Malotilate is a new drug suggested for use in chronic liver diseases. It is shown here to prevent liver damage caused by CCl4. The concomitant administration of malotilate with CCl4 significantly decreased hydroxyproline accumulation in the liver, liver prolyl 4-hydroxylase and liver and serum galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities. However, it had no effect on the daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion or the hydroxyproline content of the skin, liver or lungs in normal young growing rats. It also had no specific inhibitory effect on hydroxyproline synthesis or secretion in fibroblast cultures, and did not affect the amount of procollagen-alpha 1(I)-specific mRNAs in these cultures. Thus it seems to have no direct inhibitory effect on collagen metabolism. In addition to inhibition of liver collagen accumulation, malotilate was also able to prevent the development of morphological changes in the liver such as focal necrosis, fatty infiltration and inflammatory changes. It also ...
I am wondering about the regression of liver fibrosis on all oral treatment. Before anyone starts reminding me that it is too early to give a definitive answer, let me say I have thought about it but ...
Business Directory for Carbon Tetrachloride Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Carbon Tetrachloride Manufacturers, Wholesale Carbon Tetrachloride Exporters, Best Carbon Tetrachloride Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to protect the gastrointestinal tract against various noxious agents. Its potential value in preventing/treating hepatic injury is, however, largely unexplored. We therefore examined whether EGF could influence CCl4-induced hepatic injury.. 2. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 per group) received saline or recombinant EGF (500 or 750 μg/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before CCU (20% v/v, in olive oil, intraperitoneal). Eighteen hours later, animals were killed, serum was collected for assay of biochemical markers of hepatic injury and livers were removed for histological analyses.. 3. Administration of CCl4 resulted in severe hepatic necrosis and caused a 10-fold rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase levels compared with levels seen in control animals (218 ± 15 compared with 23 ± 9 μmol/l in controls, mean ± SEM, P , 0.01). Serum malondialdehyde levels, used as a marker of lipid peroxidation, showed a 2-fold rise in response to CCl4 treatment (median ...
It was recently found that the decomposition of chlorine monoxide takes place at the same rate in solution in carbon tetrachloride as in the gaseous state. Under both conditions the reaction occurs in consecutive stages, each bimolecular. The rate of the unimolecular decomposition of nitrogen pentoxide is also uninfluenced by carbon tetrachloride. Thus this solvent appears to be established as a normal medium for reactions of varying kinetic type. The interest of this lies in the fact that with reactions that cannot be measured in the gaseous state at all, the rate in carbon tetrachloride can be taken as the rate which the reaction would have in the absence of a medium, and the influence of any given solvent can at once be recognised as accelerating or retarding. In this way it may be possible to obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of solvents on the rates of chemical reactions. In the meantime it is desirable to make as many direct measurements as possible on reactions which can be ...
Cirrhosis of the liver - Exposure to carbon tetrachloride Factor. Last reviewed for CCPS 12 March 2008.. Investigative Documents. Claimant Report - Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride - Cirrhosis of the Liver [CR9116]. Preliminary questions [20508]. [79]22396. there is some evidence that exposure to carbon tetrachloride may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 20585 [80] the veteran has experienced inhalation or cutaneous contact with carbon tetrachloride at some time.. 20586 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for cirrhosis of the liver.. 20587 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and VEA service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the liver.. 20589 - the veteran has established the causal connection between exposure to carbon tetrachloride and operational service for the clinical onset of cirrhosis of the ...
Conference Paper: Investigation on the effect of dietary omega 3-6-9 fatty acids and lard on carbon tetrachloride induced liver ...
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EWGs Tap Water Database Carbon tetrachloride results for Santiago Southview Terrace Park | Carbon tetrachloride. Find out what is in your tap water
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NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values.. DECEMBER 1992 Prepared by: Andrew Francis, M.S., D.A.B.T., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400.. Humans are sensitive to carbon tetrachloride intoxication by oral, inhalation and dermal routes. Oral and inhalation exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride results in acute central nervous system effects including dizziness, vertigo, headache, depression, confusion, incoordination and, in severe cases, respiratory failure, ...
