A transparent amorphous carbon layer is formed. The transparent amorphous carbon layer has a low absorption coefficient such that the amorphous carbon is transparent in visible light. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be used in semiconductor devices for different purposes. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may be included in a final structure in semiconductor devices. The transparent amorphous carbon layer may also be used as a mask in an etching process during fabrication of semiconductor devices.
Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materialsMechanical properties of amorphous carbon films deposited from carbon stable isotope materials ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
Article Breakthrough curves of oil adsorption on novel amorphous carbon thin film. A novel amorphous carbon thin film (ACTF) was prepared by hydrolyzing wood sawdust and delignificating the residue to obtain cellulose mass that was subjected to react...
We studied the structural properties of amorphous carbon covering a wide range of densities from low-density to high-density regime using classical molecular dynamics with reactive empirical bond-order potential model. We calculated the pair-correlation functions, relative concentration of various coordinated atoms, and ring statistics in the amorphous carbon networks and compared them with other results. They agree with each other qualitatively but are different quantitatively. We investigate the difference now and will provide comprehensive understanding at the conference.
Nitrogen-free amorphous carbon thin films prepared via sputtering followed by graphitization, were used as precursor materials for the creation of N-doped carbon electrodes with varying degrees of amorphization. Incorporation of N-sites was achieved via nitrogen plasma treatments which resulted in both surface functionalization and amorphization of the carbon electrode materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor composition and carbon organization: results indicate incorporation of predominantly pyrrolic-N sites after relatively short treatment cycles (5 min or less), accompanied by an initial etching of amorphous regions followed by a slower process of amorphization of graphitized clusters. By leveraging the difference in the rate of these two processes it was possible to investigate the effects of chemical N-sites and C-defect sites on their electrochemical response. The materials were tested as metal-free electrocatalysts in the oxygen reduction
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_7-13. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115937
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen data at station TT045_2-1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.115917
Recent studies have demonstrated that carbon, in the form of diamond, can be functionalized with molecular and/or biomolecular species to yield interfaces exhibiting extremely high stability and selectivity in binding to target biomolecules in solution. However, diamond and most other crystalline forms of carbon involve high-temperature deposition or processing steps that restrict their ability to be integrated with other materials. Here, we demonstrate that photochemical functionalization of amorphous carbon films followed by covalent immobilization of DNA yields highly stable surfaces with excellent biomolecular recognition properties that can be used for real-time biological detection. Carbon films deposited onto substrates at 300 K were functionalized with organic alkenes bearing protected amine groups and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalized carbon surfaces were covalently linked to DNA oligonucleotides. Measurements
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Lightweight polymer-carbon composites with high specific electrical conductivity at a carbon content below 40 vol.% were developed. The electrical and mechanical properties and the hydrogen permeability of carbon fiber and particle reinforced liquid crystalline polymers were examined. Vectra® A 950, SIGRAFIL® carbon fibers and Vulcan® 5XC6 72 R carbon black were employed. The composites are found to have sufficient mechanical properties and a hydrogen permeability low enough to be utilised as bipolar plate material in fuel cell applications. The density of the new composite is 20% lower than the density of commercial bipolar plates made from carbon reinforced polymeric composite materials, due to the lower carbon content. The current density at 0.5 V in an operating fuel cell is only 20% lower compared to commercial materials with more than 80 vol.% carbon content and meets the requirements for bipolar plate application ...
PhD position in land-sea soil carbon transfer dynamics *Job description* The global carbon cycle represents the collection of complex biogeochemical processes that influence our climate and link all carbon pools on Earth. Soils play a very active and key role in the global carbon cycle, as upon sequestration in marine sediments they act as long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. A large part of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils is continuously mobilized and either returned to the atmosphere or transported by rivers to the oceans. However, little is known about the fate and residence times of soil OC within a river basin. This PhD project will combine organic biomarkers with radiogenic and stable isotopes to study the physical and biological processes that soil OC undergoes during river transport from land to sea, the duration of this transport, as well as the factors that control these processes. The data that are generated in this project should contribute to a better understanding of the role of ...
In order to quantify the role of coastal upwelling regions as source or sink areas for carbon, the relationships between particulate organic carbon (POC) production, export, remineralization, and accumulation were examined in Monterey Bay from 1989 through 1992. During a normal upwelling year (1989-90), a high positive correlation (r = 0.91) is observed between biweekly primary production and POC export at 450 m. Primary production values range from 500 mgC m−2 d−1 during the winter, to 2600 mgC m−2 d−1 in the spring and summer upwelling months. Corresponding deep-water (450 m) POC fluxes vary from a minimum of 10 mgC m−2 d−1 in December, to 120 mgC m−2 d−1 in May. In contrast, the mid-1991 through 1992 data sets obtained during the 91-92 El Nino period, show a relatively poor correlation (r = 0.23) between productivity and carbon export. Calculated ratios of POC export to POC production (defined as e-ratios) display a trend for the three-year data sets in which the e-ratio ...
