A transparent amorphous carbon layer is formed. The transparent amorphous carbon layer has a low absorption coefficient such that the amorphous carbon is transparent in visible light. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be used in semiconductor devices for different purposes. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be included in a final structure in semiconductor devices. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may also be used as a mask in an etching process during fabrication of semiconductor devices.
Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materialsMechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materials ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
Article Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. A novel amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) was prepared by hydrolyzing wood sawdust and delignificating the residue to obtain cellulose mass that was subjected to react...
We studied the structural properties of amorphous carbon covering a wide range of densities from low-density to high-density regime using classical molecular dynamics with reactive empirical bond-order potential model. We calculated the pair-correlation functions, relative concentration of various coordinated atoms, and ring statistics in the amorphous carbon networks and compared them with other results. They agree with each other qualitatively but are different quantitatively. We investigate the difference now and will provide comprehensive understanding at the conference.
Recent studies have demonstrated that carbon, in the form of diamond, can be functionalized with molecular and/or biomolecular species to yield interfaces exhibiting extremely high stability and selectivity in binding to target biomolecules in solution. However, diamond and most other crystalline forms of carbon involve high-temperature deposition or processing steps that restrict their ability to be integrated with other materials. Here, we demonstrate that photochemical functionalization of amorphous carbon films followed by covalent immobilization of DNA yields highly stable surfaces with excellent biomolecular recognition properties that can be used for real-time biological detection. Carbon films deposited onto substrates at 300 K were functionalized with organic alkenes bearing protected amine groups and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalized carbon surfaces were covalently linked to DNA oligonucleotides. Measurements
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Lightweight polymer-carbon composites with high specific electrical conductivity at a carbon content below 40 vol.% were developed. The electrical and mechanical properties and the hydrogen permeability of carbon fiber and particle reinforced liquid crystalline polymers were examined. Vectra® A 950, SIGRAFIL® carbon fibers and Vulcan® 5XC6 72 R carbon black were employed. The composites are found to have sufficient mechanical properties and a hydrogen permeability low enough to be utilised as bipolar plate material in fuel cell applications. The density of the new composite is 20% lower than the density of commercial bipolar plates made from carbon reinforced polymeric composite materials, due to the lower carbon content. The current density at 0.5 V in an operating fuel cell is only 20% lower compared to commercial materials with more than 80 vol.% carbon content and meets the requirements for bipolar plate application ...
PhD position in land-sea soil carbon transfer dynamics *Job description* The global carbon cycle represents the collection of complex biogeochemical processes that influence our climate and link all carbon pools on Earth. Soils play a very active and key role in the global carbon cycle, as upon sequestration in marine sediments they act as long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. A large part of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils is continuously mobilized and either returned to the atmosphere or transported by rivers to the oceans. However, little is known about the fate and residence times of soil OC within a river basin. This PhD project will combine organic biomarkers with radiogenic and stable isotopes to study the physical and biological processes that soil OC undergoes during river transport from land to sea, the duration of this transport, as well as the factors that control these processes. The data that are generated in this project should contribute to a better understanding of the role of ...
In order to quantify the role of coastal upwelling regions as source or sink areas for carbon, the relationships between particulate organic carbon (POC) production, export, remineralization, and accumulation were examined in Monterey Bay from 1989 through 1992. During a normal upwelling year (1989-90), a high positive correlation (r = 0.91) is observed between biweekly primary production and POC export at 450 m. Primary production values range from 500 mgC m−2 d−1 during the winter, to 2600 mgC m−2 d−1 in the spring and summer upwelling months. Corresponding deep-water (450 m) POC fluxes vary from a minimum of 10 mgC m−2 d−1 in December, to 120 mgC m−2 d−1 in May. In contrast, the mid-1991 through 1992 data sets obtained during the 91-92 El Nino period, show a relatively poor correlation (r = 0.23) between productivity and carbon export. Calculated ratios of POC export to POC production (defined as e-ratios) display a trend for the three-year data sets in which the e-ratio ...
The Renewable Fuel Standard has successfully driven the production and use of low carbon fuels in the U.S. transportation fleet. Corn ethanol has replaced 10 percent of climate change causing petroleum. The RFS was enacted, in part, to drive innovation and the production of low carbon biofuels that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50 percent and more than petroleum - so called "advanced biofuels.". This White Paper walks through the current state of science as it relates to the lifecycle GHG emissions of corn ethanol and makes recommendations for updating lifecycle modeling which is used to inform low carbon policy decisions. ...
