PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to report the prevalence of the lesions of the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau in patients with a symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee undergoing day-case arthroscopy. TYPE OF STUDY: Case series study. METHODS: We studied 378 skeletally mature patients (average age, 27.3 years; range, 16-50 years; 282 men and 84 women), part of a sample of 1,978 patients undergoing a primary knee arthroscopy between January 1986 and August 1993. The articular cartilage lesions were classified according to Outerbridge by a single observer. We assessed the relationship between time of injury and articular cartilage lesions and between meniscal lesions and articular cartilage lesions. RESULTS: A complete ACL tear was found in all 378 knees. Of these, 157 showed at least one lesion of the articular cartilage. The medial femoral condyle (MFC) showed the highest frequency of articular cartilage lesions, especially in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of articular cartilage thickness of the humeral head. T2 - MR- anatomic correlation in cadavers. AU - Hodler, J.. AU - Loredo, R. A.. AU - Longo, C.. AU - Trudell, D.. AU - Yu, J. S.. AU - Resnick, D.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate several commonly used MR sequences to determine how accurately each demonstrates the thickness of the articular cartilage of the humeral head. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten cadaveric shoulders (age at death, 58-92 years; mean, 79 years) were imaged with fat-suppressed transaxial T1-weighted spin-echo three-dimensional gradient-recalled sequences, both before and after injection of 12 ml of diluted gadopentetate dimeglumine. Articular cartilage was measured to the nearest 10th of a millimeter on the MR images and corresponding anatomic sections. RESULTS. Cartilage could not be differentiated from surrounding structures in 14 of 112 locations (13%) on the spin-echo images obtained without ...
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage repair in the knee is aimed at young patients with area(s) of cartilage loss and no deformity of the knee. These patients arent indicated for a knee replacement. Articular cartilage repair leads to improvement of symptoms of pain, locking and function. Traditionally, articular cartilage repair has always involved exposing the entire knee joint with an arthrotomy. This, though effective, would lead to a large scar, longer hospital stay, longer rehabilitation and its associated complications. Also, the use of Bone Marrow Aspirate Cells (BMAC) for the purpose of cartilage repair has long been debated with both sides having valid arguments and good surgical results.. RATIONALE: Both procedures in this study are performed in one stage, arthroscopically and as day case procedures, which offers minimal scarring and quicker recovery. This automatically confers a significant advantage over the traditional surgical techniques.. To correct the articular cartilage defect, ...
... the G1 domain (the N-terminal globular domain of aggrecan) and are C-terminally truncated by proteolysis at a number of sites. of mature bovine articular cartilage and establish the presence of a novel proteolytic pathway for aggrecanolysis in the cells and/or matrix of mature articular cartilages. EXPERIMENTAL Materials Porcine kidney m-calpain was purchased from Calbiochem. Chondroitinase ABC, endo-galactosidase and keratanase II were obtained from Seikagaku America (East Falmouth, MA, U.S.A.). Goat anti-mouse secondary antibody and mouse mAb isotyping kit were from Amersham Biosciences (Little Chalfont, Amersham, Bucks., U.K.). The affinity column HiTrap? Protein A HP and Sepharose CL-2B were from Amersham Biosciences (Uppsala, Sweden). Preparation of mAb SK-28 The antigen used for immunization was the ovalbumin-linked peptide aggrecan cleavages by m-calpain The Western-blot data (Figures ?(Figures1A,1A, ...
The hallmark feature of osteoarthritis is the breakdown in the articular cartilage of joints such as the knee and hip. Both animal and human research has consistently shown that corticosteroid injections into normal and degenerated knees accelerate the arthritic process. A summary of the effects of the intraarticular corticosteroids on articular cartilage includes: a decrease of protein and matrix synthesis, matrix hyaline appearance becomes fibrotic, clumping of collagen, alteration in chondrocyte cell shape, chondrocyte cell proliferation inhibited, chondrocyte cytoxicity enhanced, loss of chondrocytes, surface deterioration including edema, pitting, shredding, ulceration and erosions, inhibition of articular cartilage metabolism, articular cartilage necrosis, thinning of articular cartilage, decrease in cartilage growth and repair, formation of articular cartilage cysts, and ultimately articular cartilage destruction.. When researchers microscopically and radiologically examine human joints ...
