TY - JOUR. T1 - Endobronchial and surgical treatment of pulmonary carcinoid tumors. T2 - A systematic literature review. AU - Reuling, E. M. B. P.. AU - Dickhoff, C.. AU - Plaisier, P. W.. AU - Bonjer, H. J.. AU - Daniels, J. M. A.. N1 - Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - The treatment of pulmonary carcinoid has changed over the last decades. Although surgical resection is still the gold standard, minimally invasive endobronchial procedures have emerged as a parenchyma sparing alternative for tumors located in the central airways. This review was performed to identify the optimal treatment strategy for pulmonary carcinoid, with a particular focus on the feasibility and outcome of parenchyma sparing techniques versus surgical resection. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane databases, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis ...
A 49-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of a large hepatic tumor with edema in the lower extremities. The patient had suffered from hypertension and bronchial asthma in his twenties and from cutaneous flushing in the face in his thirties. Echocardiography revealed tricuspid valve regurgitation and marked dilatation of the right ventricle. In an exploratory laparotomy, a 15 cm-size hepatic tumor was located in the right lobe with multiple satellite lesions in both lobes of the liver. Peritoneal disseminations were present. The tumor was histologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed to be a carcinoid tumor. The levels of serum serotonin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were found to be significantly high. Imaging modalities and intraoperative findings showed no evidence of any tumors elsewhere. These findings led us to the diagnosis of a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor with carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease. The patient has been treated with ...
Many risk factors may increase your chance of developing gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. This guide will help you learn about possible causes of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors.
Pulmonary carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine tumours of the lung. The molecular alterations underlying the pathogenesis of these tumours have not been systematically studied so far. Here we perform gene copy number analysis (n=54), genome/exome (n=44) and transcriptome (n=69) sequencing of pulmonary carcinoids and observe frequent mutations in chromatin-remodelling genes. Covalent histone modifiers and subunits of the SWI/SNF complex are mutated in 40 and 22.2% of the cases, respectively, with MEN1, PSIP1 and ARID1A being recurrently affected. In contrast to small-cell lung cancer and large-cell neuroendocrine lung tumours, TP53 and RB1 mutations are rare events, suggesting that pulmonary carcinoids are not early progenitor lesions of the highly aggressive lung neuroendocrine tumours but arise through independent cellular mechanisms. These data also suggest that inactivation of chromatin-remodelling genes is sufficient to drive transformation in pulmonary carcinoids.
Carcinoid tumors are rare. In early stage disease they may cause either no or few nonspecific symptoms. Therefore, patients with carcinoid tumors most often present late in the course of their illness when there is already progression to an incurable state as a result of metastatic disease. At present there are neither practical population screening tests nor effective therapies and hence the 5 year survival rate is low. Due to the rareness of sporadic carcinoid tumors, large scale genetic analysis and development of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests have not been successful. While kindreds with familial carcinoid tumors that are not ascribable to known genetic syndromes are exceedingly rare, they provide a unique opportunity to facilitate the identification of the responsible gene mutation. In addition, the mutated gene in the rare familial form may also underlie the origin of the more common sporadic occurrence of carcinoid tumors. We propose to study families in which there are at least ...
Carcinoid tumors represent an interesting family of tumors that are derived from neuroendocrine cells. With few exceptions, carcinoid tumors comprise a tiny fraction of tumors within any specific organ (11). These tumors were first described by Langhans (12) but were not described in detail until Lubarsch (13) described them in 1888. The name karzinoide was not used until 1907 by Oberndorfer (14), and was chosen to reflect his opinion that these were benign tumors. However, these tumors have a wide range of clinical presentations and diverse outcomes from benign to malignant. In the testis and in other organs, carcinoid tumors may behave aggressively and some investigators (15) have suggested that a designation of "neuroendocrine carcinoma" is more appropriate than "carcinoid tumor"; other investigators disagree with this approach (16).. The histogenesis of testicular carcinoid tumor has been a matter of debate (17). There is a strong rationale for the concept that testicular carcinoid tumor is ...
