Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g−1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β
Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Colorless Carotenoids Combinations Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Stability Synergism Boosting activity TiO2 & ZnO CoQ10 DHA DiHydroxy Acetone Retinol IBR-Dormin ® Vitamin C Squalene Omega 3 oils DHA & EPA Carotenoids Phytoene and phytofluene Beauty from the inside* and outside Anti aging and photo-aging Skin brightening/whitening - evening of skin tone Protection against UV and its damage Anti oxidant Prevention of DNA damage Anti inflammatory Protection and enhancement of other active ingredients and their activity ©
Carotenoids are natural pigments which are synthesized by plants and are responsible for the bright colors of various fruits and vegetables. There are several dozen carotenoids in the foods that we eat, and most of these carotenoids have antioxidant activity. β-carotene has been best studied since, in most countries it is the most common carotenoid in fruits and vegetables. However, in the U.S., lycopene from tomatoes now is consumed in approximately the same amount as β-carotene. Antioxidants (including carotenoids) have been studied for their ability to prevent chronic disease. β-carotene and others carotenoids have antioxidant properties in vitro and in animal models. Mixtures of carotenoids or associations with others antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E) can increase their activity against free radicals. The use of animals models for studying carotenoids is limited since most of the animals do not absorb or metabolize carotenoids similarly to humans. Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse ...
Carotenoid Production by Bacillus clausii Using Rice Powder as the Sole Substrate: Pigment Analyses and Optimization of Key Production Parameters
Dr. Wurtzel was elected as an ICS Fellow for significant career-long contributions to research on provitamin A carotenoid biosynthesis, which is enabling sustainable solutions to global vitamin A deficiency. Her interdisciplinary research integrates molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, bioinformatics, and systems biology. For example, Dr. Wurtzel and her team took advantage of natural genetic diversity to elucidate pathway control points and to develop molecular markers for breeding high-provitamin A maize, identifying gene families and their roles in controlling carotenoid accumulation. Most recently, the Wurtzel laboratory discovered Z-ISO, a new carotenoid enzyme, which is essential for biosynthesis of all plant carotenoids, including provitamin A carotenoids. This breakthrough led to the discovery of a new prototype function for heme proteins, uncovered a novel means for regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in plants, and redefined the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in ...
Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N=10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and ...
Carotenoids are C40 tetraterpenoids synthesized by nuclear-encoded multienzyme complexes located in the plastids of higher plants. To understand further the components and mechanisms involved in carotenoid synthesis, we screened Arabidopsis for mutations that disrupt this pathway and cause accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two nonallelic albino mutations, pds1 and pds2 (for phytoene desaturation), that are disrupted in phytoene desaturation and as a result accumulate phytoene, the first C40 compound of the pathway. Surprisingly, neither mutation maps to the locus encoding the phytoene desaturase enzyme, indicating that the products of at least three loci are required for phytoene desaturation in higher plants. Because phytoene desaturase catalyzes an oxidation reaction, it has been suggested that components of an electron transport chain may be involved in this reaction. Analysis of pds1 and pds2 shows that both mutants are ...
Gene transfer among reproductively isolated organisms can lead to novel phenotypes and increased fitness. Among the Sternorrhyncha, a suborder of plant sap-feeding hemipteran insects, both aphids and adelgids acquired carotenoid biosynthesis genes from a fungal donor that result in ecologically relevant pigmentation. Phylloxerids form another family that are closely related to aphids and adelgids and share similar pigmentation, but are largely uncharacterized for their presence and number of pigment genes that have duplicated among aphids. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of nine phylloxerid species, and performed PCR to amplify carotenoid genes from their genomic DNA. We identified carotenoid cyclase/synthase and desaturase genes in each species and demonstrated that they share the common fungal origin as those of aphids and adelgids based on their exon-intron gene structures and phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic analyses also indicated that carotenoid genes evolved following the
Efforts are underway for development of crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency. As a global staple crop with considerable variation in kernel carotenoid composition, maize (Zea mays L.) could have a widespread impact. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of quantified seed carotenoids across a panel of maize inbreds ranging from light yellow to dark orange in grain color to identify some of the key genes controlling maize grain carotenoid composition. Significant associations at the genome-wide level were detected within the coding regions of zep1 and lut1, carotenoid biosynthetic genes not previously shown to impact grain carotenoid composition in association studies, as well as within previously associated lcyE and crtRB1 genes. We leveraged existing biochemical and genomic information to identify 58 a priori candidate genes relevant to the biosynthesis and retention of carotenoids in maize to test in a pathway-level ...