Downloadable! A low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by limiting the carbon intensity of fuels. We show this decreases high carbon fuel production but increases low carbon fuel production, possibly increasing net carbon emissions. The LCFS cannot be efficient, and the best LCFS may be nonbinding. We simulate a national LCFS on gasoline and ethanol. For a broad parameter range, emissions decrease, energy prices increase, abatement costs are large ($80 - $760 billion annually), and average abatement costs are large ($307 - $2,272 per CO2 metric ton). A cost effective policy has much lower average abatement costs ($60 - $868). (JEL Q54, Q58)
Electrically conductive compositions of carbon nparticles having thin coatings of conductive polymer are disclosed. The thin coatings of conductive polymer electrically interact with each carbon particle and protect the carbon particles from conductive failure. Because the conductive compositions of coated carbon particles maintain their conductive characteristics even after long term exposure to chemicals, they are useful as filler materials in polymer compositions utilized to fabricate chemical delivery devices.
D5904-02(2017) Standard Test Method for Total Carbon, Inorganic Carbon, and Organic Carbon in Water by Ultraviolet, Persulfate Oxidation, and Membrane Conductivity Detection inorganic carbon~ total carbon~ organic carbon content~ membrane conductivity detectors~ UV radiation~
In the short-term heterotrophic soil respiration is strongly and positively related to temperature. In the long-term, its response to temperature is uncertain. One reason for this is because in field experiments increases in respiration due to warming are relatively short-lived. The explanations proposed for this ephemeral response include depletion of fast-cycling, soil carbon pools and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Using a , 15 year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude forest, we show that the apparent acclimation of soil respiration at the ecosystem scale results from combined effects of reductions in soil carbon pools and microbial biomass, and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Mass-specific respiration rates were lower when seasonal temperatures were higher, suggesting that rate reductions under experimental warming likely occurred through temperature-induced changes in the microbial community. Our results imply that stimulatory effects of global temperature ...
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris., Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education
The overall goal of this study was to investigate influences of ectomycorrhizae (EM) and interspecific carbon transfer on seedling performance in species mixtures. The objectives were to: (I) determine the potential for EM to link paper birch and Douglas-fir, (ii) quantify gross and net interspecific carbon transfer, and (iii) evaluate effect of transfer on seedling performance. A soil bioassay showed that paper birch and Douglas-fir shared seven EM morphotypes in common over 90% of their root tips, indicating potential for hyphal connections. The number and percent colonization of shared morphotypes were greater when species were grown in dual- than monoculture. Reciprocal labelling of paper birch and Douglas-fir with ¹³CO₂[subscript(gas)] and ¹⁴CO₂[subscript(gas)] in laboratory rootboxes and the field resulted in bi-directional transfer, with net gain by Douglas-fir. In rootboxes, gross and net transfer represented 29% and 4% of total isotope assimilated by both species. Net transfer ...
Article Nitrogen deposition effects on carbon storage and fungal:bacterial ratios in coastal sage scrub soils of Southern California. Received for publication August 25, 2008. The effects of nitrogen (N) across a deposition gradient on bacterial and ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
Expression of the Irp gene is regulated in part by the nutrients available to the cell, and is decreased in rich medium, in glucose minimal media enriched with amino acids, and in minimal medium with alternative carbon sources, such as acetate and succinate. When Lrp production is increased in a given medium, expression of its target genes is also increased. However, when the medium is changed from glucose to acetate, the response of the target genes is governed by many factors.
The ocean accounts for over 90% of the active pools of carbon on the Earths surface, with over 95% of marine carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (Hedges and Keil 1995). Organic carbon dissolved in the ocean, suspended as particles or cells, and accumulating in sediments together constitute the other significant fractions of marine carbon, with organic carbon in the water column similar in quantity to the current atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. Isotopic partitioning among various inorganic and organic carbon phases reflects biological, physical and chemical processes, and the resulting fractionations are important tools.... ...
Anti-thrombogenicity and endothelialization are two essential issues in devising blood-contacting medical implants, such as artificial blood vessels and vascular stents [1, 2]. Minimizing the plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion has proved beneficial in reducing thrombus formation especially in the initial implantation. Subsequently, rapid endothelialization of implant surfaces may significantly reduce the risk of long-term thrombogenesis and provide a fully hemocompatible interface. Furthermore, native endothelium has unique physiological role of maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the active anti-thrombosis, and the release of soluble factors that contribute to the inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and hence reduce intimal hyperplasia [3, 4]. Rapid regeneration of endothelium is thereby crucial to the success of implantation. Numerous approaches such as natural polymer coating (collagen) [5], surface biomolecule immobilization (heparin) [6], and drug-eluting ...
During past decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among various vanadium oxides, recently VO2(A) has received increasing attention as its unique layered structure, pha
On average, the water column of Lake Superior is undersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen and supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide during the summer-stratified period. On the basis of temporal changes in water column dissolved oxygen, we calculate rates of oxygen consumption that range from 0.19 to 0.75 mmol m-3 d-1. These rates are a factor of 5-10 times larger than can be supported by the particulate carbon settling rates and benthic oxygen consumption rates. In addition, on the basis of the limited information available, dissolved allochthonous carbon inputs are insufficient to account for the calculated rates of carbon oxidation. Rates of nitrate and total CO2 (ΣCO2) production are 0.019 ± 0.012 and 0.13 ± 0.06 mmol m-3 d-1, respectively, and are consistent with the oxidation of a dissolved organic component that is similar in composition (C : N ratio) to the settling particulate material. Previously published estimates of total primary production were smaller but similar ...