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For gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors that have not spread to distant sites, surgery is usually the primary or first treatment. Learn about other treatment options here.
METHODS AND PROCEDURES From January 2001 to December 2010, total 299 patients with colorectal carcinoid tumors were treated at the National Cancer Center, South Korea. Among of them, we excluded patients who had metastatic disease(n=10), who underewent radical operation(n=33), who were diagnosed in other hospitals(n=83) and who had colon carcinoid tumors(n=3). Finally, 170 patients with 175 rectal carcinoid tumors, who treated with local excision including endoscopic resection and surgical resection were enrolled this study. A pathologically complete resection(P-CR) was defined as an en bloc resection with tumor-free lateral and deep margin. Local treatment methods were classified to conventional polypectomy including strip biopsy, snare polypectomy and hot biopsy, advanced endoscopic techniques including endoscopic mucosal resection with cap(EMR-C) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) and surgical local excision including transanal excision(TAE) and transanal endoscopic microsurgery(TEM). ...
Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were reactive for chromogranin (Fig. 2b), TTF1, cytokeratin (CK)7, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, focally positive for CD56 (Fig. 2c) and negative for S100 protein and CK20 (Fig. 2d).. Based on the patients history and scalp biopsy, a final diagnosis of skin metastasis of pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor was made.. Cutaneous metastases (CM) occur in 0.7-9% of all patients with internal malignancies and metastatic tumor from carcinoid tumors represent an even smaller subset. Although visceral metastases of carcinoid tumors are common, CM are rare, and most CM are of bronchial origin.[1-3]. Cutaneous metastases tend to occur on the upper extremities, but can be found anywhere in the skin. CM are often painful and the pain is secondary to perineural invasion or to the release of vasoactive substances and peptide hormones, such as kallikrein and serotonin by carcinoid cells.[1-3] In our patient, we have assumed that the pain was ...
Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma. The rarity of carcinoids has made the role of radiation therapy in their management controversial. This review considers the results of published studies to generate treatment recommendations and identify areas for future research. Surgery remains the standard of care for medically operable disease. Histology plays the most important role in determining the role of adjuvant radiation. Resected typical carcinoids likely do not require adjuvant therapy irrespective of nodal status. Resected atypical carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas have a significant risk of local failure, for which adjuvant radiation likely improves local control. Definitive radiation is warranted in unresectable disease. Palliative radiation for symptomatic lesions has demonstrated efficacy for all histologies.
What are Carcinoid Tumors?. The neuroendocrine system is made up of cells that "connect" the nervous system and the endocrine system. Neuroendocrine cells release hormones (sometimes called peptides) into the circulatory system in response to a stimulus received from the nervous system. These specialized cells are scattered throughout the organs in the body and are the cells that give rise to neuroendocrine tumors.. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) include both carcinoid tumors and pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs). Carcinoid tumors represent the largest number of neuroendocrine tumors and pose a significant challenge to the clinician because they produce a unique clinical syndrome. Consequently, their diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. The clinician requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation with biochemical tests in order to establish their diagnosis. Because the majority of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and carcinoid tumors that involve the wall of the gut have similar ...
Gastrointestinal carcinoid, also called carcinoid tumor, is the most common primary tumor of the small bowel and appendix. Gastrointestinal carcinoid accounts for more than 95% of all carcinoids.
Bronchial carcinoid tumors are very rare pulmonary neoplasms. They usually present with pulmonary symptoms or paraneoplastic syndromes. Typical (well-differentiated) tumors are usually indolent with survival exceeding 90% after resection. Atypical carcinoids have a worse prognosis. They are much more likely to recur locally or to have distant metastases. This case report describes a patient who presented with abdominal pain and hepatic lesions who was subsequently diagnosed to have bronchial carcinoid.
