TY - JOUR. T1 - Public-Private-People Partnership as a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions fron residential development. AU - Kuronen, Matti. AU - Majamaa, Wisa. AU - Junnila, Seppo. AU - Niiranen, Ilkka. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. KW - carbon dioxide emissions. KW - energy system planning. KW - new residential developments. KW - public-private-people partnership (4P). KW - REB. UR - http://www.ijspm.vgtu.lt. U2 - 10.3846/ijspm.2010.15. DO - 10.3846/ijspm.2010.15. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 200. EP - 216. JO - International Journal of Strategic Property Management. JF - International Journal of Strategic Property Management. SN - 1648-715X. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing the effect of elevated carbon dioxide on soil carbon. T2 - A comparison of four meta-analyses. AU - Hungate, Bruce A.. AU - van Groenigen, Kees Jan. AU - Six, Johan. AU - Jastrow, Julie D.. AU - Luo, Yiqi. AU - de Graaff, Marie Anne. AU - van Kessel, Chris. AU - Osenberg, Craig W.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere and soil C has a relatively long mean residence time. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations generally increase plant growth and C input to soil, suggesting that soil might help mitigate atmospheric CO2 rise and global warming. But to what extent mitigation will occur is unclear. The large size of the soil C pool not only makes it a potential buffer against rising atmospheric CO2, but also makes it difficult to measure changes amid the existing background. Meta-analysis is one tool that can overcome the limited power of single studies. Four recent meta-analyses ...
ORNL DAAC: The results of published and unpublished experiments investigating the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on the chemistry (nitrogen and lignin concentration) of leaf litter and the decomposition of plant tissues are assembled in a format appropriate for statistical meta-analysis of the effect of carbon dioxide.
Tools such as the carbon dioxide estimator tool from the UK Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) and Aggregain have been developed to allow engineers to quantify and optimise carbon dioxide emissions associated with aggregate use. An extended WRAP tool methodology has been developed and is illustrated through assessing the relative carbon dioxide performance of different aggregate sourcing options for the large redevelopment project known as Masshouse, in the centre of Birmingham, UK. Previously unconsidered factors such as aggregate quality and highway congestion have been included. It is shown that significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved where site-derived demolition waste is reprocessed for use on site as a recycled aggregate and that relative haulage distances are of particular importance to overall carbon dioxide emissions. As these outcomes depend upon the distances to materials sources and sinks in Birmingham, it is concluded that the carbon dioxide ...
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported last week that, according to preliminary estimates, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels decreased by 1.3 percent in 2006, from 5,955 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMTCO2) in 2005 to 5,877 MMTCO2 in 2006. Energy demand fell by 0.9%, resulting in a reduction of energy intensity (energy use per unit of GDP) by 4.2%, based on a GDP growth of 3.3%. Carbon dioxide intensity (CO2 emission per unit of GDP) fell by 4.5%. Emissions were driven lower by weather conditions that reduced the demand for heating and cooling services; higher energy prices for natural gas, motor gasoline, and electricity, that reduced energy demand; and the use of a less carbon-intensive fuel mix (more natural gas and non-carbon fuels) in the generation of electricity. Through 2006, total U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have grown by 17.9 percent since 1990. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for over 80 percent of U.S. greenhouse
Numerous studies and laboratory experiments have shown that plants grown under higher carbon dioxide levels than at present do better - grow faster, bigger, use water more efficiently - than crops grown under atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This is hardly surprising since most plants, including the progenitors of modern crop varieties, evolved at times when carbon dioxide levels on earth were much higher than today.. In a recent study, scientists examined a different question, how do crops fare under conditions of lower carbon dioxide, particularly carbon dioxide levels experienced during the most recent ice age.. The study in Global Change Biology examines the effect of lower carbon dioxide levels on plant growth. The researchers grew one type of wheat, wild barley, and two types of millet from seed to harvest in a controlled environment under two carbon dioxide levels, 180 parts per million (ppm), the level of carbon dioxide during the last glacial maximum, and 270 ppm, corresponding to the ...
Moving food around uses energy. Usually oil, a non-renewable fossil fuel, is burned in lorries, planes and cars when food is transported. This puts carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As oil will run out one day, its use should be limited.. However, over in the UK, for example, only 9% of the carbon dioxide emissions related to food is from transport. Look at the chart on the right to see the other food-related contributions to carbon dioxide emission. Note that this pie chart has not included the carbon dioxide emissions involved in importing food to the UK! ...
The main reason for the relatively low specific value of carbon dioxide emissions in Stuttgart can be found in the conversion sector. Due to the very high percentage of nuclear energy (currently about 90 %), power generation contributes with only about 11 % to the total carbon dioxide emissions, even if power generation has a share of about 25 % in the total final energy consumption in Stuttgart ...
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Bintje) was exposed to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)), to ambient and elevated ozone (O(3)) and to elevated levels of both gases during two growing seasons, 1998 and 1999. Experiments in open-top chambers (OTC) were carried out in Finland, Sweden, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany and Belgium and a FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) experiment was carried out in Italy. In OTCs the plants were grown tinder ambient CO(2) concentrations or with 550 and 680 mul 1(-1) CO(2) alone or in combination with ambient or elevated 03 concentrations (target seasonal mean of 60 nl 1(-1) 8 h per day). In the FACE systems the plants were exposed to ambient or 550 mul 1(-1) CO(2). In the OTC experiments the reducing sugar content of potato tubers decreased significantly with increased concentration Of O(3). The starch content of potato tubers decreased, with negative impact on tuber quality, but the ascorbic acid concentration increased as a function of the AOT40 ...
Natural News) As if the conflicting information and endless debates about climate change and carbon dioxide levels were not confusing enough, a new study has found that carbon dioxide levels were actually much lower than previously believed during the last warm period on the planet, illustrating just how difficult it is to make conclusive statements about the topic.. Earths early Eocene period, also known as the Super Greenhouse period, was commonly believed to have concentration levels of carbon dioxide of as much as 2,000 parts per million (ppm). However, Dartmouth College researchers have discovered that it could have been less than 1,000 ppm - a difference of half! This could also mean that carbon dioxide is not the primary driver of planetary warming events, as other factors now have stronger weight on the final result.. To put this in perspective, the levels of carbon dioxide that are currently observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ...