Liquid carbon is applied to the skin as it penetrates deeply into the pores. As laser light is highly attracted to carbon particles, it takes the dead skin cells, contaminants and oil while eradicating the carbon.. As carbon has the capacity to absorb oil and other contaminants that are deep within the pores, youll get its cleansing benefits as the laser passes through the treatment area, taking the carbon particles along with any absorbed impurities from the face. Your skin is exfoliated as the dead skin cells and blackheads are blasted by the laser along with the carbon. This is how you can get finer pores and a more even skin tone.. Not only on the surface, but Carbon Laser also stimulates collagen production as it targets the deep layers of the skin which results into firmer, plumper skin, reduction of fine lines and wrinkles, making you look younger and naturally glowing skin.. Carbon Laser has additional benefits such as the reduction of the bacteria responsible for acne to help you ...
Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases.[1] One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.[2] In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. For example, an ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! A recently proposed model of human population and carbon utilization is reviewed. Depending on parameter values, one of three possible long-term outcomes is obtained. (1) Atmospheric carbon, (CO2)atm, and human populations equilibrate at positive values. (2) The human population stabilizes, while (CO2)atm increases without bound. (3) The human population goes extinct and atmospheric carbon declines to 0. The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both consensus views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival.
Wallmann, Klaus (2001): Nitrogen and carbon content from bulk sediment analysis of core SO118_MC-09. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.58581, In: Wallmann, K (2001): Nitrogen and carbon content of sediments from the Arabian Sea. Research Center for Marine Geosciences at Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, PANGAEA, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.774683 (unpublished dataset)
After all the hype and hoopla about its "i" cars, BMW lost the plot. Stories appeared over the last several years about what the next car to wear the "i" badge would be like. Top company officials suggested it would be an all new sedan; others said it would be a modified version of the companys 5 Series sedan. Rumors surfaced suggesting the next car would appear in 2018, 2019, 2020, or 2021. Clearly, economic realities have cooled BMWs passion for electric cars and it has little idea how to proceed to the next level.. The i3 and i8 made extensive use of carbon fiber structural panels to save weight. BMW pioneered innovative new bonding techniques that made it possible to meld carbon fiber components with steel or aluminum. But carbon fiber is expensive. Just last week, the company admitted that it was cutting back on the amount of carbon fiber uses in its lower priced models to save costs.. Against this backdrop, the company has finally pulled a rabbit out of its hat. Last week, it announced ...
R1 R6 Carbon Fiber, Wholesale Various High Quality R1 R6 Carbon Fiber Products from Global R1 R6 Carbon Fiber Suppliers and R1 R6 Carbon Fiber Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
Low Carbon Trust was established to increase awareness about the links between buildings that people live and work in, the carbon dioxide emissions that are produced by this and the resulting climate change.
Low Carbon Development: Key Issues is the first comprehensive textbook to address the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of…
... REACTION 2 IS A CARBON COMPOUND CONTAINING A CARBOXYLIC GROUP. IM TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THE PRODUCT FORMULAE. CAN YOU TELL ME HOW THESE TWO FUNCTION GROUPS REACT, AND THE RELEVANCY OF CH IN THIS EQUATION PLEASE. I DONT NEED AN ANSWER TO A QUESTION, BUT I WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION, MANY THANKS ...
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The UK government has announced a fourth carbon budget, aimed at halving the country's carbon dioxide emissions by 2027 compared with 1990 levels. Ultimately, the country has set its sights on slashing emissions by 80% by 2050.
New international certification will recognise businesses that work to reduce carbon emissions throughout their entire supply chain
Despite the importance of Arctic and boreal regions in the present carbon cycle, estimates of annual high-latitude carbon fluxes vary in sign and magnitude. Without accurate estimates of current carbon fluxes from Arctic and boreal ecosystems, predicting the response of these systems to global change is daunting. A number of factors control carbon turnover in high-latitude soils, but because they are unique to northern systems, they are mostly ignored by biogeochemical models used to predict the response of these systems to global change. Here, we review those factors. First, many northern systems are dominated by mosses, whose extremely slow decomposition is not predicted by commonly used indices of litter quality. Second, cold temperature, permafrost, waterlogging, and substrate quality interact to stabilize soil organic matter, but the relative importance of these factors, and how they respond to climate change, is unknown. Third, recent evidence suggests that biological activity occurring ...
In addition, if you want to get your children or grandchildren involved, there is a childrens version of the program called Journey for the Planet, and a Cool Community Corps that allows teens and college students to get involved in promoting climate action in their community. Please take a look through the attached documents, which include a detailed plan for using this program for community action around climate change. You can also find a host of other tools and supporting information on the Low Carbon Diet website: www.empowermentinstitute.net/lcd. If youre interested in organizing a Cool Community Campaign, you might also consider attending one of Empowerment Institutes free teletrainings. With our new partnership, AGNT will receive a donation of $3 for each copy of the workbook purchased. To order a copy of the book, click here, or print out the form in this kit to order copies of either book by mail now ...