Carcinoid tumors are characteristically low grade malignant neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation that arise in various body sites, most commonly the lung and gastrointestinal tract, but less frequently the kidneys, breasts, ovaries, testes, prostate and other locations. We report a case of a carcinoid of renal origin with synchronous single liver metastases on radiological studies. A 45 year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain was found on CT scan to have lesions in the right ovary, right kidney, and left hepatic lobe. CA-125, CEA, and CA 19-9 were within normal limits, as were preoperative liver function tests and renal function. Biopsy of the liver mass demonstrated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor. At laparotomy, the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, radical right nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy, and left hepatectomy. Pathology evaluation reported a right ovarian borderline serous tumor, well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that tumor differentiation, mitotic rate, and Ki-67 rate be included in the pathology report and that the specific classification and grading scheme be noted to avoid confusion. Clinicians are advised to view histologic grade as a general guide and use clinical judgment to make treatment decisions, particularly in cases of discordance between differentiation and Ki-67 proliferation results. ...
The worldwide incidence of pulmonary carcinoids is increasing, but little is known about their molecular characteristics. Through machine learning and multi-omics factor analysis, we compare and contrast the genomic profiles of 116 pulmonary carcinoids (including 35 atypical), 75 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), and 66 small-cell lung cancers. Here we report that the integrative analyses on 257 lung neuroendocrine neoplasms stratify atypical carcinoids into two prognostic groups with a 10-year overall survival of 88% and 27%, respectively. We identify therapeutically relevant molecular groups of pulmonary carcinoids, suggesting DLL3 and the immune system as candidate therapeutic targets; we confirm the value of OTP expression levels for the prognosis and diagnosis of these diseases, and we unveil the group of supra-carcinoids. This group comprises samples with carcinoid-like morphology yet the molecular and clinical features of the deadly LCNEC, further supporting the previously ...
Though carcinoids are slow growing tumors, which can be treated by surgery, the survival in metastatic carcinoids is very low because the treatment strategies for other cancers are not effective for dealing with advanced stage carcinoids [36]. Therefore, the investigations concerning the discovery of new strategies for treating pulmonary carcinoids need to be focused on therapies that can inhibit the growth and invasiveness of advanced stage disease. Carcinoid tumors are proving moderately responsive to newer therapies targeting tumor vasculature and survival pathways [1, 2]. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus, has shown promising initial results alone or combined with other agents [37-39]. Bronchial AC, which is characterized by high mTOR expression, has been reported to be responders to mTOR inhibition, indicating that therapies targeting the critical survival pathways are potential candidates to treat bronchial carcinoids [40]. The evidence seems to indicate that ...
The carcinoids are a neuroendocrine group of tumors, arising from Kulchitsky cells. They can arise from along the gastrointestinal tract or the bronchial mucosa. The tumor can Release serotonin may produce carcinoid syndrome (flushing, diarrhea, and wheezing). Carcinoid was defined in 1907 by Oberndorfer but is now more relevantly named as the neuroendocrine tumor [2]. The origin of neuroendocrine tumors of the mediastinum is either from thymus or from the ectopic neuroectodermal tissue. Rosai and Higa are credited with the first description of such tumors in the thymic region [5]. There is the marginal relevance of the precise distinction between thymic and mediastinal carcinoids [6]. However, few cases of posterior mediastinal carcinoid tumor reported so far have been attributed to ectopic thymic tissue [7]. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or may present with symptoms of compression of the mediastinal structures [7]. As but our patient present with dry a cough and dyspnea since six ...
Background: Endoscopic mucosal resection is widely used for treating rectal carcinoid tumors. However, histopathology has revealed that submucosal invasion leads to incom..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of duodenal carcinoid by strip biopsy. AU - Perng, Chin Lin. AU - Lin, Hwai Jeng. AU - Wang, Kun. AU - Lai, Chiung Ru. AU - Lee, Shou Dong. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - In a 70-year-old man with diarrhea and weight loss, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a 0.4-cm nodular lesion at the anterior duodenal bulb with a fissure at the tip of the lesion. The histologic diagnosis of the biopsied specimen revealed a duodenal carcinoid confined to the submucosa. We used strip biopsy to resect the lesion. After resection, diarrhea subsided and weight was increased. Strip biopsy may be a safe and effective choice for management of a duodenal carcinoid if it is AB - In a 70-year-old man with diarrhea and weight loss, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a 0.4-cm nodular lesion at the anterior duodenal bulb with a fissure at the tip of the lesion. The histologic diagnosis of the biopsied specimen revealed a duodenal carcinoid confined to the submucosa. We used strip biopsy to ...