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently been shown to affect chemosensory and auditory behaviour, and activity levels of larval reef fishes, increasing their risk of predation. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Behavioural lateralization is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, and thus provides a unique test of the hypothesis that elevated CO2 affects brain function in larval fishes. We tested the effect of near-future CO2 concentrations (880 μatm) on behavioural lateralization in the reef fish, Neopomacentrus azysron. Individuals exposed to current-day or elevated CO2 were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. No preference for right or left turns was observed at the population level. However, individual control fish turned either left or right with greater frequency than expected by chance. Exposure to elevated-CO2 disrupted individual lateralization, with values that were not different from a random ...
The increasing acidification of ocean waters caused by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could rob sharks of their ability to sense the smell of food, a new study suggests.. Elevated carbon dioxide levels impaired the odor-tracking behavior of the smooth dogfish, a shark whose range includes the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern United States. Adult sharks significantly avoided squid odor after swimming in a pool of water treated with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide concentrations tested are consistent with climate forecasts for midcentury and 2100. The study suggests that predator-prey interactions in nature could be influenced by elevated carbon dioxide concentrations of ocean waters.. The sharks tracking behavior and attacking behavior were significantly reduced, said Danielle Dixson, an assistant professor in the School of Biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. Sharks are like swimming noses, so chemical cues are really important for them in terms of finding ...
If deep-sea ocean sequestration becomes a common practice, long term effects will continue to be investigated to predict future scenarios of deep sea impacts by carbon dioxide.[21] Ocean sequestration of liquid carbon dioxide would not only impact deep-sea ecosystems, but in the long-run would begin to affect surface-water species.[21] It is estimated that organisms not fit for high carbon dioxide levels will begin to experience permanent effects at levels of 400/500ppm of carbon dioxide and/or shifts of 0.1-0.3 units in pH.[19] These levels of carbon dioxide are predicted to be met solely as a result of atmospheric carbon dioxide acidifying the surface waters over a matter of a century, without considering ocean sequestration effects.[19] Although the long-term effects are the most relevant to understand, they are also the most difficult to predict accurately due to the scale of the ocean and the diversity in species sensitivity to elevated carbon dioxide levels. Surface sea organisms have been ...
In the present paper, different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were developed to model the carbon dioxide emission by using time series data of forty-four years from 1972-2015. The performance of these developed models was assessed with the help of different selection measure criteria and the model having minimum value of these criteria considered as the best forecasting model. Based on findings, it has been observed that out of different ARIMA models, ARIMA (0, 2, 1) is the best fitted model in predicting the emission of carbon dioxide in Bangladesh. Using this best fitted model, the forecasted value of carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, for the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 as obtained from ARIMA (0, 2, 1) was obtained as 83.94657 Metric Tons, 89.90464 Metric Tons and 96.28557 Metric Tons respectively.
Mizumura, K.; Sato, J.; Kumazawa, T., 1986: Continuous recording of arterial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure and pressure carbon dioxide partial pressure and ph of the cerebrospinal fluid during acute exposure to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide partial pressure environment in dogs
article{reference_tag, author = Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Diego Rybski & Jürgen P. Kropp, title = Effects of changing population or density on urban carbon dioxide emissions, journal = Nature Communications, year = 2019, abstract = The question of whether urbanization contributes to increasing carbon dioxide emissions has been mainly investigated via scaling relationships with population or population density. However, these approaches overlook the correlations between population and area, and ignore possible interactions between these quantities. Here, we propose a generalized framework that simultaneously considers the effects of population and area along with possible interactions between these urban metrics. Our results significantly improve the description of emissions and reveal the coupled role between population and density on emissions. These models show that variations in emissions associated with proportionate changes in population or density may not only depend on the magnitude of ...
Graph and download economic data for Transportation Carbon Dioxide Emissions, LPG (Fuel Use) for Texas (EMISSCO2VHLACBTXA) from 1980 to 2017 about carbon dioxide emissions, used, fuels, transportation, TX, and USA.
Graph and download economic data for Coefficient for Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Residual Fuel for Massachusetts (EMISSCO2CRFICBMAA) from 1980 to 2017 about coefficient, carbon dioxide emissions, residual, fuels, MA, industry, and USA.
US energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined by 2.8% in 2019 to 5,130 million metric tons, according to data in the US Energy Information Administrations Monthly Energy Review. Carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 2.9% in 2018, the only annual increase in the past 5 years.
The possible consequences of very high carbon dioxide concentrations in the earths early atmosphere have been investigated with a radiative-convective climate model. The early atmosphere would apparently have been stable against the onset of a runaway greenhouse (that is, the complete evaporation of the oceans) for carbon dioxide pressures up to at least 100 bars. A 10- to 20-bar carbon dioxide atmosphere, such as may have existed during the first several hundred million years of the earths history, would have had a surface temperature of approximately 85 degrees to 110 degrees C. The early stratosphere should have been dry, thereby precluding the possibility of an oxygenic prebiotic atmosphere caused by photodissociation of water vapor followed by escape of hydrogen to space. Earths present atmosphere also appears to be stable against a carbon dioxide-induced runaway greenhouse. ...
0011] According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a carbon dioxide gas recovery device including: an absorption tower that is configured to introduce a carbon dioxide-containing gas containing carbon dioxide gas and a lean absorbent, bring the carbon dioxide-containing gas and the lean absorbent into contact with each other, and cause the absorbent to absorb carbon dioxide gas in the carbon dioxide-containing gas to generate a rich absorbent; and a regeneration tower that is configured to regenerate the lean absorbent by heating the rich absorbent supplied from the absorption tower to separate carbon dioxide gas from the rich absorbent, wherein the regeneration tower includes: a reboiler system that is configured to lead the absorbent from the regeneration tower, heat the led absorbent, and reintroduce the resultant absorbent into the regeneration tower; and a mixed gas cooling system that is configured to lead a mixed gas of carbon dioxide gas and a vapor fraction of a solute and ...
Carbon Dioxide Emissions have reached a record high over the year of 2018. New outlets everywhere are covering the alarming reports. To find out more about why 2018 has promoted rising carbon dioxide levels than ever before, check out the following links.. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2018/12/05/carbon-dioxide-earths-atmosphere-soars-highest-level-millions-years/2215508002/. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/nov/22/climate-heating-greenhouse-gases-at-record-levels-says-un. ...
