TY - JOUR. T1 - Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case control study on genetic and environmental risk factors. AU - Pomp, E.R.. AU - van Stralen, K.J.. AU - le Cessie, S.. AU - Vandenbroucke, J.P.. AU - Rosendaal, F.R.. AU - Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria. N1 - Open access journal PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even ...
PURPOSE: To define the prevalence and associations of co-morbidity and school attendance in older children with epilepsy (CWE) from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. METHODS: Children aged 6-14 years old with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last five years) were identified in a cross-sectional survey in Tanzania. Co-morbidities were assessed and cases were compared with age-matched controls. RESULTS: Co-morbidity was very common amongst cases (95/112, 85%), with 62/112 (55%) having multiple co-morbidities. Co-morbidities consisted of cognitive impairment (72/112, 64%), behaviour disorder 68/112 (61%), motor difficulties 29/112 (26%), burns and other previous injuries (29/112, 26%). These complications were significantly more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio 14.8, 95%CI 7.6-28.6, p|0.001). Co-morbidity in CWE was associated with structural cause, abnormal electroencephalogram and early onset seizures. Cognitive impairment
AIM: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. METHOD: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12 y) with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last 5 y) were identified in a cross-sectional survey and included in this study. Children who were younger than 6 years were excluded in order to eliminate febrile seizures. Behaviour was assessed using the Rutter scale; children who scored 13 or more were considered to have disordered behaviour. A comparison group was made up of age- and sex-matched children without epilepsy (n = 113; 57 males, 56 females; median age 12 y). RESULTS: Behavioural disorders were diagnosed in 68 of 103 (66%) children with epilepsy and in 19 of 99 (19%) controls. Disordered behaviour was significantly more common in children with epilepsy than in the
Schuchat A, Zywicki SS, Dinsmoor MJ, Mercer B, Romaguera J, OSullivan MJ, Patel D, Peters MT, Stoll B, Levine OS. Risk factors and opportunities for prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis: a multicenter case-control study. Pediatrics. 2000; 105(1 Pt 1): 21-6 ...
Previous studies of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have limitations: (1) some focused on patients with clinically recognized chronic kidney disease (CKD); (2) others identified population-based patients who developed ESRD, but lacked earlier baseline clinical measures to predict ESRD. Our study was designed to address these limitations and to identify the strength and precision of characteristics that might predict ESRD pragmatically for decision-makers--as measured by the onset of renal replacement therapy (RRT). We conducted a population-based, retrospective case-control study of patients who developed ESRD and started RRT. We conducted the study in a health maintenance organization, Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW). The case-control study was nested within the adult population of KPNW members who were enrolled during 1999, the baseline period. Cases and their matched controls were identified from January 2000 through December 2004. We evaluated baseline clinical characteristics
TY - JOUR. T1 - A retrospective case-control study to investigate horse and jockey level risk factors associated with horse falls in Irish Point-to-Point races. AU - Smith, Laura J.. AU - Tabor, Gillian. AU - Williams, Jane. PY - 2020/5. Y1 - 2020/5. N2 - Horse racing as a high-risk sport can pose a significant risk to equine welfare. There have been limited epidemiological reviews of fall risk specific to point-to-point racing. This study aimed to identify horse and jockey level risk factors associated with horse falls and compare these to published findings for Hurdle and Steeplechase racing. The study used a retrospective matched case-control design. Relevant variables were identified, and information was collated for all races in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. Cases and controls were matched with a 1:3 ratio. Controls (n=2,547) were selected at random from all horses that completed in the same race (n=849). Horse and jockey level variables were analysed through univariable analysis to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal outcome of lupus pregnancy. T2 - A retrospective case-control study of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. AU - Petri, Michelle. AU - Allbritton, Jill. PY - 1993/11. Y1 - 1993/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907435016&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907435016&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84907435016. VL - 48. SP - 717. EP - 719. JO - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. JF - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. SN - 0029-7828. IS - 11. ER - ...
XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) is a base excision repair protein that plays a central role in the repair of DNA base damage and strand breaks. A common polymorphism (Arg→Gln) at codon 399 of the XRCC1 gene has been previously linked to functional changes of the gene product and risk of cancers. We evaluated the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the population-based Shanghai Breast Cancer Study involving 1088 cancer patients and 1182 community controls. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood was used in genotyping assays, and exposure information and anthropometrics were collected through in-person interview. Plasma estrogen and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured for 190 postmenopausal breast cancer patients who had donated a pretreatment blood sample and 407 postmenopausal controls. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting potential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transient ischaemic attack, vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment. T2 - a case-controlled study. AU - Guyomard, Veronique. AU - Metcalf, Anthony K. AU - Naguib, Magdi F. AU - Fulcher, Robert A. AU - Potter, John F. AU - Myint, Phyo K. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. KW - aged. KW - aged, 80 and over. KW - case-control studies. KW - cognition. KW - cognition disorders. KW - female. KW - hospitals, university. KW - humans. KW - Ischemic Attack, Transient. KW - male. KW - middle aged. KW - neuropsychological tests. KW - risk assessment. KW - risk factors. KW - severity of illness index. U2 - 10.1093/ageing/afr079. DO - 10.1093/ageing/afr079. M3 - Letter. C2 - 21749995. VL - 40. SP - 641. EP - 644. JO - Age and Ageing. JF - Age and Ageing. SN - 0002-0729. IS - 5. ER - ...
Observations from the current case-control study support the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and SCC. Seropositivity to HPV 10 was the single type from genus-alpha associated with SCC. Seropositivity for cutaneous HPV types in genus-beta overall, and for types 8 and 17 specifically, was significantly associated with SCC in this clinic-based case-control study. In addition, correlations between seropositivity and DNA positivity for the same genus-beta HPV type were observed for HPV types 5, 24, and 17. SCC cases with tumors negative for any genus-beta HPV type were less likely to be seroprevalent for HPV types 20, 36, 9, 15, 38, and 75 than controls.. The positive association observed between SCC and seropositivity to HPV types in genus-beta is consistent with 2 (7, 8) of 5 case-control studies (3, 5, 7, 8, 16) including one study from the United States (7). Type-specific associations observed with SCC for HPV types 8 and 17 in genus-beta agree with findings from case-control ...