Carcinoid tumors are rare cancerous tumors that are difficult to treat but, if detected early enough, can be cured. These tumors usually begin in the lungs or digestive tract lining. Ideally, they...
Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the digestive tract, lungs, or rare primary sites, such as kidneys or ovaries. The term carcinoid usually implies a well-differentiated histology and is rarely used to describe high-grade o
mjkulla - Patient: Lung Carcinoid Tumor > Peripheral Patient Info: Currently in active treatment (initial surgery, receiving chemo rounds/radiation), Diagnosed: over 8 years ago, Female, Age: 70
Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer Carcinoma of the Appendix Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor HER2-negative Breast Cancer Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor Ovarian Sarcoma Ovarian Stromal Cancer Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer Recurrent Anal Cancer Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-stromal Tumor Recurrent Breast Cancer Recurrent Cervical Cancer Recurrent Colon Cancer Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma Recurrent Esophageal Cancer Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer Recurrent Gastric Cancer Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx ...
Argentaffin refers to cells which take up silver stain.[1] Enteroendocrine cells are sometimes also called "argentaffins", because they take up this stain. An argentaffin cell is any enteroendocrine cell, a hormone-secreting cell present throughout the digestive tract. It is a property of melanin, and special stain can be applied to identify those granules. Fontana-Masson stain uses the fact that those cells can reduce the silver salts to metallic silver (brownish-black) color without the aid of reducing agent, which is the definition of Argentaffin cells. Argentaffin cell, one of the round or partly flattened cells occurring in the lining tissue of the digestive tract and containing granules thought to be of secretory function. These epithelial cells, though common throughout the digestive tract, are most concentrated in the small intestine and appendix. The cells located randomly within the mucous membrane lining of the intestine and in tubelike depressions in that lining known as the ...
Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow growing tumors that are formed by the endocrine cells in the mucosal lining of organs, such as the stomach and intestine. These tumors are small neuroendocrine tumors, typically of the gastrointestinal tract, that secrete serotonin, a naturally occurring neurochemical that is usually associated with sleep and memory functions.
Introduction: Gastric endocrine tumors (GET) are increasingly recognized due to expanding indications of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Often silent and benign, GET may also be aggressive when sporadic and may sometimes mimic the course of gastric adenocarcinoma. Current incidence of GETs is estimated at around 8% of digestive endocrine tumors. Yearly age-adjusted incidence is around 0.2 per population of 100,000. Gastric carcinoids (ECLomas) develop from gastric enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells) in response to chronically elevated gastrin. Type 1 tumors (ECLomas in the course of atrophic gastritis) may occur in conditions of achlorhydria secondary to auto-immune atrophic fundic gastritis. It occurs mostly in women and they are non-functioning tumors, typically found during upper GI endoscopy performed for dyspepsia. ECLomas present frequently as multiple polyps, usually , 1 cm in diameter in the gastric fundus. Type 1 tumors are almost exclusively benign lesions with little risk of ...
Christina Sanders, DO, Yury Bak, DO, Adeshola Fakulujo, MD, Abier Abdelnaby, MD. University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - Kennedy University Hospital. Introduction. The association between inflammatory bowel disease and adenocarcinoma has been well established. Although rare, carcinoid tumors have also been described in association with Crohns disease. Most commonly carcinoid tumors have been described in areas of the gastrointestinal tract uninvolved by active Crohns disease. We present a case of carcinoid tumor diagnosed within a segment of small bowel with active Crohns ileitis. To our knowledge less then 10 cases have been reported in the literature Case Presentation A 41-year old female with a 7-year history of chronic post-prandial right lower quadrant pain and diarrhea presented with worsening abdominal pain and weight loss. Laboratory studies were remarkable for a microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 9, an elevated C-reactive protein level of 14.5, and an albumin level ...
