), was diagnosed at a rate of 18 per 100,000 women in 2010 (CRUK, Accessed 28 March 2013 [1]).. In the early nineties, meta-analyses of the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) confirmed the efficacy of mammographic screening for reducing primary breast cancer mortality, and led to the implementation of breast screening programmes in several regions of Europe. One of the most mature and comprehensive of those is the English National Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) which has been in place in England since 1988. A major issue to be addressed by the Department of Healths (England) Policy Research ...
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is the third most rapidly increasing cancer in the United States. HIV-related NHL is responsible for some of the increase since the early 1980s. However, it cannot explain the steady increase in the incidence rates in earlier years, nor the entire increase shown recently. A possible role of environmental exposures is receiving attention. One possibility is that exposure to organochlorines (OCs) may be related to the occurrence of NHL. NCI is currently designing a large population-based case-control study to investigate this hypothesis further by analyzing OC levels in blood collected at the time of interview from cases of NHL and their matched controls. At the time of these interviews, cases in the main case-control study would most likely have already received chemotherapy. If chemotherapy changes the blood levels of OCs, this may lead to misclassification of exposure among cases and eventually to biased risk estimates. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate ...
Unique level data from all databases were To start with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression design.20 The attained odds ratio, with 95% assurance intervals, approximated the chance of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure related to present-day usage of person NSAIDs with regard to previous usage of any NSAID. We also estimated the odds ratio related to modern usage of any NSAID, compared with earlier use of any NSAID. Given the significant amount of associations assessed Within this analysis, we applied the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to evaluate the impact of uncertainty as a result of multiple comparisons on the final results ...
Person amount knowledge from all databases had been To start with gathered right into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression product.twenty The received odds ratio, with 95% self confidence intervals, estimated the potential risk of hospital admission for heart failure connected with existing utilization of specific NSAIDs with respect to earlier utilization of any NSAID. We also estimated the chances ratio linked to modern utilization of any NSAID, in contrast with earlier utilization of any NSAID. Specified the significant range of associations assessed In this particular analysis, we employed the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the impact of uncertainty due to several comparisons on the outcome ...
CASTANO-VINYALS, Gemma y MCC-SPAIN STUDY GROUP et al. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design. Gac Sanit [online]. 2015, vol.29, n.4, pp.308-315. ISSN 0213-9111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2014.12.003.. Introduction: We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Methods: Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. ...
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass screening program for stomach cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Nose town in Osaka, Japan. The case series consisted of all deaths from stomach cancer during the period 1969-1981 (54 in males and 37 in females). For each case, 3 controls of the same sex and from the same precinct as the case, and born within 5 years of the case birth-year, were selected at random from Nose town residents alive at the date of death of the relevant case. We then investigated whether each case and corresponding controls had ever had screening tests before the date of diagnosis of the case. From the matched analysis of the distribution of screening in case-control combination, the odds ratio of screened vs. unscreened among those who died from stomach cancer compared to those who did not was calculated as 0.595 (90% confidence interval: 0.338-1.045) among males and 0.382 (0.185-0.785) among females. When the screening tests conducted within 12 months of ...
Case-control studies are generally designed to investigate the effect of exposures on the risk of a disease. Detailed information on past exposures is collected at the time of study. However, only the cumulated value of the exposure at the index date is usually used in logistic regression. A weighted Cox (WC) model has been proposed to estimate the effects of time-dependent exposures. The weights depend on the age conditional probabilities to develop the disease in the source population. While the WC model provided more accurate estimates of the effect of time-dependent covariates than standard logistic regression, the robust sandwich variance estimates were lower than the empirical variance, resulting in a low coverage probability of confidence intervals. The objectives of the present study were to investigate through simulations a new variance estimator and to compare the estimates from the WC model and standard logistic regression for estimating the effects of correlated temporal aspects of exposure
Previous studies have provided limited support to the association between tobacco smoking and lymphomas with weak evidence of a dose-response relationship. We investigated the relationship between tobacco smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) through logistic regression spline models. Data were derived from an Italian hospital-based case-control study (1999-2014), which enrolled 571 NHLs, 188 HLs, and 1004 cancer-free controls. Smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed through a validated questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared to never smokers, people smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day showed increased risks of both NHL (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.97) and HL (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 4.87); the risk was particularly elevated for follicular NHL (OR = 2.43; 95% CI:1.31-4.51) and mixed cellularity HL (OR = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.31, 23.97). No excess risk
Schizophrenia has been conceived as a disorder of brain connectivity, but it is unclear how this network phenotype is related to the underlying genetics. We used morphometric similarity analysis of MRI data as a marker of interareal cortical connectivity in three prior case-control studies of psychosis: in total, n = 185 cases and n = 227 controls. Psychosis was associated with globally reduced morphometric similarity in all three studies. There was also a replicable pattern of case-control differences in regional morphometric similarity, which was significantly reduced in patients in frontal and temporal cortical areas but increased in parietal cortex. Using prior brain-wide gene expression data, we found that the cortical map of case-control differences in morphometric similarity was spatially correlated with cortical expression of a weighted combination of genes enriched for neurobiologically relevant ontology terms and pathways. In addition, genes that were normally overexpressed in cortical ...