Frontier Economics was commissioned by BEIS to develop business models to support low carbon hydrogen production.. Our research focusses on incentivising near term investments to deliver largescale low carbon hydrogen production for supply to industry. It covers both green hydrogen (from renewables) and blue hydrogen (from methane reformation).. Based on a literature review, stakeholder consultation and case studies from other sectors, we developed a longlist of business models that could potentially be used. Our assessment of these business models concluded that both contractual payments to producers (e.g. contracts for difference) or regulatory returns models could be designed to deliver low carbon hydrogen production in the 2020s.. We also found that including a split structure in the models (with separate compensation for fixed and variable costs) may be an effective way of managing demand risk for investors, while reducing the risk of excessive costs for taxpayers and consumers.. For more ...
The Renewable Fuel Standard has successfully driven the production and use of low carbon fuels in the U.S. transportation fleet. Corn ethanol has replaced 10 percent of climate change causing petroleum. The RFS was enacted, in part, to drive innovation and the production of low carbon biofuels that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50 percent and more than petroleum - so called advanced biofuels.. This White Paper walks through the current state of science as it relates to the lifecycle GHG emissions of corn ethanol and makes recommendations for updating lifecycle modeling which is used to inform low carbon policy decisions. ...
Downloadable! A low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by limiting the carbon intensity of fuels. We show this decreases high carbon fuel production but increases low carbon fuel production, possibly increasing net carbon emissions. The LCFS cannot be efficient, and the best LCFS may be nonbinding. We simulate a national LCFS on gasoline and ethanol. For a broad parameter range, emissions decrease, energy prices increase, abatement costs are large ($80 - $760 billion annually), and average abatement costs are large ($307 - $2,272 per CO2 metric ton). A cost effective policy has much lower average abatement costs ($60 - $868). (JEL Q54, Q58)
Electrically conductive compositions of carbon nparticles having thin coatings of conductive polymer are disclosed. The thin coatings of conductive polymer electrically interact with each carbon particle and protect the carbon particles from conductive failure. Because the conductive compositions of coated carbon particles maintain their conductive characteristics even after long term exposure to chemicals, they are useful as filler materials in polymer compositions utilized to fabricate chemical delivery devices.
D5904-02(2017) Standard Test Method for Total Carbon, Inorganic Carbon, and Organic Carbon in Water by Ultraviolet, Persulfate Oxidation, and Membrane Conductivity Detection inorganic carbon~ total carbon~ organic carbon content~ membrane conductivity detectors~ UV radiation~
In the short-term heterotrophic soil respiration is strongly and positively related to temperature. In the long-term, its response to temperature is uncertain. One reason for this is because in field experiments increases in respiration due to warming are relatively short-lived. The explanations proposed for this ephemeral response include depletion of fast-cycling, soil carbon pools and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Using a , 15 year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude forest, we show that the apparent acclimation of soil respiration at the ecosystem scale results from combined effects of reductions in soil carbon pools and microbial biomass, and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Mass-specific respiration rates were lower when seasonal temperatures were higher, suggesting that rate reductions under experimental warming likely occurred through temperature-induced changes in the microbial community. Our results imply that stimulatory effects of global temperature ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitrate and nitrite reductions with anaerobic sludge using various carbon sources. T2 - glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. AU - Akunna, Joseph C.. AU - Bizeau, C.. AU - Moletta, R.. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Batch-tests were used to determine the potentials of digested sludge to reduce nitrate and nitrite in the presence of five different carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid and methanol. Ammonium accumulation was found in glucose and glycerol media. Dissimilatory reduction to ammonium accounted for up to 50% of reduced nitrate and nitrite. The rest were denitrified. In the media containing these carbon substrates volatile fatty acids, particularly acetic acid, were produced and ammonification was higher than denitrification activities only when glucose and glycerol were still present in the media. Ammonium production was higher in nitrite cultures than in nitrate cultures. In the culture media with acetic and lactic acids and ...
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris., Largest Undergraduate Projects Repository, Research Works and Materials. Download Undergraduate Projects Topics and Materials Accounting, Economics, Education
The overall goal of this study was to investigate influences of ectomycorrhizae (EM) and interspecific carbon transfer on seedling performance in species mixtures. The objectives were to: (I) determine the potential for EM to link paper birch and Douglas-fir, (ii) quantify gross and net interspecific carbon transfer, and (iii) evaluate effect of transfer on seedling performance. A soil bioassay showed that paper birch and Douglas-fir shared seven EM morphotypes in common over 90% of their root tips, indicating potential for hyphal connections. The number and percent colonization of shared morphotypes were greater when species were grown in dual- than monoculture. Reciprocal labelling of paper birch and Douglas-fir with ¹³CO₂[subscript(gas)] and ¹⁴CO₂[subscript(gas)] in laboratory rootboxes and the field resulted in bi-directional transfer, with net gain by Douglas-fir. In rootboxes, gross and net transfer represented 29% and 4% of total isotope assimilated by both species. Net transfer ...