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Objective: To investigate the differences between chondrocytes of the superficial and underlying zones of articular cartilage at the level of gene expression. Methods: Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from chondrocytes harvested from the superficial and deep zones of immature bovine articular cartilage. This mRNA was reverse transcribed, radiolabeled, and then each complementary DNA (cDNA) sample was used to screen duplicate filters of a bovine chondrocyte cDNA library. By comparing autoradiographic signals on matching filter sets, clones exclusively expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage were isolated and characterized further. Results: Of the superficial-specific gene clones isolated, 25% were found to be a single gene product, clusterin. Northern hybridization was used to show that clusterin is expressed specifically in the superficial zone of articular cartilage and that its expression is up-regulated in mature cartilage. In situ hybridization was used to precisely ...
Published: Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 Oct 28;17(10):e19594. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.19594. eCollection 2015. Authors: Kazemi D, Fakhrjou A.. Summary: Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. This study investigated the efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. The results of this study indicate that both L-PRP and L-PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee.. Key words: Articular Cartilage; Cartilage; Dogs; Knee Joint; Platelet-Rich Plasma. Read the full study here. ...
During appendicular skeletal development, the bi-potential cartilage anlagen gives rise to transient cartilage, which is eventually replaced by bone, and to articular cartilage that caps the ends of individual skeletal elements. While the molecular mechanism that regulates transient cartilage differentiation is relatively well understood, the mechanism of articular cartilage differentiation has only begun to be unraveled. Furthermore, the molecules that coordinate the articular and transient cartilage differentiation processes are poorly understood. Here, we have characterized in chick the regulatory roles of two transcription factors, NFIA and GATA3, in articular cartilage differentiation, maintenance and the coordinated differentiation of articular and transient cartilage. Both NFIA and GATA3 block hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that NFIA is not sufficient but necessary for articular cartilage differentiation. Ectopic activation of GATA3 promotes articular cartilage ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Growth factor gene transfer to articular chondrocytes may be capable of augmenting cell-based approaches to articular cartilage repair. Currently available data is insufficient to enable translation into clinical use. The purpose of this proposal is to help close the gap between present mechanistic knowledge and therapeutic application. We will focus on three related specific aims. Aim 1: Define a potentially therapeutic set of growth factor genes for articular cartilage repair by determining how interactions among selected growth factors regulate articular chondrocyte function. Hypothesis 1: IGF-I, FGF-2, BMP-2, and BMP-7, when employed for articular chondrcyte gene transfer, interact to differentially regulate the expression of genes that influence chondrocyte reparative functions. Aim 2: Determine whether genetic and tissue engineering methods, when applied to articular chondrocytes, are interdependent. Hypothesis 2: Chemically distinct biomaterials, ...
The University of Virginia, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, is seeking adults with articular cartilage defects in the knee. The purpose of this study is to show if using an investigational tissue graft is better than the standard method of microfracture for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. This study will also document changes in knee pain and function after either surgery is performed.. The standard of care for treating articular cartilage defects in the knee is microfracture. This study is being done to observe if a graft is an efficient and more superior treatment option. For eligible participants, the defect will be treated with either microfracture or by using an investigational tissue graft.. This study involves 12 follow up visits over a 5 year period following surgery.. Study related clinic visits, research x-rays and MRI scans are provided free of charge. The study will also cover the costs of physical therapy that are not covered by your insurance up to $4,000 ...
Articular cartilage is a vital structure in any joint. It is comprised of layers of "matrix" a tough, smooth and flexible substance which is maintained by cells called chondrocytes which live in the matrix. The superficial layer of the cartilage is incredibly smooth, the deep layers are anchored to the underlying bone. This combination allows bones to slide and rotate against each other, allowing the joint to move. The articular cartilage can be damaged in injuries, it can also deteriorate (degenerate) over time. Damage to the articular cartilage is the key issue in the development of osteo-arthritis. As the joint surface becomes split or broken the ability of the joint to glide and flex slowly deteriorates. The damaged joint surface also causes the release of complex chemicals which stimulate inflammation in the joint. This can be a cause of pain and swelling. Another major cause of pain is the overload of bone under damaged articular cartilage surfaces. As damage worsens, the ability of the ...
re: full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area 30 year old very active athletic female want a LONG TERM solution! should i microfracture, aci, oats . . .