Coexpression of Smad7 and UPA attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis - Get your full text copy in PDF #883479
No, $\ce{CCl4}$ is not an electrolye. An electrolye is a material that causes ions (charged entities) to form in the solvent. Carbon tetrachloride neither dissociates into ions nor induces ion formation in the solvent.. The reason is that the $\ce{C-Cl}$ bond is rather strong and wont break under normal solution conditions. Nor does the molecule have any net dipole moment.. ...
Intermolecular associations in liquid systems of non-polar and slightly polar compounds were studied through excess molar volumes, and excess dielectric properties for mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with benzene, toluene and p-xylene. These excess properties were calculated from measurements of density, static permittivity and refractive index over the whole range of concentrations, at 298.15K. The values of the excess dielectric properties for these mixtures were fitted in two different ways, one through least squares using the Redlich-Kister equation and the other using a model developed to explain deviations from ideality. The first fit was found to be descriptive while the second gave the equilibrium constant values for the interaction products actually formed in the mixtures and the respective electronic polarizabilities and dipole moments, indicating the existence of interaction products ...
This assessment will help insure consistency in the Agencys consideration of the relevant scientific health data associated with carbon tetrachloride. In the development of the assessment document, the scientific literature has been inventoried, key studies have been evaluated and summary/conclusions have been prepared so that the chemicals toxicity and related characteristics are qualitatively identified. Observed effect levels and dose-response relationships are discussed, where appropriate, so that the nature of the adverse health responses are placed in perspective with observed environmental levels ...
Find suppliers and manufacturers of SOLVENTS, Carbon Tetrachloride used in the formulation and manufacture of adhesives and sealants.
Measurements of the viscosity of superheated carbon tetrachloride were made at various superheats ranging from 0°C superheat to 37°C superheat. The measurements were made in three groups: two isotherms at 82.4°C and 88.3°C, and one isobar at 690 mm Hg. The three major drawbacks to attaining superheated conditions are vibrations (mechanical shock), impurities, and the maintenance of large volumes of superheated liquid. While the viscometer itself was a simple capillary viscometer, the special procedures and techniques required to attain the necessary superheats entailed the use of high vacuum equipment, liquid degassing systems, a vibration free table, and controlling systems to maintain the temperatures and pressures within the desired fluctuation limits. The results obtained show that the viscosity curve for carbon tetrachloride in the superheated regime appears to be a smooth continuation of the curve below the normal boiling point. A curve fit to the experimental data gave the following ...
The residue is added to a solution of 50 g. of sodium in about a liter of 95 per cent alcohol. The solution is boiled under a reflux condenser for about one hour (Note 2) and then allowed to stand overnight. The reaction mixture is diluted with about 6 l. of water and the two layers are separated. The aqueous layer is extracted with three or four 500-cc. portions of carbon tetrachloride (Note 3), and the extracts are added to the bromomesitylene. This solution is then washed thoroughly with water. The carbon tetrachloride solution is separated, dried over calcium chloride, and distilled. After the carbon tetrachloride is removed the bromomesitylene is fractionated carefully under reduced pressure from a modified Claisen flask. The fraction boiling at 105-107°/16-17 mm. (Note 4) is bromomesitylene. The yield is 840-870 g. (79-82 per cent of the theoretical amount). There is a small low-boiling portion (about 25 g.) and also a small high-boiling residue. The bromomesitylene obtained in this way ...
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor celecoxib is widely used in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Celecoxib has been explored as a possible treatment of liver fibrosis with contradictory results, depending on the model. The present study reports the effect of celecoxib in a 5-week …
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Calculate the pressure that ccl4 will exert at 40 of 1.00 mol occupies 28.0 L, assuming that (a) CCl4 obeys the ideal-gas equation (b) CCl4 obeys the Van der Waals equation. (a) PV = nRT P = nRT / V (b) (P + n^2a/V^2)(V - nb) = ...