Article Nitrogen deposition effects on carbon storage and fungal:bacterial ratios in coastal sage scrub soils of Southern California. Received for publication August 25, 2008. The effects of nitrogen (N) across a deposition gradient on bacterial and ...
The degradation of organic matter in the deep-sea is a critical microbial process that facilitates global carbon cycling and affects all organisms. Typically, deep-sea microbial communities experience very low organic carbon availability, however, at deep-sea whalefalls these bacteria are provided with organic carbon levels ~2000x greater than usual. This creates an ideal environment in which to examine the metabolism of marine microbes and to further understand carbon cycling on and within the deep-sea floor. Only a handful of papers have investigated marine sediments, thus, we first had to develop a method for measuring enzymatic activity. We focused on proteases, enzymes responsible for the breakdown of proteins, one of a number of organic carbon sources in the environment. Protease activity was measured in marine sediments associated with a whalefall at 1800 meters depth in Monterey Bay, collected at zero, three and ten meters distance. As expected, the highest protease activity was found ...
Terrestrial vegetation and soils hold three times more carbon than the atmosphere. Much debate concerns how anthropogenic activity will perturb these surface reservoirs, potentially exacerbating ongoing changes to the climate system. Uncertainties specifically persist in extrapolating point-source observations to ecosystem-scale budgets and fluxes, which require consideration of vertical and lateral processes on multiple temporal and spatial scales. To explore controls on organic carbon (OC) turnover at the river basin scale, we present radiocarbon (14C) ages on two groups of molecular tracers of plant-derived carbon-leaf-wax lipids and lignin phenols-from a globally distributed suite of rivers. We find significant negative relationships between the 14C age of these biomarkers and mean annual temperature and precipitation. Moreover, riverine biospheric-carbon ages scale proportionally with basin-wide soil carbon turnover times and soil 14C ages, implicating OC cycling within soils as a primary ...
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The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is an important industrial host for the production of enzymes. Genomic DNA arrays and proteomics are being used to investigate the physiology of this bacterium. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of the adaptation of B. licheniformis to phosphate starvation shows more than 100 induced genes. Most of strongly induced genes belong to the putative Pho regulon. The data of the transcriptome analysis have been verified by the analysis of the extracellular and cytoplasmic proteome. The main response of B. licheniformis to glucose starvation was a switch to the usage of alternative carbon sources. In addition, B. licheniformis seems to be using other organic substances like amino acids and lipids as carbon sources when subjected to glucose starvation. This was indicated by the induction of a high number of genes the proteins of which are involved in amino acid and lipid degradation. During nitrogen starvation genes necessary for the ...
Expression of the Irp gene is regulated in part by the nutrients available to the cell, and is decreased in rich medium, in glucose minimal media enriched with amino acids, and in minimal medium with alternative carbon sources, such as acetate and succinate. When Lrp production is increased in a given medium, expression of its target genes is also increased. However, when the medium is changed from glucose to acetate, the response of the target genes is governed by many factors.
2-3 Carbon Compounds. Federoff. Carbon Compounds. Organic chemistry - the study of compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms. The Chemistry of Carbon. Why is carbon special? It has 4 valence (outer) electrons to form strong covalent bonds Slideshow 5772870 by arista
The ocean accounts for over 90% of the active pools of carbon on the Earths surface, with over 95% of marine carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (Hedges and Keil 1995). Organic carbon dissolved in the ocean, suspended as particles or cells, and accumulating in sediments together constitute the other significant fractions of marine carbon, with organic carbon in the water column similar in quantity to the current atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. Isotopic partitioning among various inorganic and organic carbon phases reflects biological, physical and chemical processes, and the resulting fractionations are important tools.... ...
Anti-thrombogenicity and endothelialization are two essential issues in devising blood-contacting medical implants, such as artificial blood vessels and vascular stents [1, 2]. Minimizing the plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion has proved beneficial in reducing thrombus formation especially in the initial implantation. Subsequently, rapid endothelialization of implant surfaces may significantly reduce the risk of long-term thrombogenesis and provide a fully hemocompatible interface. Furthermore, native endothelium has unique physiological role of maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the active anti-thrombosis, and the release of soluble factors that contribute to the inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and hence reduce intimal hyperplasia [3, 4]. Rapid regeneration of endothelium is thereby crucial to the success of implantation. Numerous approaches such as natural polymer coating (collagen) [5], surface biomolecule immobilization (heparin) [6], and drug-eluting ...