Articular cartilage damage is a damage of the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints.
This study proposes a method for measuring the refractive index of articular cartilage within a thin and small specimen slice. The cartilage specimen, with a thickness of about 50 μm, was put next to a thin film of immersion oil of similar thickness. Both the articular cartilage and immersion oil were scanned along the depth direction using a confocal microscope. The refractive index mismatch between the cartilage and the immersion oil induced a slight axial deformation in the confocal images of the cartilage specimen that was accurately measured by a subpixel edge-detection-based technique. A theoretical model was built to quantify the focal shift of confocal microscopy caused by the refractive index mismatch. With the quantitative deformations of cartilage images and the quantified function of focal shift, the refractive index of articular cartilage was accurately interpolated. At 561 nm, 0.1 MPa and 20 °C, the overall refractive index of the six cartilage plugs was 1.3975 ± 0.0156. The ...
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective soft tissue in the diarthrodial joints and functions in a highly demanding mechanical environment. The degeneration or wear of the cartilage is a huge problem that effects millions of people every year.. The long term objective of the present work is to develop an analytical articular cartilage growth model. A simplified 2D axisymmetric representation of the human knee joint, including cartilage layers, meniscus and underlying bones, was developed. The cartilage was modeled as a biphasic fluid saturated porous medium and an uniform growth was simulated by a thermal expansion of the solid phase.. The results obtained in the current work show that the cartilage was seen growing onto the implant with time. The deeper the implant, the higher the cartilage grew onto the implant, and into the gap between the cartilages. This and other results will be presented.. ...
The preponderance of scientific evidence shows that NSAIDs damage articular cartilage. Various scientific papers and consensus groups have stated that there is no convincing data to show that the widely used NSAIDs and recommended selective COX-2 inhibitors have favorable effects on cartilage.129-131 Even the main consensus paper from the International Cartilage Repair Society and Osteoarthritis Research Society International stated that NSAID use has to be limited to the short term. Specifically the recommendation was as follows: In patients with symptomatic hip or knee osteoarthritis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used at the lowest effective dose but their long-term use should be avoided if possible.132 They also noted that NSAIDs should not be first-line therapy for joint OA. Other groups have raised similar sentiments. The committees of the International League Against Rheumatism and the World Health Organization came up with guidelines for the testing of new ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Articular cartilage. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. AU - Darling, Eric M.. AU - DuRaine, Grayson D.. AU - Hu, Jerry C.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science and detailed methological approaches. It is designed to be an all encompassing encyclopedia of articular cartilage. Written at a level that allows wide accessibility, the books comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other books.. AB - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses ...
Articular cartilage lesions occur commonly. Cartilage is relatively avascular and is unable to self-repair. A chondral lesion may become symptomatic. It may lead to osteoarthritis and increased morbidity. The aim of cartilage repair is to restore hyaline cartilage. There are many types of cartilage repair surgery, most of which result in fibrocartilage repair tissue that is suboptimal. Autologous chondrocyte implantation has been shown to produce hyaline-type repair tissue. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is performed preoperatively to define the ulcer and postoperatively to evaluate the technical success of implantation and the state of cartilage healing and to identify potential complications. Features of the autologous chondrocyte implantation graft that are assessed include the degree of filling by repair tissue, its integration with native cartilage and subchondral bone, the character of the graft substance and surface, and the underlying bone. MR arthrography is superior to unenhanced MR ...
Recent advances in MRI have enabled the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage morphology in human joints. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the precision of quantitative shoulder cartilage measurements is sufficient to detect changes between and within patients, and that shoulder cartilage thickness in paraplegic patients increases due to increased loading. We imaged the shoulders of seven healthy volunteers four times using a coronal 3D, fat-suppressed, gradient-echo sequence. The humeral head cartilage in seven paraplegic patients was evaluated soon after injury and 1 year post injury. A precision of 4.5% (root mean square (RMS) average coefficient of variation (CV) %) was found for shoulder cartilage thickness measurements in the humeral head. Whereas a significant decrease of cartilage thickness (-11%, P , 0.05) was observed in the knee, there was no significant change in articular cartilage thickness in the shoulder (-1.1%). Our data show, for the first time, that ...