These global volcanic estimates are utterly dwarfed by carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, gas flaring and land use changes; these emissions accounted for some 36,300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide in 2008, according to an international study published in the December 2009 issue of Nature Geoscience. Even if you take the highest estimate of volcanic carbon dioxide emissions, at 270 million metric tons per year, human-emitted carbon dioxide levels are more than 130 times higher than volcanic emissions.. Occasionally, scaled-down versions of the myth surface - for example, Volcanoes produce more carbon dioxide than the worlds cars and industries combined. The truth is that data from the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Energy Agency indicate that light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, SUVs, vans, wagons) contribute about 3,040 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, and ...
Meteorologists have determined exactly how much carbon dioxide humans can emit into the atmosphere while ensuring that the earth does not heat up by more than two degrees. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated projected temperature changes for various scenarios in 2007 and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg have now gone one step further: they have developed a new model that specifies the maximum volumes of carbon dioxide that humans may emit to remain below the critical threshold for climate warming of two degrees Celsius. To do this, the scientists incorporated into their calculations data relating to the carbon cycle, namely the volume of carbon dioxide absorbed and released by the oceans and forests. The aim of the international ENSEMBLES project is to simulate future changes in the global climate and carbon dioxide emissions and thereby to obtain more reliable threshold values on this basis. (Climatic Change, July 21, 2010). The ...
Theres striking new evidence that Earths atmosphere is increasingly saturated with carbon dioxide, the major gas from fossil fuel emissions that trigger climate change. The rise of carbon dioxide levels above 400 parts per million is an indicator that the problem of global warming is getting worse, not better, said Mark Z . Jacobson, a Stanford atmospheric scientist and environmental engineer, in an e-mail. Failure to convert will result in a growing risk of economic, social and political instability as warming and air pollution worsens while fossil-fuel prices rise.
One of the more difficult issues in the debate over policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is calculating the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint. In this paper, we calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. We find: 1) Replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to achieve a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. 2) Unless there is a technological breakthrough in carbon sequestration, the carbon intensity of coal means that clean coal cannot be a significant factor in reducing carbon dioxide. Replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can only reduce total carbon dioxide by 5 percent. 3) The distribution of the efficiency of coal generators in the United States is very concentrated. This concentration restricts the range over which carbon dioxide prices effectively manage the ...
List of Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Carbon Dioxide / Monoxide) companies, manufacturers and suppliers for the Oil, Gas and Refineries industry in Georgia (US) on Air and Climate - Environmental XPRT
Steadily increasing global atmospheric CO2 levels have been shown to affect important plant traits including growth and secondary (defensive) chemistry. This study used 10 maternal families of wild mustard, Brassica nigra, to investigate: 1) whether levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolics) increase and nitrogen-based defenses (protease inhibitors) decrease in Brassica nigra under elevated CO2, as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance Hypothesis; 2) whether B. nigra encounters nitrogen-based trade-offs between investment in chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitors, or between investment in these chemical defenses and growth; 3) if so, whether trade-offs are more severe under elevated CO2; 4) whether elevated CO2 will affect the evolutionary potential of carbon-based and nitrogen-based chemical defenses. Results suggest that total biomass of Brassica nigra will increase under elevated CO2. In contrast to the predictions of the CNB Hypothesis, there was no evidence that levels of carbon-based defenses
Alternative Energy Guest Article… While skyrocketing carbon dioxide emissions get all of the attention, theres an equally grave ecological problem: ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is climate changes evil twin, and if we dont curb our carbon footprint, the damage on the marine ecosystem will be irreparable, notes ocean conservation group Oceana. Unbalanced pH Nearly 70 percent of the Earths surface is covered in water and, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, 96.5 percent of our planets water is held in the oceans. Nearly 30 percent of the carbon dioxide that pollutes…. Read More ...
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are bolstering plant life throughout the world, environmental scientists report in a newly published peer-reviewed study. The findings, published in Geophysical Research Letters, are gleaned from satellite measurements of global plant life, and contradict assertions by activists that global warming is causing deserts to expand, along with devastating droughts.. A team of scientists led by environmental physicist Randall Donohue, a research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia, analyzed satellite data from 1982 through 2010. The scientists documented a carbon dioxide fertilization effect that has caused a gradual greening of the Earth, and particularly the Earths arid regions, since 1982. The satellite data showed rising carbon dioxide levels caused a remarkable 11 percent increase in foliage in arid regions since 1982, versus what would be the case if atmospheric carbon dioxide levels had remained ...
• The carbon dioxide gas is temporarily converted to carbonic acid in red blood cells by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and then further converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. • The result of increased carbon dioxide is decreased pH causing the Bohr effect. • Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance unbinding of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin thereby making oxygen available for actively metabolizing cells. • By contrast, decreased carbon dioxide, as in the alveolar spaces, increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen and promotes oxygen loading and transport. • To a limited degree, changes in temperature affect the association and dissociation of O2 with hemoglobin. • The oxygen carrying ability of hemoglobin is unaffected by normal temperatures. • Near metabolically active cells, blood temperature rises, increasing the thermal motion of molecules which promotes the unloading of O2 to continue fueling aerobic metabolism in the tissue cells. • When temperature lowers,
This documentary paints a clear picture to me that no matter what we do now as human beings, because of our release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere, we will continue to move into an era of a hotter planet. This means higher sea levels and warmer temperatures globally. The documentary does not address the volatility of the weather and weather extremes, but from other research, reading, and both documentary viewing and podcast listening I understand thats also a piece of our future together.. About 33 minutes into the documentary, I loved the exploration which highlighted the temperature variability of our planet over the past 500 years.. At about 1 hour and 4 minutes, I loved the sequence and story of an incredible earth core sample taken from the middle of a Russian lake in the middle of the winter, and all that it revealed and confirmed about our planets climate history.. At about 1 hour and 25 minutes, the sequence of showing how carbon dioxide levels are measured ...
It has been suggested that antioxidants play a role in regulating or modulating senescence dynamics of plant tissues. Ethylene has been shown to promote early plant senescence while controlled atmospheres (CA; reduced O2 levels and elevated CO2 levels) can delay its onset and/or severity. In order to examine the possible importance of various antioxidants in the regulation of senescence, detached spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves were stored for 35 d at 10 °C in one of three different atmospheres: (1) ambient air (0.3% CO2, 21.5% O2, 78.5% N2), (2) ambient air+10 ppm ethylene to promote senescence, or (3) CA (10% CO2, 0.8% O2 and 89.2% N2) to delay senescence. At weekly intervals, material was assessed for activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.4), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC ...