During past decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among various vanadium oxides, recently VO2(A) has received increasing attention as its unique layered structure, pha
On average, the water column of Lake Superior is undersaturated with respect to dissolved oxygen and supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide during the summer-stratified period. On the basis of temporal changes in water column dissolved oxygen, we calculate rates of oxygen consumption that range from 0.19 to 0.75 mmol m-3 d-1. These rates are a factor of 5-10 times larger than can be supported by the particulate carbon settling rates and benthic oxygen consumption rates. In addition, on the basis of the limited information available, dissolved allochthonous carbon inputs are insufficient to account for the calculated rates of carbon oxidation. Rates of nitrate and total CO2 (ΣCO2) production are 0.019 ± 0.012 and 0.13 ± 0.06 mmol m-3 d-1, respectively, and are consistent with the oxidation of a dissolved organic component that is similar in composition (C : N ratio) to the settling particulate material. Previously published estimates of total primary production were smaller but similar ...
Liquid carbon is applied to the skin as it penetrates deeply into the pores. As laser light is highly attracted to carbon particles, it takes the dead skin cells, contaminants and oil while eradicating the carbon.. As carbon has the capacity to absorb oil and other contaminants that are deep within the pores, youll get its cleansing benefits as the laser passes through the treatment area, taking the carbon particles along with any absorbed impurities from the face. Your skin is exfoliated as the dead skin cells and blackheads are blasted by the laser along with the carbon. This is how you can get finer pores and a more even skin tone.. Not only on the surface, but Carbon Laser also stimulates collagen production as it targets the deep layers of the skin which results into firmer, plumper skin, reduction of fine lines and wrinkles, making you look younger and naturally glowing skin.. Carbon Laser has additional benefits such as the reduction of the bacteria responsible for acne to help you ...
Carbon offsets are reductions in emissions of carbon or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e) and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases.[1] One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.[2] In the smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. For example, an ...
Research shows the low carbon fuel standard can play a major role in meeting B.C.s 2030 and 2050 greenhouse gas targets, especially for freight.. Since its working so well, were calling on the B.C. government to put the standard in place for a longer period of time and strengthen it further. How? Were asking for legislative and regulatory amendments to set annual requirements to meet the 2030 target of 20 per cent below 2010 emissions.. The B.C. government has dragged its feet on ramping up the target and may miss the carbon emission reductions projected in its climate plan. By committing to an ambitious target, B.C. can create a stable market signal that will attract capital-intensive investments in new production capacity. B.C. cant afford to miss out on one of the big-and most effective-tools to clean up its act.. ...
Section 1 The target for 2050 (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. (2) The 1990 baseline means the aggregate amount of- (a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and (b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas. … Section 4 Carbon budgets (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State- (a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (budgetary periods) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the carbon budget), and (b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget. (2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set- (a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009; (b) for any later period, not later than 30th June ...
Section 1 The target for 2050 (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. (2) The 1990 baseline means the aggregate amount of- (a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and (b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas. … Section 4 Carbon budgets (1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State- (a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (budgetary periods) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the carbon budget), and (b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget. (2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set- (a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009; (b) for any later period, not later than 30th June ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigments, photosynthesis and photoinhibition in two amphibious plants. T2 - consequences of varying carbon availability. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. AU - Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01670.x. M3 - Journal article. VL - 170. SP - 311. EP - 319. JO - New Phytologist. JF - New Phytologist. SN - 0028-646X. ER - ...
Background: Accurate tumor localization is critical to performing laparoscopic colectomy which is lack of tactile sensation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using carbon nanoparticles to localize non-palpable tumor for laparoscopic colectomy, compared with intra-operative colonoscopy.. Methods: A prospective study was performed between July 2012 and September 2015. Inclusion criteria included T1-3 colon cancer, big adenoma or polyp unsuitable for endoscopic resection, multiple colorectal tumors, and cancer complete or partial response after neoadjuvant therapy. Exclusion criteria included T4 colon cancer, planned local excision, previous abdominal surgery, and emergency case with bleeding or obstruction or perforation. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and divided into carbon nanoparticles group (30 cases) and intra-operative colonoscopy group (30 cases). One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug ...
Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5 - 9 054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L.
Kipka, U. and Di Toro, D. M. (2011), A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to particulate organic carbon in soils and sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30: 2013-2022. doi: 10.1002/etc.611 ...
Oakes, JM and Ross, DJ and Eyre, BD (2013) Processing of Particulate Organic Carbon Associated with Secondary-Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent in Intertidal Sediments: A 13C Pulse-chase Experiment. Environmental Science and Technology, 47 (23). pp. 13258-13265. ISSN 1520-5851 ...