A method for inhibiting and/or ameliorating the occurrence of diseases in a human subject whereby a subject is administered a carotenoid analog or derivative, either alone or in combination with another carotenoid analog or derivative. In some embodiments, the administration of analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may inhibit and/or ameliorate the occurrence of diseases in subjects. In some embodiments, analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may be water-soluble and/or water dispersible. Maladies that may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein may include diseases that provoke or trigger an inflammatory response. In an embodiment, asthma may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein. In an embodiment, administering analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein to a subject may control or affect the bioavailability of eicosanoids. In an embodiment, atherosclerosis may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein.
One of the interesting and previously unknown properties of the orange carotenoid protein is the ability to transmit the carotenoid to other proteins with a similar structure. The mechanism of the process is described in the mentioned work published in the Biophysical Journal.. "We studied the interaction of carotenoid-containing violet C-domains of the OCP with a colorless apo form of the OCP. As a result of the interaction, the colorless apo form of the OCP became orange and photoactive (capable of changing its structure and color).. The carotenoid transfer process simulates the process of assembling a photoactive protein from a protein matrix and a chromophore (carotenoid)," said Dr. Eugene Maksimov, senior researcher at the Laboratory of Biophotonics.. The discovered transfer reaction of a hydrophobic carotenoid molecule between two water-soluble proteins gives us several interesting opportunities. This mechanism will allow us create water-soluble protein complexes to deliver antioxidant ...
Since carotenoids can serve as antioxidants and/or immune stimulants, it has been assumed that deposition of carotenoids in feathers or bills can reveal the health status in birds. In order to study the function of carotenoids as signals or immune stimulants, it is necessary to characterise the types of carotenoid molecules in the study species. In this preliminary study, we examined the types of carotenoids in the plasma of four nestlings of the Eurasian magpie (Pica pica) using mass spectrometry ...
Carotenoids (/kəˈrɒtɪnɔɪd/), also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi. Carotenoids can be produced from fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms. The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or it is produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. Carotenoids from the diet are stored in the fatty tissues of animals, and exclusively carnivorous animals obtain the compounds from animal fat. There are over 600 known carotenoids; they are split into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen). All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms. In general, carotenoids absorb wavelengths ranging from 400-550 nanometers (violet to green light). This ...
BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of the sum
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that serum carotenoids are potent antioxidants and may play a protective role in the development of chronic diseases including cancers, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory diseases. The role of these antioxidants in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus remains unclear.This study examined data from a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association between serum carotenoids and type 2 diabetes.Study participants were adults aged > or = 25 y (n = 1597) from 6 randomly selected cities and towns in Queensland, Australia. Study examinations conducted between October and December 2000 included fasting plasma glucose, an oral-glucose-tolerance test, and measurement of the serum concentrations of 5 carotenoid compounds.Mean 2-h postload plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations decreased significantly with increasing quintiles of the 5 serum carotenoids--alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene. Geometric mean ...
In this large prospective study, we found no overall association between prostate cancer risk and dietary intake of either lycopene or total tomato products. Although not statistically significant, inverse trends were found with pizza consumption, for all prostate cancer; with lycopene, for nonadvanced cancer; and with pizza and spaghetti sauce, for advanced disease. We also noted that lycopene and pizza were inversely associated with risk among those with a family history of prostate cancer.. Results from a recent meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies and 10 cohort studies indicated that serum lycopene (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92 for the high versus low levels) was associated with a greater reduction in prostate cancer risk than dietary lycopene (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.98 for the high versus low intake), whereas cooked tomato products (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92 for high versus low intake) were associated with greater risk reduction than raw tomato products (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00 ...