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in articular cartilage can signal via two routes, the ALK5/Smad2/3P and the ALK1/Smad1/5/8P route, the first being protective and the latter favoring chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Since biomechanical factors are known to play an essential role in osteoarthritis (OA) initiation and progression, we investigated if excessive mechanical compression can alter TGF-beta signaling in cartilage shifting it from ALK5/Smad2/3P to ALK1/Smad1/5/8P pathway, favoring terminal differentiation of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Articular cartilage explants were harvested from bovine metacarpophalangeal joints. After equilibration, explants were subjected to unconfined dynamic mechanical compression (1 Hz) with 3 MPa (physiological) or 12 MPa (excessive) stress. After different time intervals samples were frozen and mRNA levels of selected genes were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In articular cartilage compressed with 3 MPa and ...
Results from a Clinical Trial for Safety and Proof‐of‐Concept with 7 Years of Extended Follow‐Up. Few methods are available to regenerate articular cartilage defects in patients with osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by a novel medicinal product composed of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB‐MSCs). Patients with Kellgren‐Lawrence grade 3 osteoarthritis and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 4 cartilage defects were enrolled in this clinical trial. The stem cell‐based medicinal product (a composite of culture‐expanded allogeneic hUCB‐MSCs and hyaluronic acid hydrogel [Cartistem]) was applied to the lesion site. Safety was assessed by the World Health Organization common toxicity criteria. The primary efficacy outcome was ICRS cartilage repair assessed by arthroscopy at 12 weeks.. Read more about cartilage regeneration and stem cells ...
The location of pyridinoline in 18-month-old bovine articular cartilage was investigated by fractionation of CNBr-derived peptides by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two peptides, PCP1 and PCP2, were isolated and were shown to contain stoichiometric amounts of pyridinoline. From its amino acid composition and sequence studies, peptide PCP1 was shown to comprise two C-terminal non-helical chains (CB14) linked through pyridinoline to the alpha 1(II)-CB12 portion of the helix. The CB14 chains appeared to be labile at their C-terminal ends, resulting in lower-than-expected amounts of homoserine, and only the N-terminal portion of the peptide was sequenced. Similar studies of peptide PCP2 showed that it contained two N-terminal non-helical chains (CB4) linked to the alpha 1(II)-CB9,7 portion of the helix. The isolated peptides therefore confirmed the function of pyridinoline in stabilizing the 4D stagger of adjacent molecules. The possibility that the cross-link could act both as an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current Concepts of Articular Cartilage Restoration Techniques in the Knee. AU - Camp, Christopher L.. AU - Stuart, Michael J.. AU - Krych, Aaron. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Context:Articular cartilage injuries are common in patients presenting to surgeons with primary complaints of knee pain or mechanical symptoms. Treatment options include comprehensive nonoperative management, palliative surgery, joint preservation operations, and arthroplasty.Evidence Acquisition:A MEDLINE search on articular cartilage restoration techniques of the knee was conducted to identify outcome studies published from 1993 to 2013. Special emphasis was given to Level 1 and 2 published studies.Study Design:Clinical review.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Results:Current surgical options with documented outcomes in treating chondral injuries in the knee include the following: microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer, osteochondral allograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation. ...
Articular cartilage is a critical component in the movement of one bone against another. It possesses unique chemical properties allowing it to serve as a bearing surface, capable of transferring loads from one bone to another while simultaneously allowing the load bearing surfaces to articulate with low friction. Patient-specific finite element (FE) models incorporating articular cartilage provide insight into articular joint mechanics [1, 2]. To date, the methods/tools available to create accurate FE mesh definitions of the articular cartilage are limited. Semi-automated morphing methods have been developed, but many intermediate steps have to be performed to get the final cartilage mesh definition [3]. Commercially available software [4] is capable of generating tetrahedral/shell/pyramid element based meshes of the cartilage from the underlying bony surface, but hexahedral meshes are preferred over tetrahedral meshes [5]. IA-FEMesh currently provides the ability to project a pre-defined set ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice. AU - Winalski, Carl S.. AU - Rajiah, Prabhakar. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. AB - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. KW - Arthrography. KW - Articular cartilage. KW - Computed tomography. KW - Imaging. KW - Magnetic resonance imaging. KW - Optical coherence tomography. KW - Radiography. KW - Ultrasound. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052058355&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage ...