Lakes are a source of methane, an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. In order to understand increasing methane emissions in the present, it is important to study the variations of methane release during past periods of climate change. However, records of methane release from lakes over time scales longer ... read more than a few years are extremely rare. In this thesis a method is explored to reconstruct past methane availability in lakes based on the stable carbon isotope composition (delta 13C) of aquatic invertebrate remains. Methane-derived 13C-depleted carbon can be an alternative carbon source to plant-derived material for invertebrates in the sediment and water column of lakes, that can lead to markedly depleted delta 13C values in invertebrate tissues. Using culturing experiments, it was demonstrated that methane-derived carbon is incorporated into chironomid head capsules. Also, it was shown that chemical pre-treatments that are commonly used for sediment processing do not have ...
The giant 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has been inferred to remobilise fine-grained, young surface sediment enriched in organic matter from the slope into the |7 km deep Japan Trench. Yet, this hypothesis and assessment of its significance for the carbon cycle has been hindered by limited data density and resolution in the hadal zone. Here we combine new high-resolution bathymetry data with sub-bottom profiler images and sediment cores taken during 2012-2016 in order to map for the first time the spatial extent of the earthquake-triggered event deposit along the hadal Japan Trench. We quantify a sediment volume of ~0.2 km3 deposited from spatially-widespread remobilisation of young surficial seafloor slope sediments triggered by the 2011 earthquake and its aftershock sequence. The mapped volume and organic carbon content in sediment cores encompassing the 2011 event reveals that this single tectonic event delivered |1 Tg of organic carbon to the hadal trench. This carbon supply is comparable to high
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Arctic warming is projected to continue throughout the coming century. Yet, our currently limited understanding of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle hinders our ability to predict how changing conditions will affect local Arctic ecosystems, regional carbon budgets, and global climate. We present here the first set of concurrent, full-depth, dual-isotope profiles for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended particulate organic carbon (POCsusp) at two sites in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The carbon isotope composition of sinking and suspended POC in the Arctic contrasts strongly with open ocean Atlantic and Pacific sites, pointing to a combination of inputs to Arctic POCsusp at depth, including surface-derived organic carbon (OC), sorbed/advected OC, and OC derived from in situ DIC fixation. The latter process appears to be particularly important at intermediate depths, where mass balance calculations suggest that OC derived from in situ DIC fixation ...
Amorphous carbon nanosphere used as the anode material for Li-intercalation in Lithium-ion energy storage. This structure was obtained through a thermal annealing process at a temperature of 3000 degree Kelvin, simulated using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code on the LCRC Fusion resource ...
Most soil surveys are based on soil geomorphic, physical and chemical properties, while many classifications are based on morphological properties in soil profile. Typically, microbial properties of the soil(e.g. biomass and functional diversity) or soil biological quality indicators (SBQIs) are not directly considered in soil taxonomic keys, yet soil classification schemes are often used to infer soil biological function relating to policy (e.g. soil pollution attenuation, climate change mitigation). To critically address this, our aimwas to assess whether rates of carbon turnover in a diverse range of UK soils (n , 500) could effectively be described and sub-divided according to broadly defined soil groups by conventional soil classification schemes. Carbon turnover in each soil over a 90 d period was assessed by monitoring the mineralisation of either a labile (14C-labelled artificial root exudates) or more recalcitrant C source (14C-labelled plant leaves) in soil held at field capacity at 10 ...
In understanding the global carbon cycle, black carbon - decay-resistant carbon molecules altered by exposure to fire or combustion - has long been presumed to originate on land and work its way to the ocean via rivers and streams. An unexpected finding published today in Nature Communications challenges that long-held assumption and introduces a tantalizing new mystery: If oceanic black carbon is significantly different from the black carbon found in rivers, where did it come from? The signature of oceanic dissolved black carbon is very different from that of riverine dissolved black carbon, raising a host of fundamental questions, said Sasha Wagner, a Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences and lead author of the research. Are there other sources of dissolved black carbon? Is it being degraded away in rivers, sequestered in sediments, or altered beyond recognition before it reaches the open ocean? Is what weve measured actually ...
This dataset represents a literature compilation of carbon isotope data of four terrestrial organic carbon pools, (1) litter and organic layers in northern Russia, Scandinavia, Canada and Alaska (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (2) mineral active layers and non-permafrost soils in Siberia (¹³C and ¹⁴C); (3) exposures of Holocene peat and thermokarst deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C); (4) exposures of Ice Complex deposits in Siberia (¹⁴C). The dataset has been used to quantify the contribution of carbon from different sources to dissolved and particulate organic carbon in large Siberian rivers using statistical source apportionment.
Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here, I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40)% of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr) and ~24 (15-39)% of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/year) from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC) and landfills (~30 PgC). Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3)% of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the
We analyzed microbial respiration and ecoenzyme activities related to organic matter processing in 1879 streams and rivers across the continental US as part of the USEPAs 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry was used to construct models for carbon use efficiency (CUE) and decomposition (-k). The streams and rivers were classified by size (headwaters: 1st-order; streams: 2nd-3rd order; small rivers: 4th-5th order; big rivers 6th-7th order; and great rivers , 8th order), and were grouped into nine national ecoregions. The streams and their catchments represented gradients in catchment land cover, channel sediments, and sediment chemistry against which microbial respiration, carbon use efficiency and organic matter decomposition were compared. There were significant ecoregion and stream size effects in the unbalanced, nested analysis of variance of the microbial variables, with organic matter decomposition and modeled microbial respiration increasing from ...
Free-living cells of the fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium NGR234 were able to grow on a variety of carbon substrates at growth rates varying from 2.5 h on glucose or fumarate to 15.6 h on p-hydroxybenzoate. Free-living cells constitutively oxidized glucose, glutamate and aspartate but were inducible for all the other systems investigated. Bacteroids from root nodules of snake bean, however, were only capable of oxidizing C4-dicarboxylic acids and failed to oxidize any other carbon sources. Free-living cells of NGR234 possess inducible fructose and succinate uptake systems. These substrates are accumulated by active processes since accumulation is in hi bi ted by azide, 2,4-dini trop hen01 and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Bacteroids failed to take up fructose although they actively accumulated succinate, suggesting that the latter substrate is significant in the development of an effective symbiosis.. ...
The solid-state method enables the large-scale production of MWNTs in moldable solid forms, films, and fibers using low-cost precursors and equipment, thereby reducing economic barriers that are inherent with carbon nanotube materials produced by more conventional methods, such as CVD. Following carbonization, the shaped carbon solids are composed of varying amounts of nanotubes and amorphous carbon, depending on such synthetic parameters as the metal catalyst concentration, carbonization temperature, and the specific organic precursors used. The amorphous carbon phase is readily removed via selective combustion at temperatures from 300-500 C, producing highly porous, purified CNT solids with specific surface areas up to 500 m2 g-1. This highly flexible synthetic method also offers the ability to incorporate heteroatoms, for example nitrogen, oxygen, and/or boron, into the carbon nanotube solid via the initial carbon precursors ...
The majority of the Earths terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains ... read more uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ...
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Page contains details about Atto-590 NHS-functionalized bilirubin oxidase-capped mesoporous carbon nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine in cooperation with Kalush Experimental Plant developed the technology for production of modified dispersed silicas with high carbon content in the chemisorbed layer.. Advantages:. - High dispersity. - Uniform structure. - Chemical homogeneity. Product can be used for gelation, stabilization of suspensions and emulsions, capsulation of biologically active objects or substances: as filler for polymers, oils, and other organic or organosilicon media: as anti-caking agent for dry mixtures, corn, seeds.. Patent for utility model. No 92772 U Ukraine, МПК CO8G 12/00 CO9D5/00 (2014.01) A method to form grafted modifying layer with high carbon content on the surface of highly dispersed silicas / Iu.M. Bolbukh, R.B. Kozakevych, V.A. Tertykh, I.S. Protsak; Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry-applicant and patent owner - No u 201313560, appl. 21.11.2013; publ. 10.09.2014, Bul. No17, 2014. Product characteristics:. - Specific surface-100-200 ...
0058] As used herein, the term alliform carbon particles refers to substantially spherical or quasi-spherical carbon nanoparticles comprising at least one concentric external graphitic shell, but generally more than one such external shell, resembling the concentric shells of an onion (the term alliform derived from allium meaning onion). In fact, particles described as carbon onions or onion-like carbon particles, in many respects, are related to these alliform carbon particles, but these terms are normally associated with particles having multiple concentric shells. The external graphitic shell or shells of alliform carbon have surfaces wherein at least 25%, or at least 50%, or at least 75% of their area comprise sp2 carbon. The term substantially spherical relates to the shape being without near-sized appendages (i.e., having appendages such as carbon nanotubes) which substantially interfere with their ability to organize into packed matrices. To the extent that a given particle ...
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UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (front row 2nd L), listens to an explanation about a model of a low carbon airport as he visits the China National Low Carbon Day Exhibition at the Capital Museum in Beijing on June 20.