BACKGROUND: Different studies have reported an association between HIV infection, antiretroviral therapies, and impaired bone metabolism, but data on their impact on fracture risk are scarce. We studied the association between a clinical diagnosis of HIV infection and fracture risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the ... read more Danish National Health Service registries, including 124,655 fracture cases and 373,962 age- and gender-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 50 (0.40/1000) patients in the fracture group and 52 (0.14/1000) controls had an HIV diagnosis. The risk of any fracture was thus significantly increased among HIV-infected patients (age- and gender-matched OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.99 to 4.18). Similarly, significant increases in the risk of hip (OR = 8.99, 95% CI: 1.39 to 58.0), forearm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.26 to 9.72), and spine fractures (OR = ...
Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), Barretts and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Transdisciplinary Studies of Genetic Variation in Colorectal Cancer (CORECT), Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (ECAC), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL), Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Etiology and Risk (INTEGRAL) Consortium, International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies (InterLymph), Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), Oral Cancer GWAS, Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4), Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan), Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL), Renal Cancer GWAS, Testicular Cancer Consortium (TECAC), Zhang, Y. D., Hurson, A. ...
Hartge1 emphasizes the issues related to response in population-based epidemiologic studies. She notes that epidemiologists do not always document response rates in their publications and that, when available, these rates have declined, particularly among potential control subjects being recruited into case-control studies. In fact, a critical and challenging aspect of population-based case-control study designs is how to develop a scientifically sound and cost-effective method for identifying and enrolling control subjects.. Care must be taken to define the studys population base when developing the approach for control identification. Ideally, this base is the population that spawned the case subjects. Should any member of the control population be diagnosed with the disease under study, it must be guaranteed that the individual would be identified as a member of the case group. The defined population base will depend on the source of case subjects: medical practices or hospitals, health ...
Few studies have examined perinatal risk factors for NE in sub-Saharan Africa. In this Ugandan population, we found that maternal and newborn infection and inflammation, based on blood cultures, molecular assays and a subset of placentas, are independent risk factors for NE, with the strongest associations seen with fetal inflammation (funisitis) and early neonatal bacteraemia. Neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher for infants with NE exposed to neonatal bacteraemia. Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve survival among encephalopathic infants. Other potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum risk factors were identified, with many antepartum factors mediated by intrapartum events suggesting potential large gains with improvements in intrapartum care.. In our study, funisitis, or infiltration of the umbilical cord with acute fetal inflammatory cells, was a significant risk factor for NE; however, the presence of membrane inflammation alone (isolated histological ...
Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully
Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control approach for the study of time-dependent exposure with cohort analysis using Cox regression including time-dependent covariates. A cohort of 1340 subjects with four fixed and seven time-dependent covariates was used for this study. Nested case-control analyses were repeated 100 times for each of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 controls per case, and point estimates were compared to those obtained using Cox regression on the full cohort. Computational efficiencies were evaluated by comparing central processing unit times required for analysis of the cohort at sizes 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 times its initial size. Nested case-control analyses yielded results that were similar to results of Cox regression on the full cohort. Cox regression was found to be 125 times slower than the nested case-control approach (using
The most difficult and most important considerations in planning the protocol of a case-control study are ascertainment of cases, selection of controls and the quality of the exposure measurement. Plans to ensure careful field work are equally important; without attention to data collection, the protocol will be meaningless. In most case-control studies, the measurement problem is magnified because one cannot implement the collection of exposure information at the beginning of follow-up, and instead must rely on interviews, existing records or extrapolation into the past. Consideration of a case-control study as an efficient way to study a cohort helps to resolve some design issues.
Preterm labor is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Ascending lower genital tract infection leads to preterm labor and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This prospective case-control study
Researchers subject to time and budget constraints may conduct small nested case-control studies with individually matched controls to help optimize statistical power. In this paper, we show how precision can be improved considerably by combining data from a small nested case-control study with data from a larger nested case-control study of a different outcome in the same or overlapping cohort. Our approach is based on the inverse probability weighting concept, in which the log-likelihood contribution of each individual observation is weighted by the inverse of its probability of inclusion in either study. We illustrate our approach using simulated data and an application where we combine data sets from 2 nested case-control studies to investigate risk factors for anorexia nervosa in a cohort of young women in Sweden ...
Free Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ ppt, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ slides, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ presentations download ...
Totals Samples analyzed = 1,438+2,878 = 4,316. Total Cost = 4,316 x $20 = $86,320. With this approach a similar estimate of risk was obtained after analyzing blood samples from only a small sample of the entire population at a fraction of the cost with hardly any loss in precision. In essence, a case-control strategy was used, but it was conducted within the context of a prospective cohort study. This is referred to as a case-control study nested within a cohort study.. Rothman states that one should look upon all case-control studies as being nested within a cohort. In other words the cohort represents the source population that gave rise to the cases. With a case-control sampling strategy one simply takes a sample of the population in order to obtain an estimate of the exposure distribution within the population that gave rise to the cases. Obviously, this is a much more efficient design.. It is important to note that, unlike cohort studies, case-control studies do not follow subjects ...
Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of patients with clinically diagnosed OA (according to ICD10 codes in the SIDIAP database of primary care records for over 5 million people in Catalonia, Spain (2)). Cases were identified in the period between 2008 and 2012 through ICD10 codes of cardiac ischemic events (CIE) (AIM or unstable angina, fatal or not) and cross-checked with hospital discharge diagnosis; 3 controls without CIE were matched to each case by sex, age (±5 years), area and year (±2 years) of first diagnosis of OA. Data were linked with pharmacy invoicing information, encrypted and extracted for analysis. Exposure to NSAIDs, SYSADOAs, opioids, paracetamol and metamizole were analysed. Adjusted multivariate conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratio (OR) for CIE according to drug use. ...
Rhinovirus (RV) role in pathogenesis of severe childhood disease remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between RV molecular subtyping, nasopharyngeal viral loads and viremia with childhood pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples from cases and controls were tested for RV and the 5′ non-coding region sequenced. The cases compared to controls had a similar prevalence of RV detection in the nasopharynx (23 % vs. 22 %, P = 0.66), similar RV species distribution (A, B, C = 44 %, 8%, 44 % vs. 48 %, 7%, 38 %; respectively; P = 0.66) and similar viral load (4.0 and 3.7 log10 copies/mL, P = 0.062). However, RV-viremia was 4.01-fold (aOR 95 % CI: 1.26-12.78) more prevalent among cases (7%) than controls (2%), P = 0.019. Furthermore, among cases and controls RV-C was more commonly associated with viremia (14 % and 4%, P = 0.023), than RV-A (2% and 1%; P = 0.529). Thus RV-viremia could be used as a measure for attributing causality to RV in children hospitalized for pneumonia ...