Avoid open handling. Whenever possible, keep the substance in closed systems and apply closed loop re-filling with vapour return lines and dry-break couplings. Use only at well-ventilated places (e.g. in a fume hood) or with extract ventilation at points where emissions occur. Avoid inhalation of va-pours and skin contact with the liquid. Wear suitable personal protective equipment if exposure is likely. Limit the quantity of product in the work area for the work in hand. Do not use the substance in the vicinity of fire, hot/glowing objects or welding & cutting operations ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of MR imaging assessment of experimental hepatic dysfunction with mn‐DPDP. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
7. The irradiation time required depends on the type of light source used and can be determined by following the progress of the reaction by infrared spectroscopy. A 10-ml. aliquot is withdrawn from the reaction mixture and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure; the residue is dissolved in 0.5 ml. of carbon tetrachloride, and the spectrum is obtained using 0.1-mm. sodium chloride cells. A new peak appears at 899 cm.−1, and the ratio of the absorbance of the peak at 703 cm.−1 to that of the peak at 727 cm.−1 continuously decreases during the course of the reaction. Using these spectral criteria, the submitters judged the reaction to be complete after 4 hours of irradiation with the lamp described in (Note 5); however, the recrystallized products from 4-hour reactions melted about 0.4° lower than those from 5-hour reactions. The submitters found that varying the irradiation time from 4 hours to 8 hours had no significant effect on the yield of 9-phenylphenanthrene. The extent of the ...
Artichoke is a plant with antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of artichoke extract pretreatment on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Rats were given artichoke leaf extract (1.5 g/kg/day) by gavage for 2 weeks and after then CCl4 (1 ml/kg; i.p.) was applied. All rats were killed 24 11 after the CCl4 injection. CCl4 administration resulted in hepatic necrosis and significant increases in plasma transaminase activities as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugate (DC) levels in the liver of rats. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels decreased, but vitamin E levels increased in the liver Of CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities remained unchanged, but glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities decreased following CCl4 treatment. In rats pretreated with artichoke extract, significant decreases in plasma transaminase activities and amelioration in ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
TY - JOUR. T1 - [The study of susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde].. AU - Wang, Chao. AU - Liu, Yun ru. AU - Zhou, Yin. AU - Li, Ai ping. AU - Zhou, Jian wei. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - To investigate the susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride and benzene in offspring of expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTR) mutation mice exposed to formaldehyde (FA). F5 and F10 offspring (200 mg/m3 x 2 hours) served as H group and ICR mice were used as control group (group C). The F5 and F10 offspring were exposed to 10 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride at the doses of 0.05%, 0.50% or 5.00% for 24 hours, respectively or 500 or 1000 mg/kg benzene for 24 hours, respectively by intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) or malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected; also the hepatic pathological changes were observed under light ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone gene therapy reverses carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis in mice. AU - Lee, Tsung Hsing. AU - Jawan, Bruno. AU - Chou, Wen-Ying. AU - Lu, Cheng Nan. AU - Wu, Chia Ling. AU - Kuo, Hsiao Mei. AU - Concejero, Allan M.. AU - Wang, Cheng Haung. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Background: Hepatic fibrosis represents a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury. Effective therapies are lacking. We have previously demonstrated that α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) gene therapy protects against thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure in mice. Recent reports showed that collagen metabolism is a novel target of α-MSH. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether α-MSH gene therapy possesses anti-hepatic fibrogenic effect in mice. Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) continuously for 10 weeks. α-MSH expression plasmid was delivered via ...
The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced...