Community groups can apply for up to £100,000 to fund projects to boost greener living as Cornwall Council launches a new scheme to support low carbon investments. Since January 2019 Cornwall Council has been charging developers Community Infrastructure Levy, or CIL, as a way to reduce any potential adverse impacts on an area resulting from a development.
The World Bank today congratulated Vietnam on the high-level attention to building resilience of vulnerable areas as well as its green growth strategy and action plan, and urged the country to embark on a low carbon and resilient growth path.
An exemplar low carbon building dedicated to the research and development of sustainable energy technologies has been named as BREEAMs Education Building of the Year 2014.
Cleantech start-ups are gathering at the University of Baths Low Carbon Start Up Fest on Friday 14th May to present to potential investors, partners, and fellow entrepreneurs.
An international roster of leaders from city and state governments and business shared their best strategies for financing large-scale deployment of low carbon technologies in the built environment to create smarter grids, buildings, transportations systems and urban infrastructure.
Performance charts for Amundi Accumulazione Attiva Low Carbon DUE (AALCDUE) including intraday, historical and comparison charts, technical analysis and trend lines.
Relevant books by authors and organisations endorsed by Low Carbon Trust: Earthships in Europe - By Mischa Hewitt & Kevin Telfer Groundhouse Build & Cook - By Daren Howarth
The worlds largest continental shelf, the East Siberian Shelf Sea, receives substantial input of terrestrial organic carbon (terr-OC) from both large rivers and erosion of its coastline. Degradation of organic matter from thawing permafrost in the Arctic is likely to increase, potentially creating a positive feedback mechanism to climate warming. This study focuses on the Buor-Khaya Bay (SE Laptev Sea), an area with strong terr-OC input from both coastal erosion and the Lena river. To better understand the fate of this terr-OC, molecular (acyl lipid biomarkers) and isotopic tools (stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopes) have been applied to both particulate organic carbon (POC) in surface water and sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) collected from the underlying surface sediments. Clear gradients in both extent of degradation and differences in source contributions were observed both between surface water POC and surface sediment SOC as well as over the 100 s km investigation scale (about 20 ...
Peat is formed when organic matter accumulates faster than it decomposes due to the lack of oxygen in waterlogged conditions. Peatlands are the most carbon dense of any terrestrial ecosystem in the world (Joosten & Couwenberg, 2008; Urák et al., 2017). Ecosystems sequester and store carbon in different ways, such as in living biomass, litter or humus in upper layers of mineral soils. Most of these carbon pools are not permanent and carbon will be released back to atmosphere over relatively short cycles. Beside these pools, however, the peat layer of peatlands provides - if not disturbed - a unique, permanent store for carbon. Keeping this carbon in the ground is crucial if the world i...
The problem is that xBR, the molar fraction of CO2 in the surface of the carbon particle, is always 1. Then Im forced to assign xA∞ = 1, in order for [itex]N_{Ar} = - N_{Br}[/itex] to be satisfied. The problem is that the particle is burning in air, not oxygen, so what about the presence of nitrogen? Do we just consider species A and B and neglect any other species present in the system? Do we ignore nitrogen because it is not participating in the mass transfer process? The process is diffusion-controlled, so I ignored the kinetics of the combustion and setted [itex]x_A ,_{r=R} = 0[/itex] and [itex]x_{BR} = x_B ,_{r=R} = 1[/itex ...
Light absorbing organic carbon, often called brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light-absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon, are poorly understood. With this in mind size-resolved direct measurements of brown carbon were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a representative urban site and a road-side site adjacent to a main highway. Fine particle absorption was measured with a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer, and brown carbon absorption was estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size-resolved measurements of chromophores in solvents. Size-resolved samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), ...
The question: "What information will the Clean Energy Regulator rely upon to decide whether the estimates of soil carbon are credible or not when there is controversy about the data indicating the potential of innovative methods to sequester carbon. Dr Jeff Baldock, who directed the $24m Soil Carbon Research Program- the latest research - described it as a single point in time study. As such it cannot be used to make judgements about changes in carbon stocks. As well, it did not address many of the latest innovations in land management. The CSIRO told the recent Senate Inquiry into the ERF that soil carbons contribution to meeting the Governments target will be small and modest. The maximum amount which could be captured under pasture is 0.5 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year, according to scientific reports. Data gathered on the farms of best practice carbon farmers has detected increases of more than 2 tonnes/ha/yr. Such data is suspect among scientists and often discarded. Such ...
An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.
Carbon fiber cloth is a lightweight, strong composite that is typically used in conjunction with polyester or epoxy. Used in building Americas Cup boats, this great composite material can strengthen any project while adding minimal weight. 12k plain weave carbon fiber cloth is also commonly used by automobile manufacturers for their stock carbon fiber appearance. Plain weave is a one over one under pattern, yielding a checkerboard-like appearance.