467 Background: SV40, a polyomavirus of macaques related to the human BK virus, was a contaminant of polio vaccines used in the U.S. in 1955-62. SV40 causes NHL in hamsters, and 2 recent studies reported detection of SV40 DNA in tumor tissue from ∼40% of human NHL cases. We applied recently developed serological methods to examine the association between SV40 infection and NHL in a large U.S. population-based case-control study. Methods: The NCI-SEER Multicenter Case-Control Study recruited incident HIV-uninfected NHL cases from Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle (1998-2000). Controls were identified through random digit dialing and Medicare files, frequency-matched to cases by sex, age, race, and site. We evaluated sera from 724 cases, 622 controls, and 19 SV40-infected macaques under masked conditions in 2 separate labs. Each lab used virus-like particle (VLP) ELISAs to measure antibodies against SV40 and BK (SV40 results were unavailable for 13 samples in lab B). Logistic regression ...
2007 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, Vol. 16, no 3, 559-565 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating raw eggs, and eating in restaurants were the most important risk factors for salmonellosis. ...
Individual amount details from all databases have been firstly gathered into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.20 The obtained odds ratio, with 95% confidence intervals, approximated the chance of hospital admission for heart failure connected to present usage of person NSAIDs with respect to past use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with modern utilization of any NSAID, when compared with past use of any NSAID. Supplied the significant quantity of associations assessed On this analysis, we utilised the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effects of uncertainty because of multiple comparisons on the outcomes. ...
A case-control study was conducted in high- and low-risk areas of Italy to evaluate reasons for the striking geographic variation in gastric cancer (GC) mortality within the country. Personal interviews with 1,016 histologically confirmed GC cases and 1,159 population controls of similar age and sex revealed that the patients were more often of lower social class and resident in rural areas and more frequently reported a familial history of gastric (but not other) cancer. After adjusting for these effects, case-control differences were found for several dietary variables, assessed by asking about the usual frequency of consumption of 146 food items and beverages. A significant trend of increasing GC risk was found with increasing consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted/dried fish and a combination of cold cuts and seasoned cheeses. The habit of adding salt and the preference for salty foods were associated with elevated GC risk, while more frequently storing foods in the refrigerator, the ...
Individual stage information from all databases were To begin with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed via a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.twenty The obtained odds ratio, with ninety five% self-confidence intervals, approximated the potential risk of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure affiliated with existing utilization of person NSAIDs with regard to earlier use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with recent utilization of any NSAID, get redirected here in comparison with past utilization of any NSAID. Given the substantial amount of associations assessed in this analysis, we utilized the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effect of uncertainty as a result of various comparisons on the outcome ...
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Objective To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC) of the skin, a clinic-based case-control study was conducted in Tampa, FL.
In this paper some methodological problems particularly relevant to case-control studies of injury are illustrated by reference to previous childhood injury case-control studies. In contrast to studies of disease, where person time constitutes the observational experience of interest, in injury studies person time engaged in a particular activity to often more appropriate. The implications for the definition of the study base are discussed. The potential for hospital admission bias in injury case-control studies is considered along with potential strategies for avoiding it. The importance of errors in exposure measurement, including those arising from inappropriate induction time assumptions, are illustrated. Finally, the potential for bias resulting from the combination of etiologically unrelated injury outcomes into a single outcome measure is illustrated and discussed. ...
Aim: To evaluate the effect of different approaches to treatment of smoking as a potential confounder in an occupational study of lung cancer. Methods: Data were used from a case-control study on 956 men with lung cancer and 1253 population controls recruited in two northern Italian areas during 1990-1992. The risk of lung cancer associated with 11 selected job titles and eight selected industrial activities was estimated using seven different methods to treat smoking history. To evaluate the confounding effect of smoking, odds ratios obtained using the first six models were compared with estimates from the seventh and most complex model, in which cumulative tobacco consumption and time since cessation were considered. Results: Although crude odds ratios for some of the occupational categories were biased by up to 25%, such bias decreased to less than 10% when a simple model including smoking status (never, ex-, current) was used. Conclusions: In occupational studies on lung cancer risk, ...
Psychology Definition of EXPECTANCY CONTROL DESIGN: Design of an experiment where the experimenter expectancy effect occurs separately from the independent variable.
The inpatients medical record database 2005‐2015 of Sichuan provincial peoples hospital was examined. All individuals with a primary diagnosis of RA were included as cases, and those of osteoarthritis (OA) were included as controls, which consisted of the unmatched dataset. Then, RA cases and OA controls were matched by sex and age at 1:1 ratio, forming the matched dataset. The morbidity of CVD (including ischemia heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), et al), stroke and arthrosclerosis were extracted from the database, so as the demographic data and comorbidities related to CVD. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of CVD in RA adjusted for demographics and comorbidities using the unmatched dataset. Sensitivity analysis was conducted 1) considering interaction terms between RA and comorbidities, and 2) using multivariable conditional logistic regression for the matched dataset ...
Drinking and Smoking and Colorectal Cancer - A Population-Based Case-Control Study among NL Residents, 1999-2003. PhD student: Jinhui Zhao Supervisor: Peizhong Peter Wang Committee: Roy West and Sharon Buehler The Annual Colorectal Meeting, June 16-17, 2008, St Johns, NL. Background....