If you give off carbon dioxide emissions, you may need to pay a carbon tax. In which case, it is reasonable to be paid to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.. The latest report from the IPCC was clear. We need to drastically reduce emissions of greenhouse gases already today if global climate targets are to be achievable. One way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and raised in the report is to use so called negative emissions, that is to say, in one way or other, to be able to suck the carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it.. One way of doing this is to cultivate vegetation that uses carbon dioxide from the air to grow. If you then burn this vegetation, you can produce district heating and electricity, but you can also get carbon dioxide emissions, the same amount as the vegetation has locked in. But if instead of releasing the carbon dioxide, it can be captured and stored, you will then have created a carbon sink. You can also convert vegetation into biochar, ...
A consortium led by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a new technology that captures the carbon dioxide emissions of power plants more economically and ecologically. The International Energy Agency IEA regards carbon dioxide capture as essential if the emission reduction targets set for greenhouse gases are to be met.
TY - GEN. T1 - Policies for effective trading scheme to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. AU - Wong, Kaufui V.. AU - Plackemeier, John. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The World Bank and the Intergovernmental panel on climate change have concluded that human activities such as fossil fuel combustion have caused higher average temperatures, more violent weather patterns and higher sea levels. Governments, politicians and corporations have started to take steps to curb emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to reduce its imbalance in the atmosphere, and in so doing, diminish the impacts it will have in the near future. While these parties have recognized the importance of significantly reducing emissions in the coming decades, there are currently no policies in the USA to accomplish these goals. At the same time that the need to reduce emissions become more and more apparent, the realization that the worlds current economy is highly carbon-dependent and that shifting to ...
South Surrey, British Columbia-based Mantra Energy Alternatives has reached an agreement with Lafarge Canada to deploy an electrochemical reduction technology at its No. 9 Road cement plant in Richmond, B.C., as part of a pilot project. The technology will convert carbon dioxide emissions into useful chemicals, such as formic acid and formate salts.. This will be the first pilot plant of its kind in the world, said Mantras Vice President Patrick Dodd in a press release. If the system works as advertised it could be deployed at all of Lafarges facilities.. The pilot plant will convert 100 kg/day of carbon dioxide emitted from the cement plant into concentrated formate salts. Mantra plans to use the formic acid for use in its patented fuel cells, which it bills as a significantly less expensive fuel cell with greater power density.. Colin Oloman and Hui Li of the Clean Energy Research Centre developed the technology at the University of British Columbia. Mantra Venture Group then purchased it ...
Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO(2)-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO(2)-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that ...
Russell Long, executive director of the Bluewater Network, a San Francisco-based environmental group that proposed the bill, said some states are regulating carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. But no other state has tried to control carbon dioxide from autos, he said ...
growth and gas-exchange of three C4 species differing in CO2 leak rates. Physiol. Plant. 105: 74-80. Sicher, R. C. 1999. Photosystem-II activity is decreased by yellowing of barley primary leaves during growth in elevated carbon dioxide. Int. J. Plant Sci. 160: 849-854. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce, J. A. 1999. Photosynthetic enhancement and conductance to water vapor of field-grown Solanum tuberosum (L.) in response to CO2 enrichment. Photosyn. Res. 62: 155-163. Sicher, R. C. and Bunce J.A. 1999. Protein adjustments in wheat flag leaves in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. In: Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects. Proceedings of the XI International Congress on Photosynthesis, G. Garab, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, vol. V, 4744 pp. (Conference Proceeding). Bunce, J. A. and Sicher, R. C. Water stress and day-to-day variation in apparent photosynthetic acclimation of field-grown soybeans to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Photosynthetica 39: 95-101. 2001 ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We use a model of domestic and international tourist numbers and flows to estimate the impact of the recent and proposed changes in the Air Passenger Duty (APD) of the United Kingdom. We look at four different scenarios (abolishing the APD, keeping the 2001 APD level, the 2007 APD and the Conservative Partys Green Miles proposal) using base, high and very high elasticity levels as well as assumptions about the substitutability between domestic and international holidays and the effects of a carbon tax. We find that the recent doubling of the APD has the perverse effect of increasing carbon dioxide emissions, albeit only slightly, because it reduces the relative price difference between near and far holidays. Tourists arriving into the UK would fall slightly. The number of tourists travelling from the UK would fall in the countries near to the UK, and this drop would be only partly offset by displaced tourists from the UK. Tourists leaving the UK for countries further
We wanted to know how cassava copes with elevated carbon dioxide, said RIPE Deputy Director Donald Ort, Robert Emerson Professor of Crop Sciences and Plant Biology at Illinois Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology. Sometimes, plants cannot make use of extra carbohydrates, which then triggers the plant to down-regulate photosynthesis. We found cassava could maintain photosynthetic efficiency and nutritional quality.. To take in carbon dioxide, plants open tiny pores in their leaves (called stomata) that allow water to exit through transpiration. This study found that when carbon dioxide levels increase from 400 to 600 ppm, cassava leaves could conserve 58 percent more water on average by optimizing stomatal conductance, which is the rate that carbon enters compared to water exiting the leaf.. Cassavas natural ability to produce high yields with little water is part of what makes this crop a staple in drought-prone regions across sub-Saharan Africa, said co-author Amanda De Souza, a ...
Problem  Clean natural environment is a public good  Environmental pollution generates complex external effects  Housing causes 15 % of total CO 2 Emission in Germany  External effects especially carbon dioxide emissions caused by residential heating and air- conditioning have to be internalised  Therefore residents in the European Union are living in a carbon-constrained world (e.g. European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive EPBD)  Internalisation of the external effects comes at a cost, both politically and economically  Most common recommendation in environmental economics: polluters pay a fee based on the volume of pollution they create (polluter-pays-principle)  However, it is not always possible to identify the polluter  If possible, it is not always economical feasible to refinance investments in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  Needed: financial burden-sharing model between owners, occupants and the public  Analysis and data based on housing
Carbon dioxide levels have risen so much in the last 150 years that plant pores, which plants effectively breathe through have decreased in size by up to 34%. As a result plants are restricted in the amount of water vapor that they release into the atmosphere.
A senior scientist at NOAAs Global Monitoring Laboratory, Pieter Tans, said that if there had not been an economic slowdown, it would have been the highest increase on record. As things current stand, the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are at a point comparable to the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period, when the temperature was 7 degrees hotter and the sea level was roughly 78 feet higher than today ...