Alibaba.com offers 1,772 china carbon fiber table products. About 0% of these are Coffee Tables, 0% are Dining Tables. A wide variety of china carbon fiber table options are available to you, such as metal type, appearance, and folded.
... cloth, sheets, or tape in plain weave, twill weave, or unidirectional form. Carbon fiber is an extremely light, high strength, high modulous fabric. Use carbon fiber with epoxy or polyester, as it is an effective reinforcing material for composites.
The bracket is made from carbon fibre because I happened to have some spare pieces of it lying around, but any material would work. In the first photo you can see the two halves of the bracket at the front. Behind is one of the original pieces of carbon fibre from which they were constructed. Two of those were required for each half of the bracket, connected together by gluing an offcut across the middle. I used a cutting disc to cut out slots to attach the fan to, some curved sections where the fan blades are, and some slots to allow it to fit around the sticky-out-bits in the drive bays. Then I removed the sharp edges with a small round file (Carbon fibre makes nasty splinters, so its important to keep the edges clean ...
Carbon Fiber Cases - Mobile technology goes through the daily rough and tumble of consumer life, so the SCF Carbon Fiber Cases are intended to help users keep their ess...
The sediments that are preserved in estuarine environments (saltmarsh, riverine estuaries, mangrove habitats, lagoons, isolation basins and fjords) contain organic matter that allows investigation of the provenance of that material. These data can then be used specifically to investigate past sea level/land level changes and changes in freshwater flux. Where microfossils are poorly preserved or absent, C/N and δ13C analyses offer an alternative method to deduce environmental histories, but they are especially useful when used in conjunction with a range of other proxies, and when local modern end-member organic variables can be measured to calibrate the sedimentary C/N and δ13C. There are a wide range of C/N-δ13C based carbon studies, here we describe examples of studies in a variety of estuarine environments.. ...
Going Carbon Neutral is about reducing and offsetting the value of your personal carbon emissions. The idea is to minimise the size of your eco-footprint (the level of carbon pollution your lifestyle produces) in order to try to combat climate change.. Reducing means you seek to shrink your personal carbon emissions through a mix of avoidance and energy efficiency.. Offsetting means you pay companies to maintain carbon reduction projects worldwide and/or tree-planting programme, which will nullify your carbon emissions.. This is our pain-free guide to going Carbon Neutral.. ...
Although a clear explanation has yet to emerge for the observed decline in atmospheric CO2 content during glacial episodes, numerous hypotheses have been offered. Selected examples are reviewed or evaluated here. A strengthened biological pump resulting from intensified upwelling at low latitudes was suggested early on as a likely direct cause of the glacial CO2 drawdown. Two problems have since arisen with this hypothesis. First, on some upwelling continental margins, for example off California, Oregon, northwestern Mexico, Peru, and parts of NW Africa, organic matter accumulation decreased, in some areas markedly, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Second, upwelled cool CO2-rich water degasses carbon dioxide in warm regions, and for a key area such as the modern equatorial Pacific to become a net sink for atmospheric CO2, rather than a source as it is today, the rate of downward organic carbon export must exceed the rate of degassing. Recent sedimentary carbon and nitrogen isotopic data ...
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Time Atac Xs Carbon found in: TIME ATAC XS CARBON PEDALS Bicycle Bearings Bearing Applications, TIME ATAC XS CARBON PEDALS Bicycle Bearings Bearing..
Carbon budgets are simulated for the northwest European continental shelf and adjacent regions of the northeast Atlantic. Both physical and biological processes are evaluated, including exchanges between the water column and the atmosphere and sea bed. We use a multi-year simulation of a coupled 3D hydrodynamics-ecosystem model (POLCOMS-ERSEM) driven by realistic atmospheric data, ocean boundary conditions and freshwater inputs for 1989 to 2004. The northeast Atlantic (20°W to 13°E, 40°N to 65°N), including the European shelf, is found to be a net sink for atmospheric CO2. Biological processes exert a stronger control over pCO2 than temperature, and hence have a stronger effect on the air-sea CO2 exchange. For the European shelf, carbon sources of rivers and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 are balanced by horizontal transport off shelf and there is little carbon burial. There is net transport of carbon onto the shelf in the top 180 m of the water column and off the shelf below that depth, with ...
Alfa Aesar™ Glassy Carbon Beaker Volume: 100mL; Diameter: 54mm; Height: 70mm Alfa Aesar™ Glassy Carbon Beaker Glass Beakers
Heating and hot water represents nearly half of all the energy we consume in the UK and provides significant scope for energy savings through effective control and a switch to low carbon electric heating, either through resistance heaters or heat pumps. As UK buildings become tighter and better insulated with lower heat requirements, and our energy supply leads itself to more dynamic storage of low carbon electricity, householders and businesses will be seeking modern, dynamic and efficient forms of electric heat and hot water generation. Similarly, the shift to more air tight dwellings means we need to take a more serious approach to how we ventilate homes to promote the best indoor air quality for healthy living. The healthy living aspect of the story extends also into hot water safety and hygiene. Across all of these themes, BEAMA members are manufacturing the products we will need to live in a safe, low energy, low carbon built environment.. ...