Materials and methods: We performed a phase II trial of axitinib 5 mg BID in patients with advanced low to intermediate grade carcinoid tumors. Prior antiangiogenic therapy with a dedicated VEGF pathway inhibitor was not permitted. The primary endpoints were PFS and 1-year PFS ...
As mentioned above, the occurrence of this syndrome even when the carcinoid tumors are present is very rare as the excess hormones secreted are eliminated by the liver before they dilate the bloodstream. Only in rare cases (where the liver might have also been affected by the tumor), would a person have the chance to develop this syndrome ...
What is Carcinoid Cancer? Get the facts about Carcinoid Cancer symptoms, testing, treatment and care options from trusted sources.
Teaching Files with CT Medical Imaging and case studies on Anatomical Regions including Adrenal, Colon, Cardiac, Stomach, Pediatric, Spleen, Vascular, Kidney, Small Bowel, Liver, Chest | CTisus
A 67-year-old woman with metastatic carcinoid tumor developed neurologic signs and symptoms of left facial paralysis and progressive lower extremity weakness. Results of cytologic evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid were normal. However, biochemical analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed extreme elevations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and serotonin, consistent with carcinomatous meningitis caused by carcinoid tumor. Subsequent contrast myelography confirmed the presence of meningeal metastases. ...
A carcinoid is a type of tumor often found in the appendix and sometimes in the lungs. Learn about carcinoids and find information on how we support for people with carcinoids before, during, and after treatment.
The Carcinoid Cancer Foundation is excited to announce a new series - Luncheon with the Experts - featuring physicians and healthcare professionals, support group leaders, patients, and colleagues who are key opinion leaders in the neuroendocrine cancer community worldwide. This year-long series will be presented via Facebook Live on Thursdays from 12 noon to 1 pm, Eastern Time. Join us for unique discussions on a wide variety of topics for everyone in the NET community!. If you are on Facebook but unable to join at the scheduled time, the presentations will remain permanently on CCFs Facebook page in the Video section, https://www.facebook.com/pg/Carcinoid/videos/.. And for anyone not on Facebook, each of the presentations will be available on CCFs YouTube channel, https://www.youtube.com/user/CarcinoidNETs.. We appreciate Lexicon Pharmaceuticals support of the Luncheon with the Experts series.. ...
We have recently reported that activation of the Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/ERK1/2 signaling cascade in gastrointestinal carcinoid cell line (BON) alters cellular morphology and neuroendocrine phenotype. The mechanisms by which Raf-1 mediates these changes in carcinoid cells are unclear. Here, we report that activation of the Raf-1 signaling cascade in BON cells induced the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein, suppressed the production of neuroendocrine markers, and resulted in significant decreases in cellular adhesion and migration. Importantly, inactivation of MEK1/2 by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene or abolition of FAK induction in Raf-1-activated BON cells by targeted siRNA led to reversal of the Raf-1-mediated reduction in neuroendocrine markers and cellular adhesion and migration. Phosphorylation site-specific antibodies detected the phosphorylated FAKTyr407, but not ...
Overview of Carcinoid Tumors - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
Learn about the latest carcinoid tumor treatment and surgery options at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Your treatment is personalized especially for you.
A 42-year-old white woman was seen by her physician because of somatic complaints of the neck and right arm discomfort, difficulty in swallowing, and heartburn. Findings of the workup led to the diagnosis of metastatic ossified gastric carcinoid. R
The angiographic findings of five small intestinal and two colonie carcinoids are described and illustrated, together with a review of the pertinent literature. It is pointed out that the...