Venado, Rafael E.; Owens, Brenda F.; Ortiz, Darwin; Lawson, Tyler; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; and Rocheford, Torbert R. 2017. Genetic analysis of provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin concentration and relationship with other carotenoids in maize grain (Zea mays L.). Molecular Breeding (2017) 37:127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-017-0723-8 ...
Plastids are the carotenoid fabrication facilities inside the cells. The biosynthetic route involved is called the "1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway" and always starts with the colourless molecule phytoene, a C40 carotenoid formed by condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (C20PP) by phytoene synthase (PSY). C20PP is in turn a precursor to chlorophylls and tocopherol. After four desaturation reactions phytoene is transformed into lycopene, the molecule that gives the red colour to ripe tomatoes. Lycopene leads to α- and ß-carotene and subsequent chemical reactions produce xanthophylls: lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, etc (Figure 1)1.. Parallel roles Although carotenoids play different roles in plants and animals there are some curious analogies. In both taxa they are involved in photoreception/photoprotection, bio-communication and antioxidant defence.. Carotenoids are known to complete the photosynthetic machinery in plants by harvesting light in the spectral ...
Carotenoids are C40 isoprenoids synthesized by plants, as well as some bacteria, fungi and algae, that have been reported to be responsible for a number of benefits conferred on human health. The inability of animals and humans to synthesize de novo these compounds is the reason why they must be introduced from dietary sources. In cereal grains, carotenoids are important phytochemicals responsible for the characteristic yellow colour of the endosperm, which confers nutritional and aesthetic quality to cereal-based products. Cereals are staple foods for a large portion of the world population, and the biofortification of cereal grains with carotenoids may represent a simple way to prevent many human diseases and disorders. Unfortunately, evidence exists that the storage and processing of cereal grains into food products may negatively impact their carotenoid content; so, this loss should be taken into consideration when analysing the potential health benefits of the cereal-based products. Focusing on the
Consuming more lycopene in the diet is of significant benefit to post-menopausal women, as it reduces oxidative stress and bone turnover. The findings come from head researcher Erin Collins from the University of Toronto. The study results also suggest, that dietary lycopene is readily absorbed, particularly in combination with vitamin C. These results are encouraging, as lycopene may be one of the main agents important for the prevention of osteoporosis." We found that women who consumed more tomato products on a daily basis had a lower bone turnover and lower oxidative stress than women of the same age group who did not consume as much", reports Ms. Collins. The participants of the research project were between 50 and 60 years. Lycopene levels in the blood were analyzed, and a seven-day food record was completed. The lowest quartile of estimated lycopene intake was 1.8 mg per day, and the highest was 8 mg per day. Lab tests also showed that higher levels of lycopene were associated with a ...
A study was conducted to screen out the low-temperature tolerant Boro rice seedlings from November 2012 to January 2013 for facing the upcoming rice production challenge in Northwest Bangladesh. The experimental time was characterized by a prevailing low environmental temperature of below 15°C. Five rice cultivars (V1: BR-2; V2: BR-16; V3: Pariza; V4: Minicate; V5: BRRI dhan 50) were selected for the study. The leaf proline, chlorophyll content and total carotenoid content were investigated. The V2 (BR-16) seedling synthesized the higher leaf proline (1.228 g·g-1) at a low temperature than those of other tested cultivars. Again, the highest amount of chlorophyll-a (3.957 g·g-1), chlorophyll-b (2.118 g·g-1), chlorophyll-a/b ratio (3.6754 mg·g-1) and total chlorophyll (5.051 g·g-1) was measured in V2 (BR-16). The maximum total carotenoid (1.213 g·g-1) was also observed in V2. In this experiment, the V2 (BR-16) showed comparatively better potentiality to survive at low temperatures (below 15°C)
Lycopene is one of the major carotenoids in Western diets and is found almost exclusively in tomatoes and tomato products. It accounts for about 50% of carotenoids in human serum. Among the common dietary carotenoids lycopene has the highest singlet oxygen quenching capacity in vitro. Other outstanding features are its high concentration in testes, adrenal gland and prostate. In contrast to other carotenoids its serum values are not regularly reduced by smoking or alcohol consumption but by increasing age. Remarkable inverse relationships between lycopene intake or serum values and risk have been observed in particular for cancers of the prostate, pancreas and to a certain extent of the stomach. In some of the studies lycopene was the only carotenoid associated with risk reduction. Its role in cancer risk reduction still needs to be clarified. Patients with HIV infection, inflammatory diseases and hyperlipidemia with and without lipid lowering treatment may have depleted lycopene serum ...