This bikes carbon monocoque construction is a product of 30 years of experience with carbon-fibre-strengthened plastics. High-tensile-strength carbon-fibre mats and synthetic resins are converted into super-high-quality frames and forks.. First, in a complex thermal process, PAN fibres (Polyacrylnitril) are spun in to high-performance carbon fibres which are then processed in to carbon-fibre mats. Continuous monitoring assures quality assembly during the laying of laminate in to the frame mold, performed exclusively by hand. At the same time, the special fibre mat layup plan guarantees that the frame is rigid enough in specific areas, and flexible enough in other areas, to properly enhance riding comfort.. Once the fibre mats have been soaked in resin and placed in the mold, the raw frame, still in its mold, is placed in a special, near-vacuum oven and carefully baked. This is where the fibre mats bond with the resin to create one, inseparable material. Unlike other manufacturers, for the ...
It is in the nature of the human species to find solutions of complex technical problems and always strive for improvements. The development of new materials is not an exception. One of the many man-made materials is carbon fibre (CF). Its excellent mechanical properties and low density have made it attractive as the reinforcing agent in lightweight composites. However, the high price of CF originating from expensive production is currently limiting CF from wider utilisation, e.g. in the automotive sector.. The dominating raw material used in CF production is petroleum-based polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The usage of fossil-based precursors and the high price of CF explain the strong driving force of finding cheaper and renewable alternatives. Lignin and cellulose are renewable macromolecules available in high quantities. The high carbon content of lignin is an excellent property, while its structural heterogeneity yields in CF with poor mechanical properties. In contrast, cellulose has a beneficial ...
This thesis presents the study of organic layers covalently assembled onto carbon surfaces. As a result of their attachment, the properties of carbon surfaces were controllably adjusted so that these surfaces could be used for desired applications. In order that a wide range of properties were imparted onto the carbon surface, many different modifiers were attached and thoroughly characterised. Three applications that the modified carbon surfaces were used for were the subsequent coupling of molecular species, adsorption of protein and assembly of aldehyde/sulfate-functionalised polystyrene (PS) and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (NPs). Finally, patterning of different organic layers at pre-determined spatially defined locations on the one carbon surface was also investigated. The carbon surfaces used in this work were glassy carbon (GC) and pyrolysed photoresist film (PPF) surfaces. For PPF, methods for the reproducible fabrication of electrochemically suitable surfaces were investigated. ...
It might seem like a paradox, but coal might hold the answer to solving carbon emission problems. The key isnt burning it, but creating it using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. While this has always been possible in theory, high temperatures make it difficult in practice. However, a recent paper in Nature Communications shows how a special liquid metal electrocatalyst can convert the gas into a solid form of carbon suitable for, among other things, making high-quality capacitor electrodes. The process - you can see more about it in the video below - works at room temperatures.. It isnt that hard to extract carbon dioxide from the air, the problem is what to do with it. Storing it as a gas or a liquid is inefficient and expensive, while converting it to a solid makes it much easier to store or even reuse for practical applications.. Continue reading "Reducing Carbon Emissions With Coal" →. ...
A composition and method for applying an electrically conductive coating to an initially electrically nonconductive surface, such as a printed wiring board having through holes is disclosed. The method is carried out by applying a composition of electrically conductive carbon particles, a second conductive material, a water dispersible binding agent, and an aqueous dispersing medium to a nonconductive substrate to form a substantially continuous, electrically conductive coating. Enough of the carbon particles are present to provide an electrically conductive coating when the composition is applied to the substrate. Enough of the second conductive material is present to provide an improved electrically conductive coating when the composition is applied to the substrate. The resulting coating carbon coating has an improved conductivity over prior through hole coating compositions and processes and is capable of being exposed to molten solder without resulting in the formation of blowholes.
RNRMR presents global forecast and analysis about carbon fiber market & carbon fiber reinforced plastic (cfrp) market to 2019 with the new research ...
carbon fiber bike - Cycling has become increasingly popular with its economic and environmental benefits; however, this carbon fiber bike brings an added element of st...
Australia exports 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emits from burning them, the most recent analysis of the nations carbon stocks shows.
Activated carbon particles or fabrics are coated with a deformable or water-insoluble coating material comprising a binding agent and a masking agent that can be colored. The coating material can provide sufficient diffusivity to permit excellent efficiency in adsorption of materials in spite of the presence of a coating layer on the activated carbon. The use of a deformable binding agent yields coated particles that make relatively noise when the particles flow or are moved in use, and that have improved tactile properties in use. High performance colored activated carbon materials can be produced and placed in absorbent articles, overcoming common objections about the black color of activated carbon.