Adult hepatocytes and liver-cell progenitors play a role in restoring liver tissue after injury. For the study of progenitor cells in liver repair, experimental models included (a) surgical removal of liver tissue by partial hepatectomy; (b) acute injury by carbontetrachloride; (c) acute injury by D-galactosamine (GalN) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM); and (d) chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by feeding NNM in low and high doses. Serological and immuno-histological detection of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression served to follow pathways of cellular differentiation. Stem cells were not required in models of surgical removal of parenchyma and in carbon tetrachloride intoxication of adult hepatocytes. In contrast, regeneration of liver occurred through biliary epithelial cells in injuries induced by GalN and NNM. These biliary epithelial cells, collectively called oval cells, are most probably derived from the canals of Hering. Proliferating bile duct cells reached a level of differentiation with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD11b+ Gr1+ bone marrow cells ameliorate liver fibrosis by producing interleukin-10 in mice. AU - Suh, Yang Gun. AU - Kim, Ja Kyung. AU - Byun, Jin Seok. AU - Yi, Hyon Seung. AU - Lee, Young Sun. AU - Eun, Hyuk Soo. AU - Kim, So Yeon. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Lee, Kwan Sik. AU - Duester, Gregg. AU - Friedman, Scott L.. AU - Jeong, Won Il. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Clinical trials and animal models suggest that infusion of bone marrow cells (BMCs) is effective therapy for liver fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure, especially those associated with early effects of BMCs. Here, we analyzed the early impact of BMC infusion and identified the subsets of BMCs showing antifibrotic effects in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. An interaction between BMCs and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was investigated using an in vitro coculturing system. Within 24 hours, infused BMCs were in close contact with activated HSCs, which was associated ...
1. In cirrhosis the kidney tends to retain salt and water abnormally. Two theories have been proposed to account for this: the underfilling theory, in which sodium retention is thought to occur secondary to perceived underfilling of the circulation, and the overflow theory, in which sodium retention is considered to be due to a primary renal defect. 2. Using the model of cirrhosis produced by carbon tetrachloride administration in the rat, the ability of the kidney to excrete sodium has been examined in vivo and during isolated perfusion. 3. Cirrhotic animals demonstrated a reduced ability to excrete an acute sodium load: 6 h after 2 mmol of sodium was given by gavage, 27.5 ± 10.5% had been excreted by the cirrhotic rats and 62.5 ± 7.0% by control rats (P , 0.025). 4. In contrast, during isolated perfusion, kidneys from cirrhotic animals excreted the same amount of sodium as control animals over a range of perfusion pressures from 90 to 150 mmHg (12 to 20 kPa). 5. The data are consistent ...
in Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A; Reimann, Stefan (Eds.) SPARC Report on the Mystery of Carbon Tetrachloride (2016). The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for ... [more ▼]. The Montreal Protocol (MP) controls the production and consumption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) for emissive uses. CCl4 is a major ODS, accounting for about 12% of the globally averaged inorganic chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere, compared to 14% for CFC-12 in 2012. In spite of the MP controls, there are large ongoing emissions of CCl4 into the atmosphere. Estimates of emissions from various techniques ought to yield similar numbers. However, the recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg/year (1-4 kilotonnes/year), based on ...
TITANIUM BEARING MATERIAL FLOW CONTROL IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TITIANIUM TETRACHLORIDE USING A COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK AND FEED FORWARD RESPONSES - This disclosure relates to process for controlling chlorination reactions in manufacturing titanium tetrachloride in a fluidized bed reactor, optionally followed by processing to form a titanium product comprising a minor amount of silica, the process comprising: (a) feeding carbonaceous material, titanium bearing material comprising an amount of silica, and chlorine to the fluidized bed reactor to form a gaseous stream, and condensing the gaseous stream to form titanium tetra-chloride, a non-condensed gas stream and a condensable product stream, wherein at least one of the titanium tetrachloride and the non-condensed gas stream comprise silicon tetrachloride; (b) analyzing the non-condensed gas stream, the titanium tetrachloride or both, to determine the analyzed concentration of silicon tetrachloride; (c) identifying a set point concentration of ...
Germanium tetrachloride Germanium tetrachloride IUPAC name Germanium(IV) chloride Other names Germanium chloride Tetrachlorogermane Identifiers CAS number
Natural products serve as lead molecules for development for the many popular drugs. Herbal drugs are having fewer side effects than the other class o..