Epidemiological study of prostate cancer EPICAP: a population-based case-control study in France. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Folate-pathway gene polymorphisms have been implicated in several cancers and investigated inconclusively in relation to prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review, which identified nine case-control studies (eight included, one excluded). We also included data from four genome-wide association studies and from a case-control study nested within the UK population-based Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment study. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of eight polymorphisms: MTHFR C677T (rs1801133; 12 studies; 10,745 cases; 40,158 controls), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131; 5 studies; 3,176 cases; 4,829 controls), MTR A2756G (rs1805087; 8 studies; 7,810 cases; 37,543 controls), MTRR A66G (rs1801394; 4 studies; 3,032 cases; 4,515 controls), MTHFD1 G1958A (rs2236225; 6 studies; 7,493 cases; 36,941 controls), SLC19A1/RFC1 G80A (rs1051266; 4 studies; 6,222 cases; 35,821 controls), SHMT1 C1420T (rs1979277; 2 studies; 2,689 cases; 4,110 controls), and FOLH1 T1561C (rs202676; 5 studies; 6,314 cases;
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the UK, accounting for a third of all female cancer cases, and the second most common cause of cancer death: in England in 2010, the age-standardised rate per 100,000 women-years was 125.7 for incidence and 24.3 for mortality; in addition, in situ breast cancer, that is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS), was diagnosed at a rate of 18 per 100,000 women in 2010 (CRUK, Accessed 28 March 2013 [1]).. In the early nineties, meta-analyses of the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) confirmed the efficacy of mammographic screening for reducing primary breast cancer mortality, and led to the implementation of breast screening programmes in several regions of Europe. One of the most mature and comprehensive of those is the English National Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) which has been in place in England since 1988. A major issue to be addressed by the Department of Healths (England) Policy Research ...
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is the third most rapidly increasing cancer in the United States. HIV-related NHL is responsible for some of the increase since the early 1980s. However, it cannot explain the steady increase in the incidence rates in earlier years, nor the entire increase shown recently. A possible role of environmental exposures is receiving attention. One possibility is that exposure to organochlorines (OCs) may be related to the occurrence of NHL. NCI is currently designing a large population-based case-control study to investigate this hypothesis further by analyzing OC levels in blood collected at the time of interview from cases of NHL and their matched controls. At the time of these interviews, cases in the main case-control study would most likely have already received chemotherapy. If chemotherapy changes the blood levels of OCs, this may lead to misclassification of exposure among cases and eventually to biased risk estimates. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate ...
Unique level data from all databases were To start with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression design.20 The attained odds ratio, with 95% assurance intervals, approximated the chance of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure related to present-day usage of person NSAIDs with regard to previous usage of any NSAID. We also estimated the odds ratio related to modern usage of any NSAID, compared with earlier use of any NSAID. Given the significant amount of associations assessed Within this analysis, we applied the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to evaluate the impact of uncertainty as a result of multiple comparisons on the final results ...
Person amount knowledge from all databases had been To start with gathered right into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression product.twenty The received odds ratio, with 95% self confidence intervals, estimated the potential risk of hospital admission for heart failure connected with existing utilization of specific NSAIDs with respect to earlier utilization of any NSAID. We also estimated the chances ratio linked to modern utilization of any NSAID, in contrast with earlier utilization of any NSAID. Specified the significant range of associations assessed In this particular analysis, we employed the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the impact of uncertainty due to several comparisons on the outcome ...
CASTANO-VINYALS, Gemma y MCC-SPAIN STUDY GROUP et al. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design. Gac Sanit [online]. 2015, vol.29, n.4, pp.308-315. ISSN 0213-9111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2014.12.003.. Introduction: We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Methods: Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. ...
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass screening program for stomach cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Nose town in Osaka, Japan. The case series consisted of all deaths from stomach cancer during the period 1969-1981 (54 in males and 37 in females). For each case, 3 controls of the same sex and from the same precinct as the case, and born within 5 years of the case birth-year, were selected at random from Nose town residents alive at the date of death of the relevant case. We then investigated whether each case and corresponding controls had ever had screening tests before the date of diagnosis of the case. From the matched analysis of the distribution of screening in case-control combination, the odds ratio of screened vs. unscreened among those who died from stomach cancer compared to those who did not was calculated as 0.595 (90% confidence interval: 0.338-1.045) among males and 0.382 (0.185-0.785) among females. When the screening tests conducted within 12 months of ...
Case-control studies are generally designed to investigate the effect of exposures on the risk of a disease. Detailed information on past exposures is collected at the time of study. However, only the cumulated value of the exposure at the index date is usually used in logistic regression. A weighted Cox (WC) model has been proposed to estimate the effects of time-dependent exposures. The weights depend on the age conditional probabilities to develop the disease in the source population. While the WC model provided more accurate estimates of the effect of time-dependent covariates than standard logistic regression, the robust sandwich variance estimates were lower than the empirical variance, resulting in a low coverage probability of confidence intervals. The objectives of the present study were to investigate through simulations a new variance estimator and to compare the estimates from the WC model and standard logistic regression for estimating the effects of correlated temporal aspects of exposure
Previous studies have provided limited support to the association between tobacco smoking and lymphomas with weak evidence of a dose-response relationship. We investigated the relationship between tobacco smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) through logistic regression spline models. Data were derived from an Italian hospital-based case-control study (1999-2014), which enrolled 571 NHLs, 188 HLs, and 1004 cancer-free controls. Smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed through a validated questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared to never smokers, people smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day showed increased risks of both NHL (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.97) and HL (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 4.87); the risk was particularly elevated for follicular NHL (OR = 2.43; 95% CI:1.31-4.51) and mixed cellularity HL (OR = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.31, 23.97). No excess risk
Aim Little is known about the acute effects of furosemide use on the risk of hip fracture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between furosemide use and acute risk of hip fracture in older people in Taiwan. Methods We carried out a retrospective nationwide case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 4523 older adults aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed hip fracture from 2000 to 2013 were identified as the cases. Additionally, 4523 older adults aged ≥65 years without hip fracture were randomly selected as the controls. The cases and the controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year and month of hip fracture diagnosis. Furosemide use was defined as current, recent or past if the furosemide prescription was filled ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for explantation due to infection after sacral neuromodulation. T2 - a multicenter retrospective case-control study. AU - Myer, Emily N.B.. AU - Petrikovets, Andrey. AU - Slocum, Paul D.. AU - Lee, Toy Gee. AU - Carter-Brooks, Charelle M.. AU - Noor, Nabila. AU - Carlos, Daniela M.. AU - Wu, Emily. AU - Van Eck, Kathryn. AU - Fashokun, Tola B.. AU - Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin. AU - Chen, Chi Chiung Grace. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Sacral neuromodulation is an effective therapy for overactive bladder, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Infection after sacral neurostimulation is costly and burdensome. Determining optimal perioperative management strategies to reduce the risk of infection is important to reduce this burden. Objective: We sought to identify risk factors associated with sacral neurostimulator infection requiring explantation, to estimate the incidence of infection requiring explantation, and identify associated microbial pathogens. ...
Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values |0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP
BACKGROUND: An association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer risk has been suggested. To evaluate this possible association better, researchers need more precise estimates of risk, the relative contribution of different sources of ETS, and the effect of ETS exposure on different histologic types of lung cancer. To address these issues, we have conducted a case-control study of lung cancer and exposure to ETS in 12 centers from seven European countries. METHODS: A total of 650 patients with lung cancer and 1542 control subjects up to 74 years of age were interviewed about exposure to ETS. Neither case subjects nor control subjects had smoked more than 400 cigarettes in their lifetime. RESULTS: ETS exposure during childhood was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] for ever exposure = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-0.96). The OR for ever exposure to spousal ETS was 1.16 (95% CI = 0.93-1.44). No clear dose-response relationship
We have carried out a pilot case-control study of childhood leukaemia and exposure to benzene assessed by repeated individual measurements made on average 2 years after diagnosis. The pilot study included side-investigations aimed at evaluating the performance of two biological indicators of benzene exposure in children, at estimating amount and direction of a possible participation bias and at assessing the relation between estimated exposures to benzene and ELF magnetic fields.. Owing to the relatively low incidence of childhood cancers (10-15 for 100 000 person-years in the 0-14 year range in most industrialised countries), the case-control approach is the design of choice for analytical epidemiological studies about potential risk factors for these diseases. Such a study design, however, is inherently prone to measurement errors stemming from the retrospective reconstruction of the exposures of interest, and to differential participation leading to control samples not being representative of ...
Improved medical care and advances in surgical techniques have increased life expectancy for children with complex CHD, but developmental delays, poorer academic achievement and behavior, and neurological morbidity remain a challenge.18,19 Stroke is a potentially preventable factor that may contribute to worsened neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our study found that CHD is strongly associated with childhood stroke, with a 19-fold increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke in children between the ages of 29 days and 20 years.. We found that the children with cardiac surgery for CHD were at the greatest risk for stroke. Pediatric heart surgery, while life-saving, is complicated by a high proportion of thrombotic events20 and has been associated with a higher risk of delayed development and neurological abnormalities.18,21 Our study included only children with symptomatic strokes, but many of the radiographically identified perioperative infarcts in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary fatty acids and colorectal cancer. T2 - A case-control study. AU - Theodoratou, Evropi. AU - McNeill, Geraldine. AU - Cetnarskyj, Roseanne. AU - Farrington, Susan M.. AU - Tenesa, Albert. AU - Barnetson, Rebecca. AU - Porteous, Mary. AU - Dunlop, Malcolm. AU - Campbell, Harry. PY - 2007/7/15. Y1 - 2007/7/15. N2 - Fatty acid effects on colorectal cancer risk were examined in a national prospective case-control study in Scotland (1999-2006), including 1,455 incident cases and 1,455 matched controls. Three conditional logistic regression models adjusted for energy (residual method) and for other risk factors were applied in the whole sample and were stratified by sex, cancer site, age, and tumor staging. Total and trans-monounsatu rated fatty acids and palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids were dose-dependently associated with colorectal cancer risk, but these effects did not persist after further energy adjustment. Significant dose-dependent reductions in risk were associated ...
Background: Bricklayers may be at increased risk of lung cancer, although a firm association has not been established. We examined this association within the EAGLE (Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology) study, a population-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 2002 and 2005. Methods: For men in selected occupations in the construction sector we calculated smoking-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For bricklayers we estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the attributable community risk (ACR). Results: We found increased lung cancer risk for bricklayers (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12-2.21; 147 cases, 81 controls). The PAF was 3.9% (95% CI 0.7-7.0), corresponding to an ACR of 4.1 cases annually per 100,000 men (95% CI 0.7-7.3) in the whole community. Among bricklayers, there were increased risks for squamous cell (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.32-3.13, 56 exposed cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.29-4.07, 21 exposed cases), ...
Because aggregation of cancers at different sites can occur in families, cancer could be considered as a broad phenotype with shared genetic factors. Here, we report results from a multi-centre case-control study of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with particular emphasis on a history of cancer in first-degree relatives and the risk of lung cancer. From 2002 to 2006, 733 NSCLC patients treated surgically were recruited in 8 European countries and matched to 1312 controls, by centre, sex and age. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression models to test the association between a history of cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of NSCLC. A family history of lung cancer was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for early-onset (54years or younger) NSCLC of 4.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-21.90). A family history of gastric cancer was associated with an OR for NSCLC of 1.82 (95% CI=1.08-3.06) and for late-onset (55years or older) NSCLC of 2.92 (95% CI=1.10-7.75). Our findings provide
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Environmental factors are thought to be involved in the development of PCOS. The present study aimed to explore the potential environmental risk factors of PCOS. A cross-sectional study and stratified population-based case-control study were carried out. Pre-designed questionnaires were prepared, including questions about medication history, contact history of endocrine disruptors (EDs), environment and habituation. Fasting blood was collected for measurement of sex hormone, glucose and insulin. Matched logistic regression analysis was used to find the potential independent risk factor of PCOS. One thousand eight hundred fifty-four participants (aged 12-44 years) were analyzed in the cross-sectional investigation. One hundred sixty-nine PCOS patients and 338 matched controls were compared. PCOS patients were more frequent than controls in eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001), contacting
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regular analgesic use and risk of endometrial cancer. AU - Moysich, Kirsten B.. AU - Baker, Julie A.. AU - Rodabaugh, Kerry J.. AU - Villella, Jeannine A.. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - Background: Analgesic use has been implicated in the chemoprevention of a number of solid tumors, but thus far, no previous research has focused on the role of aspirin in endometrial cancer etiology. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 427 women with primary, incident endometrial cancer, and 427 age- and residence-matched controls without benign or malignant neoplasms. All participants received medical services at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, and completed a comprehensive epidemiologic questionnaire. Women who reported analgesic use at least once a week for at least 6 months were classified as regular users and served as the reference group throughout the analyses. We used unconditional logistic regression analyses to compute crude and adjusted odds ...