With the aim of providing information for modelling joint and limb systems, widely available constitutive hyperelastic laws are evaluated in this paper for their ability to predict the mechanical responses of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Load-displacement data from mechanical indentation were obtained for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage at 0.1 s(-1) and 0.025 s(-1) and converted to the stress-stretch ratio. The data were then fitted to the Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin, neo-Hookean, Ogden, polynomial, and Yeoh hyperelastic laws in the MATLAB environment. Although each of the hyperelastic laws performed satisfactorily at the higher rate of loading, their ability to fit experimental data at the lower loading rate varied considerably. For the preferred models, coefficients were provided for stiff, soft, and average tissues to represent normal and degraded tissue at high and low loading rates. The present authors recommend the use of the Mooney-Rivlin or the Yeoh models for describing
Objective: Oxidative stress occurs when the metabolic balance of a cell is disrupted through exposure to excess pro-oxidant. Whilst it is known that unregulated production or exposure to exogenous sources of pro-oxidants induces chondrocyte cell death and degrades matrix components in vitro, relatively little is known of the effects of pro-oxidants on articular cartilage in situ. The objective of this study was to determine if a single exposure to the pro-oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces a degenerative phenotype. Methods: Articular cartilage explants were obtained from skeletally mature bovine steers and exposed to a single dose of hydrogen peroxide (0.1-1.0 mM) and cultured for up to 21 days. Cell death, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan loss into the medium and gene expression were quantitatively determined. Adoption of an abnormal chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed through the expression of 3B3(−), nitrotyrosine and procollagen type IIA epitopes in cartilage explants. Results: Cell ...
PURPOSE: To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Reproducibility was determined by two sessions in the same day, while longitudinal and cross-sectional group differences used visits at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Each visit contained symptomological assessments and an MRI session consisting of high resolution three-dimensional double-echo-steady-state (DESS) and co-registered T2* maps of the most diseased knee. A blinded reader delineated the articular cartilage on the DESS images and median T2* values were reported. RESULTS: T2* values showed an intra-visit reproducibility of 2.0% over the whole cartilage. No longitudinal effects were measured in either group over 6 months. T2* maps revealed a 5
Complex cartilage lesions of the knee including large cartilage defects, kissing lesions, and osteoarthritis (OA) represent a common problem in orthopaedic surgery and a challenging task for the orthopaedic surgeon. As there is only limited data, we performed a prospective clinical study to investigate the benefit of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for this demanding patient population. Fifty-one patients displaying at least one of the criteria were included in the present retrospective study: (1.) defect size larger than 10 cm2; (2.) multiple lesions; (3.) kissing lesions, cartilage lesions Outerbridge grade III-IV, and/or (4.) mild/moderate osteoarthritis (OA). For outcome measurements, the International Cartilage Societys International Knee Documentation Committees (IKDC) questionnaire, as well as the Cincinnati, Tegner, Lysholm and Noyes scores were used. Radiographic evaluation for OA was done using the Kellgren score. Patients age was 36 years (13-61), defects size 7.25 (3-17.5) cm2,
References [1] Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ (1998) Articular cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis, repair, regeneration, and transplantation. Instr Course Lect. 1998; 47: 487-504. [2] Curl WW, Krome J Gordon ES, Rushing J, Smith BP, Poehling GG (1997) Cartilage injuries: a review of 31.516 knee arthroscopy. Arthroscopy 13 (4): 456-460 [3] Browne JE, Branch TP (2000) Alternative Surgical treatment of articular cartilage for lesions. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 8 (3): 180-189 [4] Outerbridge RE (1961) The etiology of chondromalacia patella. J Bone Joint Surg Br 43: 752-757 [5] Brittberg M, L Peterson (1998) Introduction of an articular cartilage classification. ICRS Newsletter, 1: 5-8.. [6] Messner K, Maletius W (1996) The long-term prognosis for severe damage to weight-bearing cartilage in the knee: a 14-year clinical and radiologic follow-upon 28 young athletes. Acta Orthop Scand 67: 165-168 [7] Jackson RW (1991) Arthroscopic treatment of degenerative arthritis. In: McGinty JB (ed) Operative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell therapy, biomaterials and other options may enhance cartilage repair. AU - Saris, Daniël B.F.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - There are several articular cartilage repair techniques being used, including microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation and mosaicplasty, and orthopaedic surgeons have found they offer some improvement for patients, overall. The physicians who spoke with Orthopaedics Today Europe discussed indications for the major techniques currently used worldwide and noted that results of each approach are somewhat mixed. From their comments it seems that orthopaedic clinicians and researchers are divided over which cartilage repair approaches are optimal and whether developments being worked on now will deliver on the promise of improved outcomes in the future.. AB - There are several articular cartilage repair techniques being used, including microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation and mosaicplasty, and orthopaedic surgeons have found ...