A normal carbon dioxide level for humans is 23 to 29 milliequivalents per liter, states MedlinePlus. CO2 is primarily found in the form of bicarbonate. A b
Data & statistics on Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Unit of GDP: CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020, EU-25 CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP - Scenario Comparison, Development of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP in the period 2000-2050...
TY - PAT. T1 - Sensor for measuring carbon dioxide levels in gases or liquids comprises a basic acceptor which is a polybasic inorganic anion or an organic anion. AU - Klimant, Ingo. AU - Brinz, Thomas. AU - Lewis, Jane. AU - Apostolidis, Athanas. AU - Wolfbeis, Otto. N1 - Anmelder: Robert Bosch GmbH;. PY - 2007/9/14. Y1 - 2007/9/14. M3 - Patent. M1 - CH 696675 A5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. AU - Hannan, Kelly D.. AU - Jeffrey, Jennifer D.. AU - Hasler, Caleb T.. AU - Suski, Cory D.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis ...
Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited goldEffect of supercritical carbon dioxide on micro-mechanical properties of electrodesposited gold ...
Effects of Probiotic Additions to Feed and Manure on Temperature, Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Hanwoo Manure during Summer - A Field Study - Probiotics;Temperature;Humidity;Carbon dioxide emission;Feed;Hanwoo manure;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles formed from supercritical carbon dioxide mediated sol-emulsion-gel method. AU - Lee, Jun Young. AU - Kim, Jung Hyun. PY - 2004/5/5. Y1 - 2004/5/5. N2 - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers faithful preparation of nanoparticles (35-90 nm in diameter) having pores of 1-3 nm in radius and high specific surface area (over 2000 m2/g).. AB - Highly porous organic nanoparticles have been prepared by adapting a novel method, sol-emulsion-gel process, through stable dispersion of nanometer-scaled emulsion droplets into continuous phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2), sol-gel chemistry in emulsion droplets, and then supercritical drying. This principle offers ...
Relationship between serum total carbon dioxide concentration and bicarbonate concentration in patients undergoing hemodialysis - Acid base balance;Bicarbonate;Hemodialysis;Serum total carbon dioxide
Subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations popular in Central und Eastern Europe are a safe and inexpensive treatment modality in complementary medicine and are used mainly in musculoskeletal pain and vascular conditions. However, no rigorous trial exists on their efficacy.. The study is designed as a double blind sham controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether patients with acute non specific neck pain get pain free sooner, if treated with subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations compared to sham ultrasound.Since acute non specific neck pain is often self limiting, speed of recovery rather than outcome at fixed points in time is evaluated.. Participants receive either a maximum number of 9 subcutaneous carbon dioxide insufflations or a maximum number of 9 sham ultrasound administered by 4 therapists in a randomized order, thrice weekly. Carbon dioxide gas is insufflated subcutaneously at the locations of neck muscle tenderness. Per tender location 25 ml carbon dioxide gas is ...
Investigators evaluate the effect of patient position (Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg) on arterial, end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure is assessed intermittently before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. End-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure are continuously monitored ...
Background. There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO(2)) monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO(2) and PtcCO(2) in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries.. Methods. Eighteen adult patients who underwent thoracic surgeries with one-lung ventilation longer than two hours were included in this study. Their PetCO(2), PtcCO(2), and PaCO2 values were collected at five time points before and during one-lung ventilation. Agreement among measures was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis.. Results. Ninety sample sets were obtained. The bias and precision when PtcCO(2) and PaCO2 were compared were 4.1 +/- ...
Bush/ shrub encroachment is a great concern for rangeland managers in southern African savannas, especially because there is still no consensus about the main mechanisms behind the spread of woody species at the expense of grasses. Although much work has been done on the effects of fire, grazing, water and nutrient availability on rangeland productivity, the role of climate change, namely changes in CO2 concentrations and rainfall, and their potential interaction with manageable factors, such as grazing and fire, is not understood. This study focuses on investigating the combined role of elevated CO2, drought and land use on the balance between shrubs and grasses in southern African savannas. We used a climate gradient in Namibia, to set up experiments at a nested scale of realism and detail. I conducted semi-controlled to more controlled experiments in Germany, in the greenhouse and climate chambers, respectively. Here, the intention was to investigate how tree-grass interactions at a seedling ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does greening of neotropical cities considerably mitigate carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Medellin, Colombia. AU - Reynolds, Carley C.. AU - Escobedo, Francisco J.. AU - Clerici, Nicola. AU - Zea-Camaño, Jorge. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Cities throughout the world are advocating highly promoted tree plantings as a climate change mitigation measure. Assessing the carbon offsets associated with urban trees relative to other climate change policies is vital for sustainable development, planning, and solving environmental and socio-economic problems, but is difficult in developing countries. We estimated and assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, sequestration, and emission offsets by public trees in the Medellin Metropolitan Area, Colombia, as a viable Nature-Based Solution for the Neotropics. While previous studies have discussed nature-based solutions and explored urban tree carbon dynamics in high income countries, few have been conducted in tropical cities in ...
Although increased concentrations of CO2 stimulate photosynthesis, this stimulation is often lost during prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, leading to an attenuation of the potential gain in yield. Under these conditions, a wide variety of species accumulates non-structural carbohydrates in leaves. It has been proposed that starch accumulation directly inhibits photosynthesis, that the rate of sucrose and starch synthesis limits photosynthesis, or that accumulation of sugars triggers changes in gene expression resulting in lower activities of Rubisco and inhibition of photosynthesis. To distinguish these explanations, transgenic plants unable to accumulate transient starch due to leaf mesophyll-specific antisense expression of AGP B were grown at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. There was a positive correlation between the capacity for starch synthesis and the rate of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 concentrations, showing that the capability to synthesize leaf starch is essential for
The need is pressing to investigate soil CO2(carbon dioxide) emissions and soil organic carbon dynamics under water-saving irrigation practices in agricultural systems for exploring the potentials...
The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m -3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m -3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with ...
Rice has won a $3.3 million Department of Energy grant to develop a method to convert natural gas into carbon nanotubes for materials that can replace metals in large-scale applications. The goal is to save energy and stem carbon dioxide emissions from metal manufacturing while concurrently generating clean hydrogen and fixing fossil-sourced carbon in solid materials.