Tampa, Florida. We are going to talk about carcinoid disease and diarrhea. We really need to focus closely on this subject. First part of this is about digestion and diarrhea. You know what happens when you put the food in your mouth as it makes its way to your GI tract so we are going to talk about how our intestinal tract works. We process about nine liters of fluid daily and in this picture you can see the little appendage hanging down that is the appendix, but that is where the small intestine and the large intestine join together and that is part of the two feet area that Dr. Kvols discussed where the majority of our gut carcinoids originate.. The small intestines job is to absorb nutrients. That is all that does. We eat the food, it goes into our stomach, it is digested and then the small intestine pulls out all the things that our body needs for metabolic and cellular activity.. Large intestine or your bowel all it does is absorb water. That is its whole job. So this is how diarrhea ...
At present, it is in phase III clinical trials at Novartis for the treatment of carcinoid tumors and symptoms that are not adequately controlled by somatostatin analogues (Sandostatin). Phase II clinical development is also under way at the company for the treatment of gastric dumping syndrome, metastatic carcinoid tumors, meningioma and pituitary adenoma and for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in combination with everolimus. Early clinical trials are also ongoing for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. A phase I clinical trial for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis has been completed. The company intends to file for approval in 2007 for these indications. Novartis and Thomas Jefferson University are conducting phase II clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer, alone or in combination with everolimus. The Mayo Clinic is conducting phase II clinical trials for the treatment of polycystic liver disease. Phase III clinical trials had ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Common cancers Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Kidney Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer AAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)AdenocarcinomaAdrenocortical CarcinomaAIDS-Related LymphomaAnal CancerAppendix Cancer - see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors BBasal Cell Carcinoma - see Skin Cancer (Nonmelanoma)Bile Duct Cancer, ExtrahepaticBladder CancerBone Cancer […]. ...
Cardiac fibrosis may refer to an abnormal thickening of the heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts but more commonly refers to the excess deposition of extracellular matrix in the cardiac muscle. Fibrotic cardiac muscle is stiffer and less compliant and is seen in the progression to heart failure. The description below focuses on a specific mechanism of valvular pathology but there are other causes of valve pathology and fibrosis of the cardiac muscle. Fibrocyte cells normally secrete collagen, and function to provide structural support for the heart. When over-activated this process causes thickening and fibrosis of the valve, with white tissue building up primarily on the tricuspid valve, but also occurring on the pulmonary valve. The thickening and loss of flexibility eventually may lead to valvular dysfunction and right-sided heart failure. Certain diseases such as gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors of the mid-gut, which sometimes release large amounts of ...
Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor treatment often includes resection of the primary tumor and local lymph nodes. Other treatment options include somatostatin analogs, interferons, treatment of hepatic masses, radionuclides, and symptomatic therapy. Get detailed information in this clinician summary.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for common clonal origin of multifocal lung cancers. AU - Wang, Xiaoyan. AU - Wang, Mingsheng. AU - MacLennan, Gregory T.. AU - Abdul-Karim, Fadi W.. AU - Eble, John N.. AU - Jones, Timothy D.. AU - Olobatuyi, Felix. AU - Eisenberg, Rosana. AU - Cummings, Oscar W.. AU - Zhang, Shaobo. AU - Lopez-Beltran, Antonio. AU - Montironi, Rodolfo. AU - Zheng, Suqin. AU - Lin, Haiqun. AU - Davidson, Darrell D.. AU - Cheng, Liang. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - Background Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States. Multiple anatomically separate but histologically similar lung tumors are often found in the same patient. The clonal origin of multiple lung tumors is uncertain. Methods We analyzed 70 lung tumors from 30 patients (23 females and seven males) who underwent surgical resection for lung epithelial tumors, of whom 26 had non-small cell carcinomas and four had carcinoid/atypical carcinoid tumors. All patients had multiple tumors (two to ...
A slow growing type of tumor found in the gastrointestinal system, and sometimes in the lungs or other sites. Carcinoid tumors can spread to the liver where they secrete serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.