Sediment samples collected from polluted (Augusta Bay) and pristine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (South Ionian Sea, Thracian Sea) were analyzed for black carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons and phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). The aim of the study was to investigate the anthropogenic and biogenic inputs into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and to evaluate the effects of refractory organic matter (e.g. black carbon) and the level of hydrocarbon contamination on benthic microbial community composition. Black carbon, generally considered to be chemically and biologically inert, comprised a significant but highly variable fraction of the sedimentary carbon pool in the analyzed sediments with a ratio to total organic carbon ranging from 0.02 to 0.66. Principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics of the sediments (organic carbon content, black carbon, bioavailable organic carbon, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, aliphatic hydrocarbons) revealed clustering of samples along a
Underappreciated player in carbon storage should be included in global change models, researcher says. Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide accelerate carbon cycling and soil carbon loss in forests, new research led by an Indiana University biologist has found.. The new evidence supports an emerging view that although forests remove a substantial amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, much of the carbon is being stored in living woody biomass rather than as dead organic matter in soils.. Richard P. Phillips, lead author on the paper and an assistant professor of biology in the IU College of Arts and Sciences, said that after nearly two decades of research on forest ecosystem responses to global change, some of the uncertainty has been lifted about how forests are storing carbon in the wake of rising carbon dioxide levels.. Its been suggested that as trees take up more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, a greater amount of carbon will go to roots and fungi to acquire nutrients, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly Active Oxygen Evolution on Carbon Fiber Paper Coated with Atomic-Layer-Deposited Cobalt Oxide. AU - Choi, Hyung Jong. AU - Han, Gwon Deok. AU - Bae, Kiho. AU - Shim, Joon Hyung. PY - 2019/3/20. Y1 - 2019/3/20. N2 - In this work, we evaluated the oxygen evolution performance of cobalt oxide (CoO x )-coated carbon fiber paper in electrochemical water splitting. For a uniform coating of CoO x layers along the carbon fiber paper, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was applied. We achieved a uniform and conformal coating of atomic-layer-deposited CoO x (ALD-CoO x ) on the carbon fiber paper. The overpotential for oxygen evolution measured for the optimized ALD-coated carbon fiber paper was as low as 343 mV at 10 mA cm -2 , which is competitive with the activity of state-of-the-art CoO x prepared on electrodes with large surface areas. Oxygen evolution is not enhanced after a critical thickness, about 28 nm in our study, is reached. The optimal thickness of the ALD-CoO ...
Brillouin scattering is a type of Raman scattering in which the difference frequency Ao) = Wphonon = (®inc ~ «»seal) corresponds to the acoustic branch of the phonon dispersion curves, with frequencies in the gigahertz (xlOHz) range, as was explained in Section 3.4.1. The negative and positive signs in the expression above for ®phonon correspond to Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, respectively.. Brillouin scattering has been used to study carbon films, and Fig. 8.21 compares the spectra of thick and thin films. The Ihick-film result (a) provides a bulk material response, namely, a strong central peak at zero frequency about 10 GHz wide, and a broad peak near 17 GHz attributed to longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. This latter frequency is consistent with the elastic moduli of carbon, which are measures of the stretching capability of solid carbon and its chemical bonds. The dotted line experimental spectrum of the 100 nm thick film at the top of Fig. 8.21b exhibits three peaks which come at ...
Few studies have quantified the role of in-stream processes on net dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) export from peatland catchments, and those that have offer conflicting evidence. In this study, we evaluated evidence for active organic matter processing under field conditions, via a coordinated campaign across four UK catchments with peatland headwaters, targeted on potential hotspots and hot moments of physico-chemical carbon cycling. We hypothesised that specific hotspots and hot moments would occur where waters enriched with DOC and POC sourced from headwaters are exposed to: i) mixing with freshwaters of different pH, conductivity and metal concentrations; and ii) mixing with seawater during autumn when DOC concentrations were at their highest. We observed instances of POC removal in headwaters, and potential for rapid conversion between dissolved and particulate carbon forms and for net removal of peat-derived carbon at confluences further downstream ...
To keep things as clear as possible this analysis has only looked at cumulative emissions. The limitation of this approach is that it doesnt tell us much about the annual rates of carbon emission and sink absorption.. The high level story is pretty simple. Human kind is emitting more and more carbon dioxide, as falling land-use emissions are dwarfed by emissions from our growing use of fossil fuels. In reaction to increased emission rates and growing atmospheric concentrations both land and ocean sinks are absorbing more carbon dioxide. The Global Carbon Budget has an excellent summary of this.. Despite the fact that sinks are absorbing more CO2 the atmospheric concentration is growing at a faster rate than ever. In the decade from 2000-2009 the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide grew at an average rate of 2.0 ppm/yr, higher than any previous decade measured. To reduce this growth rate global carbon emissions need to decline. To stop concentrations growing at all would require an ...