Capturing carbon dioxide under the cryogenic conditions has attracted more attention in the industrial applications. Despite of several large scale studies, the cryogenic carbon dioxide capture has not been well studied for the small scale power generation systems. In this study, a cryogenic carbon dioxide system is proposed for the small scale applications. The liquid carbon dioxide is collected in the liquefied natural gas vaporizer during the regasification process. The proposed design is simulated for the 30, 65, and 200 kW microturbines. In addition to the liquid carbon dioxide, the condensed water and the gas mixture of nitrogen-oxygen are collected as the byproducts of the system. The best carbon dioxide capture ratio is aimed with the minimum energy losses since the generated power rate is a key criterion. The proposed systems are evaluated according to the thermodynamic, environmental, and enviroeconomic perspectives. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, the systems are found feasible ...
An end tidal carbon dioxide addition device coupling to a nasal cannula used on patients under general anesthesia or sedated, to continuously measure the carbon dioxide content of the expired breath. A first embodiment device has a body a pair of nasal ducts with clips to attach to a nasal cannula. A pair of oral ducts collects exhaled oral gases which are combined with the nasal gasses to be analyzed for tidal carbon dioxide content. A pair of posts adjacent the oral ducts stabilize the device on a sedated patient. A second embodiment integrates a nasal cannula with the body to provide an economical disposable device and substitutes a flattened region with an array of apertures for the oral ducts.
Power plants in Texas are among those that lead the nation in emissions that contribute to global warming and pollution, according to a new report.. The report, Benchmarking Air Emmissions, compiled by M.J. Bradley & Associates, a Massachusetts energy consulting firm, examines air emissions from plants owned by the top 100 merchant power companies in the U.S. Houstons Exelon is fourth; NRG Energy is eighth; Calpine Corp. is tenth and Dynegy is eleventh. Many power plants, particularly those that are coal-fired, produce sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, mercury and nitrogen oxides, which contribute to pollution, global warming and respiratory problems. As of 2015, power plants accounted for more than half of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the U.S. and 38 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions, according to the study.. Most the countrys emissions from power plants came from a handful of the top companies - nearly a quarter of the power industrys sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions ...
Look! Oatly cartons come with carbon dioxide …. We made a nice webpage all about the carbon dioxide equivalents were sticking on the front of our packages and why we want the food industry to join us. Hey food industry! Show us your nuers. Now, the one problem with all these nuers is they dont really 7 surprising things about the carbon footprint of your food. 2018/6/13· Everything we buy has a carbon footprint and food is no exception. Yearly, we produce five billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent from crop and livestock production. From seed to mouth, it can be easy to forget how much in terms of production goes into our Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen , Food Storage FAQ, …. Carbon dioxide (CO 2) and nitrogen (N 2) are commonly used in packaging both fresh and shelf-stable foods, in order to extend their shelf lives. Fresh foods are outside the scope of this work so attention shall be focused on those foods suitable for use in storage. Carbon dioxide emissions still rising in the Vale ...
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of increasing the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide on plant growth and leaf rust severity (caused by Hemileia vastatrix) on coffee (Coffea arabica). The Obata IAC 1669-20 and Catuai Vermelho IAC 144 cultivars, moderately resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively, were used. The treatments consisted of 400 and 508 mu mol mol(-1) atmospheric CO2, in two types of open-top chambers (OTC). Plants of the two cultivars, grown in OTCs with addition of CO2, showed increased leaf area, and increased growth rate of height and stem diameter, in comparison with plants in OTCs with ambient CO2 concentration; however, the cultivars did not differ for leaf-wax content. On Catuai Vermelho IAC 144, rust severity reduced at increased CO2 concentration, for number of lesions, lesioned leaf area, number of sporulated lesions, sporulated leaf area, percentage of lesioned area, and area under disease progress curve; however, on Obata ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modeling of diffusivities in supercritical carbon dioxide using a linear solvation energy relationship. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Wang, Xiuyun. AU - Smith, Richard L.. PY - 2005/8/1. Y1 - 2005/8/1. N2 - A linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) method was used to develop a predictive model for the diffusivities of organic solutes in supercritical CO2 at infinite dilution. The LSER model was based on the diffusivities of 18 solutes and 104 data points for sc-CO2 in the range of 32-60°C and 8-100 MPa. The independent variables in the model were empirically determined descriptors of the solute molecules and the dipolarity/polarizability of CO2 at a given density. The model was tested for prediction accuracy by using the diffusivities of 10 solutes not included in the database. The model provided relative deviations less than 10% in the correlation and prediction of the diffusivities in supercritical CO 2 of the organic solutes considered. The accuracy of the proposed LSER model is ...
Synopsis During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene Series of the Cenozoic Era, 3.6 to 2.2 Ma (million years ago), the Arctic was much warmer than it is at the present day (with summer temperatures from 3.6-3.4 Ma some 8oC warmer than today). That is a key finding of research into a lake-sediment core obtained in Eastern Siberia, which is of exceptional importance because it has provided the longest continuous late Cenozoic land-based sedimentary record thus far. The sedimentary sequence dates from recent times back to 3.6 Ma when the lake was formed by a large extraterrestrial impact. During the warm period, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were close to those of today, at around 400 parts per million, indicative of a strong climate sensitivity signal in the Arctic, which has again warmed very rapidly in recent decades. The lake sediment record has thus provided us with a snapshot of how the Arctic may look in the near future.
Carbon Capture and Storage: Carbon Dioxide Pressure Dissipates in Underground Reservoirs, Study Shows. The debate surrounding carbon capture and storage intensifies as scientists from the Earth Sciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) examine the capacity for storing carbon dioxide underground, in a study published today in the new journal Greenhouse Gases: Science & Technology.. The study debates some of the conclusions drawn in an earlier study by Ehlig-Economides and Economides1, countering their claims that carbon dioxide cannot feasibly be stored underground. These earlier findings, according to the Berkeley Lab researchers, only considered closed-system subsurface formations, with limited mechanisms for relieving the pressure.. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is controversial in the eyes of the general public. Pressure build-up in the subsurface induced by the injection of carbon dioxide from industrial-scale projects is a key constraint for the amount ...