DISCUSSION. The current study shows that in comparison to controls (age-matched normal and with malignancy), the prevalence of overall hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) and autoimmunity was not higher in BC patients, although the prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism remained significantly high. BC patients with thyroid dysfunctions and autoimmunity had significantly smaller tumors than those without dysfunction and autoimmunity. In comparison to basal values, mean fT4 was higher and TSH was lower after chemotherapy but after one year of follow-up, the reverse trend was noted, i.e., lower fT4 and higher TSH than the respective values at baseline.. The findings of a significantly high prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and significantly smaller tumors in BC patients seem related. This can partly be explained by the fact that the patients with self-reported hypothyroidism were already under medical care and were perhaps more aware to seek early consultation for breast lumps, which are ...
Globally, under-nutrition accounts for | 3 million deaths annually among children | 5 years, with Kenya having ~ 35,000 deaths. This study aimed to identify factors associated with malnutrition in children aged | 5 years in western Kenya. We conducted a hospital-based unmatched case-control study between May and June 2017. Cases were defined as children aged 6-59 months with either z-score for weight-for-height ≤ −2SD or ≥ +2SD; weight-for-age ≤ −2SD or ≥ +2SD; or height-for-age ≤ −2SD. Controls were children aged 6-59 months with age-appropriate anthropometric measurements. Cases were consecutively recruited while systematic random sampling was used to select controls. Data from interviews and clinical records were collected and entered into Epi-Info, which was used to run unconditional logistic regression analyses. A total of 94 cases and 281 controls were recruited. Of the cases, 84% (79/94) were under-nourished. Mother not having attended ante-natal clinic (OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 1.5-41.2
The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC) has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma) in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455). Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to
Results from the majority of studies show little association between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, a finding that has not been demonstrated in a wider European population, however. The authors examined whether vitamin D concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1994-2000). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in 652 prostate cancer cases matched to 752 controls from 7 European countries after a median follow-up time of 4.1 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for prostate cancer risk in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after standardizing for month of blood collection and adjusting for covariates. No significant association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: odds ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.88; P for
Background: Studies have linked asthma death to either increased or decreased use of medical services. Methods: A population based case-control study of asthma deaths in 1994-8 was performed in 22 English, six Scottish, and five Welsh health authorities/boards. All 681 subjects who died were under the age of 65 years with asthma in Part I on the death certificates. After exclusions, 532 hospital controls were matched to 532 cases for age, district, and date of asthma admission/death. Data were extracted blind from primary care records. Results: The median age of the subjects who died was 53 years; 60% of cases and 64% of controls were female. There was little difference in outpatient attendance (55% and 55%), hospital admission for asthma (51 % and 54%), and median inpatient days (20 days and 15 days) in the previous 5 years. After mutual adjustment and adjustment for sex, using conditional logistic regression, three variables were independently associated with asthma death: fewer general ...
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22 Aug 2014 In the Clinical Studies lecture we will use pdf files that cover the generally accepted be using PowerPoint presentations and the pdf files of these of products, pharmacovigilance, (cohorts- vs. case-control-studies).8. März 2016 accounting grade 10 case study term 3 essay lessons nature australian essay writing case control and cohort studies differences ppt Establishing Causality Case-Control Studies Cohort Studies Experimental Designs Summary Multiple Choice Questions PART SIX: INTRODUCTION TO DATA Two nested case-control studies in a prospective cohort of 790 euthyroid women who were 1st or 2nd degree relatives of AITD patients. Follow-up was five year, conflicting perspectives essay ted hughes Advantages and disadvantages of observational and experimental studies for diabetes research Sarah Wild, University of Edinburgh BIRO Academy 2nd Residential …Jul 23, 2006 · Early case-control studies suggesting that patients with Parkinson disease (PD) are less likely to be smokers ...
Variants in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could be associated with type 2 diabetes because ATP plays a critical role in the production and release of insulin. Diabetes can be precipitated both by mtDNA mutations and by exposure to mitochondrial poisons. The risk of inheriting diabetes from an affected mother is greater than that from an affected father, but this is not explained by maternally inherited diabetes and/or deafness (MIDD) caused by the 3243G:C mtDNA point mutation, which accounts for less than 0.5% of cases of diabetes. A common mtDNA variant (the 16189 variant) is positively correlated with blood fasting insulin, but there are no definitive studies demonstrating that it is associated with diabetes. We demonstrated a significant association between the 16189 variant and type 2 diabetes in a population-based case-control study in Cambridgeshire, UK (n=932, odds ratio=1.61 (1.0-2.7, P = 0.048), which was greatly magnified in individuals with a family history of diabetes from the fathers side
Risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) was assessed in a population-based case-control study of Japanese men. The study covered three health districts in Wakayama and Osaka prefectures, Japan. Subjects were male individuals |or=45 years old diagnosed radiographically with knee OA, and who did not display any established causes of secondary OA. Controls selected randomly from the general population were individually matched to cases for age, sex, and residential district. Subjects were interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine medical history, physical activity, socio-economic factors, and occupation. Interviews were obtained from 37 cases and 37 controls. In univariate analysis, heaviest weight in the past and physical work such as factory, construction, agricultural, or fishery work as the principal occupation significantly raised the risk of male knee OA (P|0.05). Odds ratios (OR) were determined using conditional logistic regression analysis mutually adjusted for potential risk factors using
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicopathological features and prognosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer - A matched case control study. AU - Madaras, Lilla. AU - Kovács, Kristóf Attila. AU - Szász, Attila Marcell. AU - Kenessey, István. AU - Tokés, Anna Mária. AU - Székely, Borbála. AU - Baranyák, Zsuzsanna. AU - Kiss, Orsolya. AU - Dank, Magdolna. AU - Kulka, Janina. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) manifests during pregnancy or within a year following delivery. We sought to investigate differences in management, outcome, clinical, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) characteristics of PABC and matched controls in a retrospective case control study. PABC and control patients were selected from breast cancer cases of women ≤45 years, diagnosed in the 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary between 1998 and 2012. Histopathology information on tumor type, grade, size, T, N, lympho-vascular invasion (LVI), ...