The scheme for Chinas carbon emission trading market has been approved by the State Council, and released by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), according to Zhang Yong, Vice Chairman of the NDRC, at a press briefing held on December 19, 2017. "This marks the completion of designs for Chinas carbon emission trading system and its official launch. Once transactions start, the market will become the largest of its kind in the world," he said.. According to Zhang, the nationwide carbon market will adopt a three-step strategy which will first involve the power generation industry. "We devised the plan for the eight industries with the highest energy consumption, and found that the power generation industry has the most mature conditions because it has the most complete data and its carbon emissions are the largest; the 1,700-plus power generators emit 3 billion tons of carbon. We believe this industry is the logical starting point and will help us further improve the carbon ...
Earth and nature help us out by continuing to soak up carbon emissions. Carbon sinks, such as oceans and forests are still soaking up half of the greenhouse gases produced by human activity.
Component of the best activated charcoal:Activated carbon is also called activated carbon black. It is an amorphous carbon black powder or granular, massive, ho
Auto engineers use different types of composites, including sheet molding compound (SMC) or bulk molding compound (BMC) formed in fast compression molding, pre-impregnated fibers (prepregs) that are cut and stacked into preforms for compression molding, and woven or stitched fibers (fabrics) that are used in resin-infusion methods. A popular infusion method for composites is resin transfer molding (RTM). SMC uses randomly oriented chopped fibers. SMC tends to be a faster and cheaper method with which to produce auto parts than an RTM process, but its usually less strong than the long fibers in RTM that are oriented or woven.. While SMC is readily available with glass fiber, now it also comes in carbon fiber. Magna Exteriors and Interiors (MEI, Concord, ON) and Zoltek (St. Louis), the carbon fiber producer, introduced an example in 2012. In March 2013, MEI said this best-in-class low-cost carbon fiber SMC material uses Zolteks Panex 35 commercial carbon fiber combined with Magnas EpicBlendSMC ...
Data of high-volume PM2.5 and TSP aerosol samples, measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. The data cover 18 months of consecutive sampling. Sampling duration is 12-28 days. Further, radiocarbon and ¹²C/¹³C-isotope analysis of some samples are available, to distinguish sources (fossil vs. biomass) of elemental carbon (i.e. black carbon).
Carbon source patterns using BIOLOG™ Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) Observing patterns of substrate utilization can provide evidence of functional diversity of a microbial community. Additionally, understanding how metabolic substrates can be used in soil communities can help us understand the stability or flexibility of an ecosystem. Carbon sources are crucial anabolic raw materials for heterotrophic microbial growth. Microbes vary enormously in their ability to make use of carbon in different forms. Using direct inoculation of soil community samples into a variety of carbon substrates will allow us to study and measure potential community carbon source utilization and provide us with evidence for our hypothesis that soil community diversity allows co-operative as well as competitive interactions. In community level physiological profiling (CLPP) the metabolic properties of individual bacteria in the community contribute to the total metabolic capacity of the community. Mixed ...
Carbon source patterns using BIOLOG™ Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) Observing patterns of substrate utilization can provide evidence of functional diversity of a microbial community. Additionally, understanding how metabolic substrates can be used in soil communities can help us understand the stability or flexibility of an ecosystem. Carbon sources are crucial anabolic raw materials for heterotrophic microbial growth. Microbes vary enormously in their ability to make use of carbon in different forms. Using direct inoculation of soil community samples into a variety of carbon substrates will allow us to study and measure potential community carbon source utilization and provide us with evidence for our hypothesis that soil community diversity allows co-operative as well as competitive interactions. In community level physiological profiling (CLPP) the metabolic properties of individual bacteria in the community contribute to the total metabolic capacity of the community. Mixed ...
The carbon fibers of the present invention have a polymer having polar groups and groups capable of reacting with a matrix resin deposited on the fiber surfaces. The carbon fibers can be produced by depositing a monomer having both polar groups and groups capable of reacting with the matrix resin or a mixture of a monomer having polar groups and a monomer having groups capable of reacting with the matrix resin onto the fiber surface and heating to polymerize the monomer(s) forming a polymer having polar groups and groups capable of reacting with a matrix resin. The resultant fibers have excellent adhesion properties to the matrix resin and are unlikely to cause fluffing and fiber breakage.
Carbon fiber, in its raw form, is a conjoining of thin, strong fibers. These fibers come in a variety of grades based on overall strength and stiffness. The higher the modulus, the stiffer and lighter it is. However, this doesnt mean that the best bikes are completely constructed from high modulus carbon fiber. On the contrary, the key to building bikes is to mix and match modulus, finding the ideal characteristic balance stiffness, strength, weight and cost ...
A process for the production of a non- woven fabric formed by a plurality of layers or tapes of carbon fibres or of composite carbon fibres; said layers or tapes and the fibres of said layers are bonded together by deposition between said layers or tapes of a polymeric, or¬ ganic, inorganic or hybrid-organic/inorganic material, applied by electro-spinning or elec¬ tro-spraying.