RH Alasbahi , The present paper deals with a literature review of the different aspects of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). It summarized the general properties of SFE as an advanced and excellent alternative to conventional extractions methods, as well as the advantage and disadvantage of using supercritical CO2 as an environmentally safe and effective solvent. The study also covered the different applications of SFE in food and pharmaceutical processing, and to extract valuable compounds with bioactivities such as antioxidant, antitumor and antibacterial from plant species as well as to produce valuable compounds form industry by-products and new functional ingredients that can be used by the food industry. The study also highlighted the use of SFE in food safety and environmental protection such as the detection/quantification as well as the removal of food and environmental pollutants.. ...
0057]Use of a carbon dioxide supplying means for muscle strengthening in accordance with the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it allows a living body to absorb carbon dioxide. However, a local absorption means is preferred. An example of the carbon dioxide supplying means for allowing a living body to absorb carbon dioxide may include the followings. [0058](1) A composition for preparing carbon dioxide agents for external use, for example, carbon dioxide agents for external use obtained from the following a) and b): a) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide agent for external use characterized by comprising a substance generating an acid after being hydrolyzed, a carbonate, a thickener, and water as essential components, and further comprising a gelating agent being gelated by calcium ion, and a water-insoluble or poorly-soluble calcium salt (National Publication of International Patent Application No. 2006/80398), or b) a composition for preparing a carbon dioxide ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the gas: liquid ratio (GLR) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced-ventilated trickling filter (TF) used as bioreactor. The effect of 8 different GLRs (1.2-15.7) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss from water passing a trickling filter were tested in random order. The TF was part of a pilot scale fresh water intensive recirculating aquaculture system and had a media bed height of 1.8 m, a diameter of 0.9 m, a specific surface area of 200 m2/m3 and was operated at a fixed hydraulic surface load of 9.42 m3/m2.h, a mean inlet water temperature of 27.0-27.5 °C, and a mean inlet pH ranging from 7.02-7.12. For each GLR, CO2 removal from water was calculated from CO2 measurements in the inlet and outlet air of the TF using an online infrared probe (developed for agriculture and greenhouses) and from 12 water measurements done once every 3 h during 2 subsequent days. The water inlet CO2 concentrations varied between ...
A theory for the ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (PCO2) is related to the external CO2 input (Δ∑C) at air-sea equilibrium by: PCO2 = 280 ppm exp(Δ∑C/[IA + IO/R]), where IA, IO, and R are the pre-industrial values of the atmospheric CO2 inventory, the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon inventory, and the Revelle buffer factor of seawater, respectively. This analytical expression is tested with two- and three-box ocean models, as well as for a version of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MIT GCM) with a constant circulation field, and found to be valid by at least 10% accuracy for emissions lower than 4500 GtC. This relationship provides the stable level that PCO2 reaches for a given emission size, until atmospheric carbon is reduced on weathering timescales. On the basis of the MIT GCM, future carbon emissions must be restricted to a total of 700 ...
Enzymes have been used in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) rather than in the conventional media to make enzyme reactions greener. This review introduces some enzymatic asymmetric synthesis in scCO2 such as esterification by a lipase and reduction by an alcohol dehydrogenase. A carboxylation by a decarbo
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective extraction of phospholipids from whey protein phospholipid concentrate using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol as a co-solvent. AU - Sprick, B.. AU - Linghu, Z.. AU - Amamcharla, J. K.. AU - Metzger, L. E.. AU - Smith, J. S.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center (St. Paul, MN) for their financial support. This project is Kansas State Research and Extension contribution number 18-150-J. This work was partially supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project 1014344. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. N2 - In recent years, using dairy phospholipids (PL) as functional ingredients has increased because PL have nutritional benefits and functional properties. In this study, a novel 2-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was used to extract whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC), a dairy co-product obtained during the manufacture of whey protein isolate, for PL enrichment. In the first step, ...
Jennifer Wilcox, the University of Pennsylvanias new Presidential Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering and Energy Policy, is one of the worlds leading experts on carbon capture. While reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the prime goal in addressing the planets mounting climate crisis, the problem now must be addressed on both sides by removing carbon that has already been released into the atmosphere.. To that end, Wilcox played a key role in the publication of a free, digital publication on the subject. This Carbon Dioxide Removal Primer is written to reach a broad audience in an effort to maximize the adoption of these techniques.. Avoiding carbon and actively removing it from the atmosphere on the scale of gigatons will ultimately be required for meeting our climate goals, says Wilcox. It is my hope that this primer will help in creating the human capital required to meet this gigaton-scale challenge.. Wilcox, who has appointments in the Kleinman Center for Energy Policy, ...
A. Generally. By this regulation, the Virginia Racing Commission prohibits the feeding or administration to a horse on race day of any bicarbonate-containing substance or other alkalinizing substance that effectively alters the serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonates or carbon dioxide in the horse. B. Test values. A serum or plasma total carbon dioxide level exceeding 37.0 millimoles per liter constitutes a positive test. C. Testing procedure. The stewards or commission veterinarian may, at their discretion and at any time, order the collection of test samples from any horses present within the enclosure for determination of serum or plasma pH or concentration of bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, or electrolytes. Preracing testing or post-race testing may be done at a time and manner directed by the commission veterinarian. Whether prerace or post-race, the sample shall consist of at least two blood tubes taken from the horse to determine the serum total carbon dioxide concentration. If ...
This Tutorial Review focuses on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), and discusses some of the problems that have frustrated its wide use on an industrial scale. It gives some recent examples where strategies have been developed to reduce the energy requirements, including sequential reactions and gas-expan Green Chemistry
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: End-Tidal CO2, End-Tidal pCO2, EtCO2, End Tidal Carbon Dioxide, End-Tidal CO2 Concentration, Expired Carbon Dioxide Concentration, Capnography, End Tidal Carbon Dioxide Tension, Capnometry, Infrared Capnography.