Knee Cartilage Anatomy - See more about Knee Cartilage Anatomy, anatomy of knee cartilage, knee anatomy articular cartilage, knee anatomy cartilage damage, knee cartilage anatomy, knee joint cartilage anatomy
PURPOSE To evaluate the sensitivity of quantitative MRI techniques (T1 , T1,Gd , T2 , continous wave (CW) T1ρ dispersion, adiabatic T1ρ , adiabatic T2ρ , RAFF and inversion-prepared magnetization transfer (MT)) for assessment of human articular cartilage with varying degrees of natural degeneration. METHODS Osteochondral samples (n = 14) were obtained from the tibial plateaus of patients undergoing total knee replacement. MRI of the specimens was performed at 9.4T and the relaxation time maps were evaluated in the cartilage zones. For reference, quantitative histology, OARSI grading and biomechanical measurements were performed and correlated with MRI findings. RESULTS All MRI parameters, except T1,Gd , showed statistically significant differences in tangential and full-thickness regions of interest (ROIs) between early and advanced osteoarthritis (OA) groups, as classified by OARSI grading. CW-T1ρ showed significant dispersion in all ROIs and featured classical laminar structure of cartilage
Cell therapeutics to treat cartilage defects include autologous chondrocyte implantation products. However, little is known on the correlation of cartilage cell transplant properties before implantation and their potency to regenerate cartilage tissue after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed, consisting of human condyle chips in which a standardized subchondral cartilage defect was manually set, being representative of cartilage defects as treated in the clinic. This model was used to test the potency of a cartilage cell transplant. To do so, cartilage cell transplants (spheroids) were implanted into these defects in a clinical relevant dosage and the defect filling and tissue regeneration process was followed ex vivo for 12 weeks. Most importantly, before implantation, characteristics of spheroids from the same batch as used for the implantation were determined with respect to general spheroid characteristics, gene expression of the chondrogenic ...
Production, means the output of Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration Revenue, means the sales value of Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration This report studies Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share
Chemically modified glucosamine inhibits the release of proteoglycan in a model system of articular cartilage degradation [Abstract]. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 90 (1) , A78-A79. 10.1111/j.1365-2613.2008.00612.x ...
One goal of cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) is to create constructs for regeneration of hyaline cartilage. Three-dimensional (3D)-printed cartilage constructs fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte-impregnated alginate mimic the biphasic nature of articular cartilage and offers great promise for CTE applications. However, ensuring that these constructs provide biologically conducive environment and mechanical support for cellular activities and articular cartilage regeneration is still a challenge. That said, the regulatory pathway for medical device development requires validation of implants such as these through in vitro bench test and in vivo preclinical examination prior to their premarket approval. Furthermore, mechano-transduction and secretion of cartilage-specific ECM are influenced by mechanical stimuli directed at chondrocytes. Thus, ensuring that these cartilage constructs have mechanical properties similar to that of human articular cartilage is crucial to their ...