Background The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial synthesized isoprenoid-derived compounds, including quinones, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Here, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of individual carotenoid and isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes was performed in order to elucidate the role of transcriptional regulation in the coordinated synthesis of these compounds and to identify regulatory components that may mediate this process in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results A global microarray expression correlation analysis revealed that the phytoene synthase gene, which encodes the first dedicated and rate-limiting enzyme of carotenogenesis, is highly co-expressed with many
A new carotenoid has been isolated from the chicken retina for which the name galloxanthin is proposed. This substance has the properties of a hydroxy carotenoid or xanthophyll. It has not yet been crystallized. On a chromatogram of calcium carbonate it is adsorbed just below astaxanthin and above lutein.. The absorption spectrum of galloxanthin lies in a region where natural carotenoids have not ordinarily been found. Its main, central absorption band falls at about 400 mµ. The position of its spectrum suggests a conjugated system of eight double bonds. This relatively short polyene structure must be reconciled with very strong adsorption affinities.. With antimony trichloride, galloxanthin yields a deep blue product, possessing a main absorption band at 785 to 795 mµ, and a secondary maximum at about 710 mµ which may not be due to galloxanthin itself.. Galloxanthin appears to be one of the carotenoid filter pigments associated with cone vision in the chicken. It may act as an auxiliary to ...
The International Carotenoid Society (ICS) will this year celebrate a half century since the inception of its International Symposium on Carotenoids event, to be held 9 - 14 July in Lucerne, Switzerland. The 18th International Symposium on Carotenoids will see the best and brightest scientists in academia, government and industry come together to share and raise public awareness of the latest research and developments in carotenoids. A principal objective of the ICS is to promote the education of young scientists and the public about the importance of carotenoids as naturally occurring pigments and essential components present in virtually every living organism ...
The International Carotenoid Society (ICS) will this year celebrate a half century since the inception of its International Symposium on Carotenoids event, to be held 9 - 14 July in Lucerne, Switzerland. The 18th International Symposium on Carotenoids will see the best and brightest scientists in academia, government and industry come together to share and raise public awareness of the latest research and developments in carotenoids. A principal objective of the ICS is to promote the education of young scientists and the public about the importance of carotenoids as naturally occurring pigments and essential components present in virtually every living organism ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer share the same etiologic factor, cigarette smoking. Higher consumption of dietary lycopene has been associated with lower risks of COPD and lung cancer in smokers. We investigated whether lycopene feeding protects against COPD and lung cancer in ferrets, a nonrodent model that closely mimics cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung tumorigenesis in human. We also explored whether the protective effect of lycopene is associated with restoring reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a key driver in persistent inflammation with CS exposure. Ferrets (4 groups, n = 12-16/group) were exposed to a combination of tobacco carcinogen (NNK) and CS with or without consuming lycopene at low and high doses (equivalent to ∼30 and ∼90 mg lycopene/day in human, respectively) for 22 weeks. Results showed that dietary lycopene at a high dose significantly inhibited NNK/CS-induced chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and ...
An excess of dietary carotenoids may cause a marked orange discoloration of the outermost skin layer. This benign and reversible condition - which is most easily observed in light-skinned people and may be mistaken for jaundice - is known as carotenosis or carotenoderma or carotenodermia. Carotenemia or carotenaemia (xanthaemia) is the presence of the orange pigment carotene in the blood from excessive intake of carrots or other vegetables containing the pigment resulting in increased serum carotenoids. Carotenoids are lipid-soluble compounds that include alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The primary serum carotenoids are beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein. Serum levels of carotenoids vary between region, ethnicity, and sex in the healthy population. All are absorbed by passive diffusion from the gastrointestinal tract and are then partially metabolized in the intestinal mucosa and liver to vitamin A. From there they are transported in the plasma ...
Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the childrens school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and ...
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria. Carotenoids and Anti cancers In the investigation of the molecular basis of interaction of selected carotenoids and xanthophylls with ascorbic acid on cancer cells, found that Several carotenoids inhibited the multidrug resistance of cancer …. ...
In this prospective, nested case-control study of generally well-nourished healthy male physicians without diagnosed cardiovascular disease at enrollment, we found no evidence for a protective effect against MI for higher baseline levels of plasma retinol or carotenoids, apart from a tendency toward lower risk among those with higher levels of β-carotene among current and former smokers. Higher plasma levels of γ-tocopherol were associated with an increased risk of MI.. These analyses were based on a single baseline measurement of carotenoids and tocopherols and may therefore not reflect levels over a longer period with complete accuracy. However, our baseline measurements were reasonably correlated with levels measured 5 years later. In addition, we observed reasonable correlations of plasma carotenoids with intake of specific fruits and vegetables, and plasma tocopherol levels differed between multivitamin users and nonusers. Previous results from the Physicians Health Study showed that ...
Carotenoids, calcium and vitamin D helped boost bone density and reduce fractures in men and women, and DHEA increased bone density in women, in several new studies. Doctors in a carotenoid study believe that the colorful red, orange and yellow pigments in fruits and vegetables help the body maintain bone density. Researchers followed over 900 men and women, average age 75, for 17 years, and found that those who consumed the most carotenoids overall had far fewer hip fractures than those who consumed the least. The scientists noted that for lycopene, the carotenoid in tomatoes, those who ate more than 4.4 servings per week had fewer hip fractures than those who ate less lycopene. In a four-year segment of the study, researchers also found that bone mineral density of the hip in men, and of the lumbar spine in women, was greatest in those who consumed the most carotenoids. A review of 20 vitamin D studies covering more than 83,000 adults, average age 78, found that overall, those who took vitamin ...
Carotenoids, calcium and vitamin D helped boost bone density and reduce fractures in men and women, and DHEA increased bone density in women, in several new studies. Doctors in a carotenoid study believe that the colorful red, orange and yellow pigments in fruits and vegetables help the body maintain bone density. Researchers followed over 900 men and women, average age 75, for 17 years, and found that those who consumed the most carotenoids overall had far fewer hip fractures than those who consumed the least. The scientists noted that for lycopene, the carotenoid in tomatoes, those who ate more than 4.4 servings per week had fewer hip fractures than those who ate less lycopene. In a four-year segment of the study, researchers also found that bone mineral density of the hip in men, and of the lumbar spine in women, was greatest in those who consumed the most carotenoids. A review of 20 vitamin D studies covering more than 83,000 adults, average age 78, found that overall, those who took vitamin ...
Carotenoids are tetraterpenoids (contain 40 carbon atoms) organic pigments from chloroplasts and chromoplasts from plants and algae, some types of fungi and bacteria. Carotenoids that contain oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls. Carotenoids do not which contain oxygen, such as x-carotene, b-carotene and lycopene, are known as carotenes. Carotene contains only carbon and hydrogen. The best known carotenoid is the carotene found in carrots, which is responsible for their bright orange color. Palm oil is the richest source of carotenoids in nature. The carotene has a yellow, orange or red color. Xanthophylls are often yellow. The carotenoid pigments in the mature leaves are not obviously due to chlorophyll. However, when chlorophyll is not present, ca. in young leaves and dying leaves (autumn leaves), yellow, orange and red carotenoid colors are predominant. These colors also predominate in ripe fruits such as oranges, tomatoes and bananas. Pink color of salmon and the ...
Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity.This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer.In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking status, alcohol consumption, and
The strength of our immune system determines our ability to resist infectious micro-organisms and cancer. A compromised immune system affects the speed and effectiveness to mount an immune response, leading to increased susceptibility to infectious disease, both bacterial and viral. It also undermines the immune systems ability to detect and eradicate cancerous cells. In a compromised immune system, poor integration of all of its components may lead to immunological disorders such as allergies and chronic autoimmune diseases. However, we know that carotenoids can boost immunity. The problem is people just arent getting enough from their diet. The biggest advantage of new Carotenoid Complex is that it delivers a broad range of carotenoids as found in fruits and vegetables with proven bioavailability. Additionally, Carotenoid Complex is far superior to other carotenoid products, and has four distinct advantages. First, it delivers a broad range of carotenoids. Secondly, Carotenoid Complex is ...
Background Low tissue concentrations of carotenoids have been suggested to contribute to insulin resistance in obesity. Objectives The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate the relations of adipose tissue and serum carotenoids with body fat, abdominal fat distribution, muscle, adipose tissue and liver insulin resistance, and dietary intake; 2) evaluate the relations and distributions of carotenoids detected in adipose tissue and serum; and 3) compare serum carotenoids and retinol concentrations in subjects with and without obesity. Methods Post hoc analysis of serum and adipose tissue carotenoids in individuals [n = 80; 31 men, 49 women; age (mean ± SEM): 51.4 ± 1.1 y] who participated in 2 separate studies conducted at the Clinical Research Facility at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research (Sydney) between 2008 and 2013. Retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, ζ-carotene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene were measured using HPLC. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X
Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection among US men - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jul 29 - Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection were evaluated among 3,927 US men, 40-85 years of age, who participated in the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Five recommended definitions of prostate cancer detection were adopted using total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA and fPSA) laboratory measurements. Men were identified as high risk based on alternative cutoffs, namely tPSA , 10 ng/ml, tPSA , 4 ng/ml, tPSA , 2.5 ng/ml, %fPSA , 25%, and %fPSA , 15%. %fPSA was defined as (fPSA÷tPSA)× 100%. Serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene) were defined as quartiles and examined as risk/protective factors for PSA biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence ...
Detail záznamu - Carotenoid response to retinal excitation and photoisomerization dynamics in xanthorhodopsin - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3, DHA) fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and may contribute to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a diet rich in EPA and DHA could promote higher oxidation in both plasma and brain tissue of rats and if lycopene supplementation could revert the oxidation biomarkers to their baseline levels. Wistar rats were divided into four groups (7 rats/group): SOY group received AIN93M diet containing 8% soybean oil for 21 days; OMEGA group received 8% fish oil containing 2% EPA and 1% DHA instead of soybean oil for 21 days; OMEGA-L0.5 and OMEGA-L50 groups were fed a diet containing 8% fish oil for I I days followed by lycopene supplementation (5 and 500 mg/kg diet, respectively) for 10 more days. The brain homogenate oxidation measured by TBARS suggested that supplementation with EPA and DHA reduced the oxidation rate and this effect was suppressed by lycopene at both concentrations. Antioxidant ...
Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individuals capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation often involves oxidation reactions. We tested the hypothesis that biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required. Thus, the carotenoid-based signals could reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid
TY - JOUR. T1 - Energy transfer and spin polarization of the carotenoid triplet state in synthetic carotenoporphyrin dyads and in natural antenna complexes. AU - Carbonera, D.. AU - Di Valentin, M.. AU - Agostini, G.. AU - Giacometti, G.. AU - Liddell, P. A.. AU - Gust, D.. AU - Moore, Ana. AU - Moore, Thomas. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - A series of carotenoporphyrin dyads, in which the carotenoid is covalently linked to a tetraarylporphyrin at the ortho, meta or para position of one of the meso aromatic rings, has been studied using Time-Resolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy. In parallel, an investigation has been carried, on two different photosynthetic antenna systems, the B800-B850 complex of R. acidophila and the LHCII complex of higher organisms. The initial spin polarization of the carotenoid triplet-state, populated indirectly by laser excitation, has been detected. It has been demonstrated that the initial polarization is not a characteristic property of the ...