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton cycles can be used in conjunction with a host of heat sources associated with different magnitudes of net power generation. In this paper, the overall design features of the turbomachinery, namely the turbine and compressor are evaluated for kilowatt to Gigawatt range of net cycle power using a commercial design tool - AxSTREAM®. The thermodynamic cycle considered in all cases is a simple recuperated Brayton cycle with turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 540 °C and 45 °C respectively. The highest and lowest pressures in the cycle are 210 bar and 85 bar respectively. The preliminary design is carried out using an inverse algorithm with a meanline solver that generates many geometries for the given boundary conditions using standard loss correlations to account for different losses in turbomachines. It, thus, provides the general design features of the compressor and turbine which include - machine size, shaft speed at design point, overall ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mass transfer studies on the dehydration of supercritical carbon dioxide using dense polymeric membranes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The removal of excess water from organic materials, specifically distillers grains, employing the use of supercritical carbon dioxide. The method includes the use of a heat exchanger system which is a
Phytantriol-based organogels as a new type of immobilisation matrix were tested for their potential application as solid-phase catalysts with both isooctane and supercritical carbon dioxide as external solvents. It was shown that Mucor miehei lipase immobilised in such organogels is capable of catalysing the esterification of 1-propanol and lauric acid in both solvents. In order to determine the operational stability of the immobilised lipase in phytantriol-based organogels, reuse experiments were conducted in isooctane. They showed that the catalytic activity is quite well preserved despite the fact that a loss of phytantriol occurs due to its extraction from the gel ...
TY - GEN. T1 - A Novel Process for the Production of Polyolefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. AU - Kemmere, M.F.. AU - Vries, de, T.J.. AU - Vorstman, M.A.G.. AU - Keurentjes, J.T.F.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 122. EP - 125. BT - 1st European Conference Reaction Engineering of Polyolefins. CY - Lyon. T2 - conference; 1st European Conference Reaction Engineering of Polyolefins; 2000-07-03; 2000-07-06. Y2 - 3 July 2000 through 6 July 2000. ER - ...
Author: Pandey, S. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-02-21; Title: The photophysics of 6-(1-pyrenyl)hexyl-11(1-pyrenyl)undecanoate dissolved in organic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide: Impact on olefin metathesis
The target of this project is the screening of the opportunities, resulting of the combination of treating Cellulosic bodies with supercritical carbon dioxide. In general, the change of the porous structure depending on the way of fiber drying and the opportunity to incorporate active compounds and the development of analytical methods to track them within Cellulosic bodies.
Mouna Lazrag, Cecile Lemaitre, Christophe Castel, Romain Privat, Danielle Barth. Supercritical carbon dioxide drying of monoliths and composites organogels: from pilot to industrial scale process. 4th International Seminar on Aerogels Properties-Manufacture-Applications, Sep 2018, Hamburg, Germany. 2018. ⟨hal-03263960⟩ ...
Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon
Rice straw can serve as potential material for bioenergy production. However, the quantitative effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] on rice straw quality and the resulting consequences for bioenergy utilization are largely unknown. In this study, two rice varieties, WYJ and LY, that have been shown previously to have a weak and strong stimulatory response to rising [CO2], respectively, were grown with and without additional CO2 at China free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) platform. Qualitative and quantitative measurements in response to [CO2] included straw biomass (including leaf, sheath, and stem), the concentration of nonstructural and structural carbohydrates, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin, glucose and xylose release from structural carbohydrate, total sugar release by enzymatic saccharification, and sugar yield and the ratio of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased straw biomass and ...
Carbon dioxide equivalent. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) is a measure used to convert the masses of each of the greenhouse gases to a mass of CO2 that would give the equivalent global warming potential generally over a 100 year timeframe. Carbon dioxide equivalency thus reflects the time-integrated radiative forcing of a quantity of emissions or rate of greenhouse gas emission. For example, methane has a CO2-e 25 times that of CO2, and nitrous oxide 298 times. Carbon dioxide intensity and carbon dioxide per capita Alternatives to total emissions for measuring a nation?s greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon intensity measures emissions per unit of gross domestic product. Carbon dioxide per capita measures emissions per person. Both measures can be used to look at emission differences between nations. For example, while China has recently taken the lead in total greenhouse gas emissions, its per capita emissions level is far lower than that in most industrial countries. ...
Different types of enzymes such as lipases, several phosphatases, dehydrogenases, oxidases, amylases and others are well suited for the reactions in SC-CO2. The stability and the activity of enzymes exposed to carbon dioxide under high pressure depend on enzyme species, water content in the solution and on the pressure and temperature of the reaction system. The three-dimensional structure of enzymes may be significantly altered under extreme conditions, causing their denaturation and consequent loss of activity. If the conditions are less adverse, the protein structure may be largely retained. Minor structural changes may induce an alternative active protein state with altered enzyme activity, specificity and stability.
Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in seawater has previously been demonstrated to have a range of negative impacts on marine fish. While ocean acidification is a well-known context in which elevated CO2 occurs, fish reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may also be exposed to elevated CO2, and at concentrations which are even many times higher. The yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) are two marine fish species of high economic value in New Zealand which may be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. To assess the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth, feed conversion, and respiratory physiology of yellowtail kingfish, juvenile kingfish (~230g) were reared in a 54 day growth-trial under the following CO2concentrations: (1) ,5mgL-1(ambient-control), (2) 10-15mgL-1, (3) ~20mgL-1, (4) ~30mgL-1, (5) ~40mgL-1 Specific growth rates (SGRM) were greatest in ambient CO2 concentration (1), but this did not significantly differ from concentration ...
Author(s): Wells, JD; Majid, AAA; Creek, JL; Sloan, ED; Borglin, SE; Kneafsey, TJ; Koh, CA | Abstract: There is an interest to ensure sub-saturated water content in lines containing carbon dioxide in applications such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, to reduce risks of hydrate blockage and corrosion. The water content of carbon dioxide at various temperatures and pressures has been measured in the past, but there is no consistent set of measurements that could be used for carbon dioxide storage and transportation design work. The solubility of water in a carbon dioxide rich gas phase at hydrate forming conditions was measured in this work. Pressures ranged from 12.06 to 29.30 bar along two isotherms, 1 °C and −7 °C, all within the gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrate stability zone. For the first time in these types of measurements, the solid phase was also characterized and confirmed to be carbon dioxide hydrate via X-ray computed tomography, simultaneous with water content
End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring refers to the noninvasive measurement of exhaled carbon dioxide and is most useful when applied directly to patient care.1 Although commonly used in intubated patients receiving mechanical ventilation, this technique is sometimes used in non-intubated patients.2-,4 The term capnometry refers to the measurement and display of the concentration of exhaled carbon dioxide either as a percentage (%) or as partial pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). If the gas measuring device also includes a calibrated, visual waveform recording of the concentrations of inspired and exhaled carbon dioxide that can be examined on a breath-by-breath basis or for long-term trends, the instrument is called a capnograph.4 Although this respiratory monitoring technology is not new to the critical care environment, controversy still exists regarding potential benefits and limitations in clinical practice..... ...