The ability to quantify and qualify the progression of joint degeneration is becoming increasingly important in surgery. This paper examines the patterns of relative ultrasound reflection from normal, artificially and naturally degraded cartilage-on-bone, particularly investigating the potential of the ratio of reflection coefficients from the surface and osteochondral junction in distinguishing normal from osteoarthritic tissue. To this end, the reflection coefficients from the articular surface and osteochondral junction of normal cartilage-on-bone samples were calculated and compared to samples after the removal of proteoglycans, disruption of the collagen meshwork, delipidization of the articular surface and mechanical abrasion. Our results show that the large variation across normal and degraded joint samples negates the use of an isolated bone reflection measurement and to a lesser extent, an isolated surface reflection. The relative surface to bone reflections, calculated as a ratio of reflection
Fortune Business Insights has stated that the Market in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa will emerge leading in the forecast period. North America is likely to exhibit the highest CAGR in the forecast period. Fortune Business Insights has profiled some of the leading companies that are operating in the global Knee Cartilage Repair Market.. The advent of digitalization has completely transformed the face of Knee Cartilage Repair Market. Increasing demand for simplified treatment options has led to the growth of the global Knee Cartilage Repair Market.. There has been an increasing need of protecting health information and other confidential data private organizations, hospitals, and other healthcare institutions. Incorporation of technologies such as cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) have boosted the global Knee Cartilage Repair Market and are likely to favour growth of the market in the forecast period.. Key questions answered in the Knee Cartilage ...
Background: The injury repair process in tendons and ligaments includes different phases such as inflammation, neovascularization, fibroblast proliferation and fibrosis. Collagen type and tissue characteristics of tendon and ligament repair are described such as type collagen differentiation and properties of the scars tissue. The degeneration of articular cartilage when, characterized by loss of the articular layers associated of the decreased of proteoglycans. The aim of this study is to describe by histochemistry techniques the characteristics of tissue scar, collagen type in the repair process of tendons and ligaments, as well as articular cartilage degeneration.Materials, Methods & Results: Tissue samples of equine tendons, ligaments and articular cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal joint region were evaluated by ultrasonography, macroscopically and prepared for routine histopathology (H&E staining). The inclusion criterion of the samples in this study was based on the presence of lesions ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mediates signal transduction in articular cartilage in response to mechanical loading. METHODS: Articular cartilage from porcine metacarpophalangeal or knee joints was cyclically loaded (62.5-250N) for 2 minutes in the absence or presence of a bFGF receptor inhibitor, SB 402451 (250 nM). Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase MAP kinase ERK was measured by Western blot analysis. Changes in protein synthesis were assessed by measuring the incorporation of (35)S-Met/Cys into proteins secreted by cartilage explants or by isolated chondrocytes. RESULTS: Rapid activation of the ERK MAP kinase occurred when articular cartilage was loaded. This was dependent upon release of the bFGF because it was restricted by the FGF receptor inhibitor. Loaded explants were shown to release bFGF. Loading or bFGF stimulation of explants induced synthesis and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), which was inhibited
Objectives: To investigate changes in gene expression in fibrillated and intact human osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage for evidence of an altered chondrocyte phenotype and hypertrophy.. Methods: Paired osteochondral samples were taken from a high-load site and a low-load site from 25 OA joints and were compared with eight similar paired samples from age-matched controls. Gene expression of key matrix and regulatory genes was analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on total RNA extracted from the cartilage.. Results: There was a major change in chondrocyte gene expression in OA cartilage. SOX9 (38-fold) and aggrecan (4-fold) gene expression were both lower in OA (p,0.001), and collagen I (17-fold) and II (2.5-fold) gene expression were each increased in a subset of OA samples. The major changes in gene expression were similar at the fibrillated high-loaded site and the intact low-loaded site. There was no evidence of a generalised change in OA to ...