You want more? Well I have another study for you. One that attempts to explain why fruits an veggies in general and plant carotenoids in particular are good for you. Its a study from the Environment and Agro-biotechnologies Department in Luxemburg (Kaulmann. 2014) that analyzed the effect of carotenoids on intracellular signaling cascade and the corresponding effects on gene expression and protein translation and found that (1) carotenoids are able to interact with the nuclear factor κB pathway and thus inhibit the downstream production of inflammatory cytokines, (2) carotenoids can block oxidative stress by interacting with the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway and activating phase II enzymes and antioxidants, such as glutathione-S-transferases, and concludes that we (3) still have an incomplete understanding of what exactly carotenoids and other phytochemicals can do for our health , Any comments? If so, leave them on Facebook ...
Page contains details about carotenoid-containing emulsion oily droplets . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Lycopene Antioxidant Carotenoid 15 mg Softgels Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment which gives tomatoes their red color and has been the focus of recent scientific research. Lycopene is one of the four main carotenoids normally found in human blood and tissue. Studies show that lycopene is a scavenger of singlet oxygen, offering powerful antioxidant protection. The body cannot convert lycopene into vitamin A; thus lycopene is reserved exclusively for antioxidant use. Supplement Facts for 5 mg Softgels Serving Size: 3 softgel(s) Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Tomato Oleoresin Extract 6.8% (Lyc-O-Mato) 220 mg Yielding 15 mg Lycopene Other Ingredients: gelatin, rice bran oil, glycerin, purified water, lecithin, and yellow beeswax. Warning: If you are pregnant, may become pregnant, or breastfeeding, consult your health care professional before using this product. STORE IN A COOL, DRY PLACE. Suggested Use: 1 to 3 softgels daily with a meal.
Low vitamin and carotenoid levels are related to cerebral white matter lesions Abstract: Objectives: Purpose: To determine the effects of vitamins and carotenoids on brain white matter lesions (WMLs), we examined the associations between WMLs with vitamin and carotenoid levels ...
GNLD Londons Carotenoid complex has been proven by the CDC to lead to a dramatic 37% increase in immune function in just 21 days! GNLD Carotenoid Complete is the first and only product to deliver the full spectrum of carotenoids in a natural supplement! Each and every capsule provides the phytonutrinet value of an optimal serving of a wide variety of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.
Carotenoids are among the most prevalent pigments used in animal signals and are also important for a range of physiological functions. These concomitant roles have made carotenoidbased signals a popular topic in behavioural ecology while also causing confusion and controversy. After a thorough background, we review the many pitfalls, caveats and seemingly contradictory conclusions that can result from not fully appreciating the complex nature of carotenoid function. Current controversies may be resolved through a more careful regard of this complexity, and of the immense taxonomic variability of carotenoid metabolism. Studies investigating the physiological trade-offs between ornamental and physiological uses of carotenoids have yielded inconsistent results. However, in many studies, homeostatic regulation of immune and antioxidant systems may have obscured the effects of carotenoid supplementation. We highlight how carefully designed experiments can overcome such complications. There is also a need to
The key to a healthy glow is not in your tanning cream, but it may be in a sweet potato. A recent study found that those people identified with a yellow "glow" to their skin were viewed as the most beautiful. Mirror, mirror on the wall whos the yellowest of them all? Fruit and veggie eaters. Thats right, the study found that the prettiest people were the ones who ate the most fruit and veggies packed with carotenoids.. Carotenoids dont just make us look good but act as antioxidants as well, which when consumed in our diet might be beneficial in reducing the risk of heart disease, some cancers, urinary tract infections, and possibly even lengthening our lifespan.. Carotenoids include lycopene, carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. You can find them in:. ...
Carotenoids. Carotenoids are essential anti-oxidants that play an important role in animal health and reproduction. Wherever you look in nature, you will see the influence of carotenoids. They are responsible for the color of everything from fruit and vegetables to fish and animal skin. All animals need carotenoids, but since they cannot produce these naturally-occurring nutrients, they must instead obtain them from their diet ...