Mattioli, Stefano and Baldasseroni, Alberto and Bovenzi, Massimo and Curti, Stefania and Cooke, Robin M. T. and Campo, Giuseppe and Barbieri, Pietro G. and Ghersi, Rinaldo and Broccoli, Marco and Cancellieri, Maria Pia and Colao, Anna Maria and DellOmo, Marco and Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous and Franceschini, Flavia and Fucksia, Serenella and Galli, Paolo and Gobba, Fabriziomaria and Lucchini, Roberto and Mandes, Anna and Marras, Teresa and Sgarrella, Carla and Borghesi, Stefano and Fierro, Mauro and Zanardi, Francesca and Mancini, Gianpiero and Violante, Francesco S. (2009) Risk factors for operated carpal tunnel syndrome: a multicenter population-based case-control study. ...
A retrospective case-control study of patients who underwent femtosecond LASIK surgery was carried out. A review of the preoperative data of the patients included patient demographics, visual acuity, manifest refraction, pupil size, keratometry, white-to-white (WTW) corneal diameter and central corneal thickness. The intraoperative data included the flap parameters (diameter, thickness, hinge position, and tunnel length), docking times, and number and size of gas bubbles. Univariate, and multivariate conditional logistic regression were used to determine the risk factors for AC gas bubbles during the use of a femtosecond laser for flap creation, using the eye as the unit of analysis ...
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the prognostic role of the proliferation markers cyclin B1 and Phosphorylated Histone 3 (PPH3) in breast cancer (BC).. In paper I we used an experimental study design, we compared women dying early from their BC with women free from relapse more than eight years after initial diagnosis. All women had stage I, node-negative and hormone receptor positive disease. None had received adjuvant chemotherapy. We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cyclin B1 had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B1.. In paper II a population-based case control study was performed to further investigate the prognostic value of cyclin B1. One hundred and ninety women who died from BC were defined as cases and 190 women alive at the time for the corresponding cases death were defined as controls. Inclusion criteria were tumor size 50 mm, no lymph node metastases, and no adjuvant chemotherapy. Two investigators ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Familial pancreatic cancer. T2 - Clinicopathologic study of 18 nuclear families. AU - Lynch, H. T.. AU - Fitzsimmons, M. L.. AU - Smyrk, T. C.. AU - Lanspa, S. J.. AU - Watson, P.. AU - McClellan, J.. AU - Lynch, J. F.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Host factors have been given scant attention in the search for etiology in pancreatic cancer. Several anecdotal reports have identified its familial clustering, whereas a recent population-based case/control study has shown that 6.7% of cases and 0.7% of controls had positive family histories of this disease (p , 0.001). Forty-seven individuals with pancreatic cancer from 18 families were identified from a review of the medical records of all kindreds on file at our Hereditary Cancer Institute. The observed sex ratio, age of onset, histologic type, and survival were comparable to published data on unselected patients. We did not identify any pattern of extra-pancreatic cancer association. A serious limitation of our study is its ...
EAGLE is a large population-based case-control study designed and conducted to investigate the genetic and environmental determinants of lung cancer and smoking persistence using an integrative approach that allows combined analysis of genetic, environmental, clinical, and behavioral data. The study includes over 2,000 incident lung cancer cases, both males and females of Italian nationality, ages 35 to 79 years old, with verified lung cancer of any histological type, and over 2,000 healthy population-based controls matched to cases by age, gender, and residence. The participation rate was high: 85% and 73% in cases and controls, respectively. Lung cancer cases were enrolled from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy. The healthy controls were randomly selected from the same residential area of the lung cancer cases. The study setting, the Lombardy region of Italy, is served by a network of modern hospitals, medical schools, and a regional health service. Within the Lombardy region, ...
Although an association between oral estrogens and endometrial cancer has been reported, at a disputed magnitude of risk, in nine case-control studies (1-9), no data are available on the relation between oral contraceptives and the subsequent occurrence of endometrial cancer. As part of a large case-control investigation of the association between estrogens and endometrial cancer (9), we have collected and analyzed data about the use of various estrogens preparations, as noted during personal interviews of all the available cases and controls.. Groups were chosen with two different methods of selection for cases and controls. In the conventional method of selection, ...
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The relationship between an index of dietary vitamin A and cancer risk at 25 sites was assessed in retrospective case-control studies. Common control groups for males and females were used in all analyses. Relative risk estimates were derived from multiple logistic regression analyses that controlle …
If you are a woman and have been using any type of hormones to ease menopause symptoms, you could be upping breast cancer risk. Recent research shows that the use of these hormones over a long period of time ignites a minor increase in breast cancer risk.. Tracking the health of nearly 60,000 nurses, the recent study found that 10 years or more of hormone use was enough to raise breast cancer risk, although it is recommended that the lowest dose possible be used for the shortest amount of time possible. The research is surprising to many as some women who were taking estrogen alone were thought to have a decreased chance of developing breast cancer. And it is already known that taking pills combining estrogen and progestin - the most common type of hormone therapy - can increase breast cancer risk.. ...
Stillbirth has been largely understudied in the U.S., says Dr. Lauren Christiansen-Lindquist, research assistant professor and Deputy Director of Emorys Center of Excellence in Maternal and Child Health, Education, Science, and Practice. We have been doing a lot of work to bring it out of the shadows. Christiansen-Lindquist used data from a large population-based case control study about stillbirth while writing her dissertation as a PhD student at Rollins.. [From those data] we learned a lot of great things about what factors are associated with stillbirth, but I pulled back even further to look at vital records and to see how well we are reporting stillbirths. The answer is, not very well. Post graduation, Christiansen-Lindquist has continued work in this area and is looking for ways to collect better data.. I conducted a pilot study to expand an existing surveillance system that surveys women who have had a recent live birth to see if we could ask questions of women [who had a ...
PURPOSE. We explored associations between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and genetic variants of 10 genes in a nationwide Chinese population.. METHODS. In this multicenter case-control study, 535 AMD patients and 469 controls were recruited from 16 centers that spread from the north to the south of China. All participants underwent comprehensive eye examinations, and 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 genes were selected. DNA samples were genotyped with the MassArray system. The effect of the genotypes and haplotypes on AMD was assessed with logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, long-term residence, and family origin.. RESULTS. In our study, 11 SNPs in complement H (CFH), 2 in age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and 2 in high-temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1) were associated significantly with AMD. They were rs551397, rs800292, rs1329424, rs1061170, rs10801555, rs12124794, rs10733086, rs10737680, rs2274700, rs1410996, and rs380390 in CFH; ...