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... 2006-2010 The kit will include (2) pieces of 3M Carbon Fiber trim molding. The trim is made of flexible and durable high quality ABS plastic with a 3M adhesive tape of the back. This product is also not designed to replace
... 2005-2010 The kit will include (2) pieces of 3M Carbon Fiber trim molding. The trim is made of flexible and durable high quality ABS plastic with a 3M adhesive tape of the back. This product is also not designed to replace
Show off your business materials acumen with Carbon Fiber Business Cards ($TBA). These cards are made from thin, lightweight real carbon fiber that provides a...
Browse carbon fiber articles on Geek.com for the latest reviews, news, pictures, information about downloads and pricing, and other details about carbon fiber.
Ive received the new carbon fiber cases for the iPad from Moncarbone, which only make carbon fiber cases. Yes this is the real deal. These are super...
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Elemental carbon is a non-metallic material thats found in crystalline and amorphous forms. The structure of elemental carbon...
The findings are now being used by the UK Government to construct policy supporting integration of EVs into the transport network. Successive governments have committed to cutting national carbon emissions by 80 per cent by 2050, with an aim to have a UK car fleet with zero emissions within that timeframe.. The findings have been sent across Government Departments including the Technology Strategy Board (TSB), the Department for Transport, Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and The Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV), together with many car manufacturers and energy firms.. Mark commented: "Analysis of all our data consistently showed that electric cars are viable for everyday life. The majority of barriers relate to psychological factors rather than practical ones.". After BMW led the way in the electric car trials, a number of manufacturers then tested their own electric vehicles across the UK for two-and-a-half years.. In all, 19 car ...
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a mechanism by which micro-organisms preferentially utilize more easily metabolizable carbon sources in comparison to less easily metabolizable carbon sources. It prevents the organisms from unnecessary expenditure of energy and enables them to exploit the nutrients in appropriate manner. It represents a complex system of gene regulation. The main aim of this study was to study the intracellular localization of proteins involved in CCR including CreA, CreB, CreC and CreD in A. nidulans in repressing and derepressing conditions. The major regulatory protein involved in CCR in A. nidulans is CreA. It is a DNA-binding repressor, but very little is known about the molecular events that allow CreA function to result in appropriate regulation in response to carbon source. To determine the amount and localization of CreA in different carbon sources, strains were made over-expressing GFP and HA tagged CreA. Western analysis showed that high levels of full length ...
Abstract: Given the urgency and the magnitude of emission cuts required to arrest the global temperature rise at an acceptable level (like 2 degrees Celsius), it is imperative that action to mitigate climate change is taken at the lowest cost. This can be done if a cost effective set of policy tools with a focus on carbon pricing is applied as broadly as possible across all emission sources. In view of the emerging consensus on the temperature target like 2 degrees Celsius, it is imperative that climate scheme caps global emissions rather than allowing governments to arbitrarily pledge their intended cuts. Global emissions must be contained within the limit of carbon budget that achieves temperature objectives. Emission allowances must be issued in accordance with such limit and be sold to the global demand of emitters. Such sales of carbon budget give rise to both the most accurate carbon pricing as well as new revenue that can be used for much needed climate financing for developing countries. ...
A key step in producing CMSs is the deposition of carbon on pore entrances [103], which is carried out usually by the CVD of hydrocarbons. Needless to say, CMSs have a nanotexture that is as randomly oriented as that of the parent ACs or ACFs on which the CVD was carried out. A type of carbon with a characteristic bimodal PSD is carbon gel [104]. The porosity of carbon gels consists of mesopores located between the constituent particles (or "nodules" [105]) and micropores located within these particles [15]. For these materials, the [ID/(ID+ Ie)] ratio oscillates between 60 and 80 %, whereas d002 increases (vertical straight line). Here, the solids have their BSUs oriented at random and do not significantly differ from each other as examined by Raman spectroscopy. 40 nm). The importance ofthe degree oforientation ofthe basic constituents ofcarbon materials is highlighted in Fig. 10, proposed as early as 1985 by Inagaki [50], which depicts the main types of orientation found in carbons. This ...
London, UK (PRWEB UK) 23 March 2011 -- An innovative business model that provides commercial tenants with on-going support to reduce their carbon emissions
The world needs more energy but delivered with fewer carbon emissions. Embracing that dual challenge is the way BP thinks about every aspect of its business, says Kathrina Mannion
A four-pass carbon canister includes a cover sealingly coupled to an injection-molded housing having a first chamber, a second chamber fluidly coupled to the first chamber, a baffle fluidly coupled to the second chamber, and a third chamber fluidly coupled to the baffle. The three chambers are filled with carbon pellets to absorb carbon pellets provided to the carbon canister from the fuel tank. The carbon canister is periodically purged by drawing fresh air into the carbon canister, with the fresh air desorbing the hydrocarbons and then provided to and consumed in an internal combustion engine.
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