Recently, the need for more standardized operation procedures in experimental liver fibrosis research was suggested due to dramatic changes in European animal welfare rules. Here, we present a short series of standard operation procedures (SOPs) summarizing the most relevant and widely accepted expe …
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If ya find exactly where to get calcium cyanimide please let us all know, I have been trying for about a year now. I have tried 3 really good ags in my area and have called several others with no luck. I asked for lime-nitrogen and also calcium cyanimide by name. One place over the phone said it was not used for fertiliser anymore and has been replaced with better nitrogen fertilisers (names not given to me). Another Ag-store said they could order it so I said OK. A few days latter they called back and said it was no longer avaible. I live in Calif.. Good luck! I really do hope you find a good source ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Ameliorative Effects of Adansonia Digitata Leaf Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl4) Induced Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Wistar Rats… 481 - 487. Oyewopo Oyetunji, Ibrahim Babatunde, Saalu Chia, Osinubi Abraham, Adewale Benard, Eweoya Olugbenga, Williams Esemekiphoraro ...
ASTM Committee D28 on Activated Carbon was formed in 1962. D28 meets twice a year, usually in April and October, with about 15 members attending two days of technical meetings. The Committee, with a current membership of approximately 35, has jurisdiction of 27 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 15.01. D28 has 3 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these standards. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role in determining acid extractable content in activated carbon by ashing, moisture in activated carbon, carbon tetrachloride activity, total ash content, ball-pan hardness, iodine number and pH of activated carbon.. ...
SiCl4 is silicon tetrachloride, which is a non-polar molecule. Silicon tetrachloride is non-polar because the four chemical bonds between silicon and chlorine are equally distributed. The even...
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Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering
The uses of carbon tetrachloride have diminished lately because it is known to be damage peoples health. People think it might damage the ozone layer. Today, it is rarely used for anything.. Previously, was used in fire extinguishers. It was also used to make freon, used in dry cleaning and as a refrigerant.. ...
Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks,
1. INTRODUCTION. Free radicals in the form of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are an integral part of normal physiology. Over-production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of the bodily antioxidant defense system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and even death. They can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio-and cerebrovascular systems (Gurdip et al., 2007). The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al., 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to offer protection against these diseases. Antioxidants are often added to foods to prevent the radical chain reactions of oxidation, and they act by inhibiting the initiation and propagation step leading to the termination of the reaction and delay the oxidation process (Shahidi et al., 1992). Cinnamon is a popular flavoring ingredient, widely used in ...
Introduction : We explored the protective effects of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced experimental liver injury in mice. Material and methods : Chronic liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4...
Many potentially toxic substances enter the body via the gastrointestinal tract (gut). As the blood supply from the gastrointestinal tract (through the portal vein) drains into the liver, the liver comes into contact with the potentially toxic substances, and this exposure will often be at a higher concentration than in other tissues. The liver is essential for the metabolic disposal of virtually all xenobiotics (foreign substances). This process is mostly achieved without injury to the liver itself or to other organs. A few compounds such as carbon tetrachloride are toxic themselves or produce metabolites that cause liver injury in a dose-dependent fashion. However, most agents cause liver injury only under special circumstances when toxic substances accumulate.
The Effects of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl_4 ) Induced Experimental Acute and Chronic Intoxication on Hystological Structure of Liver and Some Hematological Values and Electrocardiogram in Rabbits ...
Harvest cowpea plants about 2 weeks after inoculation, then homogenize at 4°C in two volumes of 0.5 M citrate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid. Express juice through cheesecloth, and add 20 ml carbon tetrachloride to every 100 ml extract. Shake the extract for 15 min, and clarify by low-speed centrifugation. Concentrate the virus by three cycles of differential centrifugation. Resuspend the pellets from high speed centrifugation in 0.01 M citrate buffer. Purify further by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation (Tsuchizaki et al., 1971).. ...
Titanium tetrachloride is a colorless, fuming liquid that is decomposed by moisture to hydrochloric acid, titanium dioxide, and heat. The toxicity of this agent is likely due to the release of hydrochloric acid. Titanium tetrachloride is corrosive to tissues ...
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