Discussion. Chondral cartilage lesions do not heal spontaneously and may progress to severe osteoarthritis. For cartilage repair, a variety of surgical techniques have been established over the years. Further research led to the development of current new one-step cell-free scaffold-assisted cartilage repair approaches based on the experience with scaffold materials in previous two-step autologous chondrocyte implantation procedures. Commercially available scaffold-based products for one-step chondral cartilage repair have been recently tested in first case series and showed promising clinical outcome in the short-term follow-up; however, medium- and long-term comparative studies are necessary to evaluate the regenerative potential of this new one-step cartilage repair procedure and to demonstrate its superiority over or adequacy to traditional approaches.. Conclusion. This critical review summarises the development from two-step cell-based autologous chondrocyte implantation procedures to new ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and localization of citrullinated proteoglycan aggrecan in human articular cartilage. AU - Glant, Tibor T.. AU - Ocsko, Timea. AU - Markovics, Adrienn. AU - Szekanecz, Z.. AU - Katz, Robert S.. AU - Rauch, Tibor A.. AU - Mikecz, Katalin. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of the synovial joints. The autoimmune character of RA is underscored by prominent production of autoantibodies such as those against IgG (rheumatoid factor), and a broad array of joint tissue-specific and other endogenous citrullinated proteins. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) can be detected in the sera and synovial fluids of RA patients and ACPA seropositivity is one of the diagnostic criteria of RA. Studies have demonstrated that RA T cells respond to citrullinated peptides (epitopes) of proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan, which is one of the most abundant macromolecules of articular cartilage. However, it is not known if ...
Loss of or damage to the meniscus alters the pattern of loading in the knee joint and frequent leads to cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. The mechanical properties of articular cartilage have been shown to reflect the extent of cartilage degeneration in human osteoarthritis and in experimental models of joint disease, but there is little experimental data documenting changes in cartilage mechanics following meniscectomy. We hypothesized that the tensile properties of the surface zone of articular cartilage are altered following total medial meniscectomy. Twelve mongrel dogs underwent complete resection of the medial meniscus in the right knee, and the femoral cartilage was studied 12 weeks after the operation. We performed uniaxial, tensile stress-relaxation tests to determine the equilibrium tensile modulus of surface-zone cartilage. Water and glycosaminoglycan content were also measured at site-matched locations. The tensile moduli of the cartilage decreased significantly following ...
Matrilin-3 gene is mapped on chromosome 2p24-p23 that can form homo-tetramers as well as hetero-oligomers together with subunit of matrilin-1. It present in the cartilage extracellular matrix functions in the development and homeostasis of cartilage and bone. Particularly it is located in the extracellular matrix surrounding the cells that makes-up tendons and ligaments near the chondrocytes that is essential in bone formation in which spine, hips and limbs start with the formation of cartilage then converted into bone. Matrilin-3 is a mandatory component of mature articular cartilage that restricted in chondrocytes from the tangential zone and upper middle cartilage zone therefore, it is an integral component of articular cartilage matrix and its augmented expression in osteoarthritis might be a cellular response to the modified microenvironment in the disease. Matrilin-3 gene mutations implicated in multiple epiphyseal dysplasias a generalized skeletal dysplasia associated with morbidity in ...
OBJECTIVE: We have previously identified in articular cartilage an abundant pool of the heparin-binding growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which is bound to the pericellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan. This pool of FGF-2 activates chondrocytes upon tissue loading and is released following mechanical injury. In vitro, FGF-2 suppresses interleukin-1-driven aggrecanase activity in human cartilage explants, suggesting a chondroprotective role in vivo. We undertook this study to investigate the in vivo role of FGF-2 in murine cartilage. METHODS: Basal characteristics of the articular cartilage of Fgf2(-/-) and Fgf2(+/+) mice were determined by histomorphometry, nanoindentation, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The articular cartilage was graded histologically in aged mice as well as in mice in which osteoarthritis (OA) had been induced by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus. RNA was extracted from the joints of Fgf2(-/-) and Fgf2
In the United States alone, more than 500,000 cartilage lesions per year require some treatment to reduce pain, restore joint mobility, and prevent further damage caused by the progression of osteoarthritis. The lack of effective cartilage repair approaches or products for restoration of defective articular cartilage to its native, hyaline morphology only continues to exacerbate the incidence of osteoarthritis as these initial defects enlarge and degrade over a 10 to 20 year period. The repair of cartilage, especially in the knee, remains a formidable clinical challenge. Regenerative medicine approaches to cartilage repair have only begun to be explored as possible options and there is a clear trend toward biological solutions for the repair and regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage. The study was designed to compare how well the Neocartilage Implant works against the microfracture therapy, a widely used and accepted cartilage repair therapy. Data to be collected include Pain ...