Antibiotic-induced disturbances of the human microbiota have been implicated in the development of chronic autoimmune conditions. This study aimed to assess whether antibiotic use is associated with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A nested case-control study was conducted utilising data from the primary care Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with an incident diagnosis of RA were identified (1995-2017). Each case was matched on age, gender, and general practice to ≥ 5 controls without RA. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine previous antibiotic prescriptions and RA onset after controlling for confounding factors. We identified 22,677 cases of RA, matched to 90,013 controls, with a median follow-up of 10 years before RA diagnosis. The odds of developing RA were 60% higher in those exposed to antibiotics than in those not exposed (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.51-1.68). A dose- or frequency-dependent association was observed between the number of previous antibiotic
Leptin is an adipokine involved in regulating energy balance, which has been identified as a potential biologic link in the development of obesity-associated cancers, such as pancreatic cancer. In this prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1,094 controls from five U.S. cohorts, we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by prediagnostic plasma leptin, adjusting for race/ethnicity, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide, adiponectin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Because of known differences in leptin levels by gender, analyses were conducted separately for men and women. We also evaluated associations between 32 tagging SNPs in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene and pancreatic cancer risk. Leptin levels were higher in female versus male control participants (median, 20.8 vs. 6.7 ng/mL; P , 0.0001). Among men, plasma leptin was positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk and those in the top quintile had a ...
Purpose: Evolving therapies have improved the prognoses of patients with breast cancer; and currently, the number of long-term survivors is continuously increasing. However, these patients are at increased risk of developing a second cancer. Thus, late side effects are becoming an important issue. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether patient and tumor characteristics, and treatment type correlate with secondary tumor risk. Methods: This case-control study included 305 patients with a diagnosed second malignancy after almost 6 months after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer and 1,525 controls (ratio 1:5 of cases to controls) from a population-based cohort of 6,325 women. The control patients were randomly selected from the cohort and matched to the cases according to age at diagnosis, calendar period of diagnosis, disease stage, and time of follow-up. Results: BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ status, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were ...
Background: Although plasma estrogen and androgen levels are significantly positively associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, it is unknown how long a single blood hormone measure can predict subsequent breast cancer risk as most prior studies have included less than 10 years of follow-up. If including hormone levels into current breast cancer risk prediction models improves discriminative ability, evaluating how the hormone/breast cancer association varies by years since blood collection can help determine the most relevant time period for hormone measures. In addition, whether the associations vary by tumor hormone receptor status is unclear.. Methods: We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis within the Nurses Health Study cohort. Blood samples were collected in 1989-1990 and then in 2000-2002. Among eligible postmenopausal women not using postmenopausal hormones (PMH) at blood collection, 796 cases were diagnosed through June, 2010. Two control subjects (n=1,583) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive impairment in fibromyalgia. T2 - A meta-analysis of case-control studies. AU - Wu, Yu Lin. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. AU - Fang, Su Chen. AU - Ko, Ling Hsin. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Objective Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, findings regarding cognitive function examined using neuropsychological tests have been inconsistent. The aim of the study was to determine domain-specific cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis that systematically searched six databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) for articles published before September 2017. Results Twenty-three case-control studies with a total of 2096 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Cognitive function was significantly lower (g = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-1.15) in individuals with fibromyalgia than in ...
There are differences in antenatal care (ANC) utilization between urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Although multiple factors have been studied affecting the utilization of general health care services, the effect of road network distance particularly on the utilization of ANC has not been assessed. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between road network distance from a health care facility and utilization of the ANC among women of reproductive age in Thatta Pakistan. A community-based case-control study was conducted in district Thatta, Pakistan. Women who did not utilize ANC services during their last pregnancy were considered as cases, while controls were the women who utilized ANC services during their last pregnancy. Questions related to socio-demographic, access-related factors and utilization of ANC were asked from women. Road network distance was calculated from the womens home to the health care facility providing ANC services. Logistic regression analysis was performed.
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OBJECTIVES: To assess the prior exposure to colorectal examinations between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and matched control participants to estimate the effect of these examinations on the development of CRC and to obtain insight into the background incidence of colorectal examinations. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted within the Dutch Integrated Primary Care Information database over the period 1996-2005. All incident CRC cases were matched with up to 18 controls (n=7,790) for age, sex, index date (date of CRC diagnosis) and follow-up before diagnosis. All colorectal examinations performed in symptomatic participants in the period 0.5-5 years before index date were considered in the analyses. RESULTS: Within the source population of 457 024 persons, we identified 594 incident cases of CRC. In the period 0.5-5 years before index date 2.9% (17 of 594) of the CRC cases had undergone colorectal examinations, compared with 4.4% (346 of 7790) in the control population ...
Abstract Background Although obesity is a well-studied risk factor for diabetes, there remains an interest in whether increasing body mass index (BMI), high BMI per se, or both are the actual risk factors for diabetes. The present study aimed to retrospectively compare BMI trajectories of individuals with and without diabetes in a case-control design and to assess whether increasing BMI alone would be a risk factor. Methods Using comprehensive health check-up data measured over ten years, we conducted a case-control study and graphically drew the trajectories of BMIs among diabetic patients and healthy subjects, based on coefficients in fitted linear mixed-effects models. Patient group was matched with healthy control group at the onset of diabetes with an optimal matching method in a 1:10 ratio. Simple fixed-effects models assessed the differences in increasing BMIs over 10 years between patient and control groups. Results At the time of matching, the mean ages in male patients and controls ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A longitudinal case-control study on goals in adolescents with cancer. AU - Sulkers, Esther. AU - Janse, Moniek. AU - Brinksma, Aeltsje. AU - Roodbol, Petrie F.. AU - Kamps, Willem A.. AU - Tissing, Wim J. E.. AU - Sanderman, Robbert. AU - Fleer, Joke. PY - 2015/9/2. Y1 - 2015/9/2. N2 - Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed between 3 and 12months post-diagnosis (T2).Methods: Thirty-three adolescents with cancer and 66 matched controls completed the Personal Project Analysis Inventory. After nine months, the adolescents with cancer completed the measure again.Results: Compared to controls, adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) reported more intrinsic than extrinsic goals, appraised intrinsic goals as more ...
Although case-control studies are suitable for assessing gene-environment interactions, choosing appropriate control subjects is a valid concern in these studies. The authors review three nontraditional study designs that do not include a control group : 1 the case-only study, 2 the case-parental control study, and 3 the affected relative-pair...