At the present time, carbon fiber tanks are very expensive, with the high pressure vessel industry standard Toray T700 carbon fiber costing between $20 and $50 per kilogram alone. At this high price, the carbon fiber currently comprises as much as 75% of the overall tank cost and is a major roadblock on the path to commercialization. To make hydrogen fuel cells in early market and light-duty vehicles commercially viable, the cost of carbon fiber or the amount of carbon fiber used must be significantly reduced. One effective way to lower the weight, thus decreasing the carbon fiber usage and lowering the cost, of a CFRP tank is to improve the mechanical properties of the CFRP composite resin matrix using nano-reinforcement. Using the resin matrix itself as a source of composite strength, along with the carbon fiber reinforcement, results in a tank that requires less carbon fiber material. This solution decreases the weight of the tank while preserving or even increasing its performance. The ...
Some mechanisms of diversification involve ecological interactions exhibited as frequency-dependence [11]. This includes niche creation [11, 12] and frequency-dependent coexistence due to cross-feeding, where the cross-feeder organism is maintained in balance with the producer [59], or through cannibalism of one or the other coexisting type [28]. Another frequency-dependent scenario is when two or more resources in a system result in specialization of different bacteria on different resources in the same environment [11, 60]. None of these ecological scenarios are readily extended to the current studies. Cross-feeding and cannibalism do not appear to have evolved in the chemostats, probably because the time-scale is relatively short. None of the sequenced mutations hint at cross-feeding, such as the acs mutation noted in [8]. There is no evidence for multiple resources, multiple niches or mutations enhancing uptake or regulation of alternative carbon sources besides glucose. Nevertheless, ...
Mintenbeck, K. , Brey, T. , Jacob, U. , Knust, R. and Struck, U. (2008): How to account for the lipid effect on carbon stable isotope ratio (d13C) - sample treatment effects and model bias , Journal of Fish Biology ...
Canadas forest carbon reporting system is called the National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS). Its purpose is to estimate forest carbon stocks, changes in carbon stocks, and emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Canadas managed forests. NFCMARS is designed to estimate past changes in forest carbon stocks-i.e., from 1990 to the present (monitoring)-and to predict, based on scenarios of future disturbance rates and management actions, changes in carbon stocks in the next two to three decades (projection).. The system integrates information-such as forest inventories, temporary and permanent sample plots, statistics on fires and insects, and systems quantifying forest growth and yield-into a modeling framework incorporating the best available information and scientific understanding of the ecological processes involved in forest carbon cycling.. The national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system. ...
Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress. is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at Harvard University.
A new catalyst for breaking the tough molecular bond between carbon and hydrogen holds the promise of a cleaner, easier, cheaper way to derive products from petroleum, say researchers at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, and the Johns Hopkins University. Simple, plentiful hydrocarbons are the starting block for complex chemical products such as plastics and pharmaceuticals. The first step, however, is very, very difficult -- breaking the carbon-hydrogen bond. A new au naturel catalyst mimics nature to break the tenacious C-H bond.
We measured the δ13C of assimilated carbon (foliage organic matter (δCOM), soluble carbohydrates (δCSC), and waxes (δCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (δCFR), soil (δCSR) and ecosystem 13CO2 (δCER)) for two years at adjacent ecosystems in the southeastern U.S.: a regenerated 32 m tall mature Pinus palustris forest, and a mid-rotation 13 m tall Pinus elliottii stand. Carbon pools and foliage respiration in P. palustris were isotopically enriched by 2‰ relative to P. elliottii. Despite this enrichment, mean δCER values of the two sites were nearly identical. No temporal trends were apparent in δCSC, δCFR, δCSR and δCER. In contrast, δCOM and δCW at both sites declined by approximately 2‰ over the study. This appears to reflect the adjustment in the δ13C of carbon storage reserves used for biosynthesis as the trees recovered from a severe drought prior to our study. Unexpectedly, the rate of δ13C decrease in the secondary C32-36 n-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice ...
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An amorphous metal-free N-doped carbon film prepared by sputtering and annealing exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity and superior stability and methanol tolerance to the commercial Pt/C catalyst via a four-electron pathway for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Pyridinic nitrogen in films plays a key
We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vaporization with an Aerodyne high-resolution soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 C thermal vaporizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial fullerene-enriched soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cx n+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (x Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions=10.5194/acp-14-2591-2014=lt; 6) were found to dominate the ...
Last month, I reviewed the Tyndall Center report on Chinas Energy Transition: Pathways for Low Carbon Development and expressed three specific concerns. Since then, Ive had an opportunity to exchange emails with Dr. Wang Tao (pictured right), one of the co-authors of the report. He has taken time to address my questions and has graciously agreed to have his explanations posted here.. Here are the concerns I raised on my last post, rephrased for clarity, and Dr. Wangs responses.. 1. In choosing a global carbon budget for the reports scenario analysis, a target of 450 ppm of carbon dioxide, which translates to roughly 550 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent, is used. Is 550ppm CO2e a safe target, especially considering what we know about negative feedback loops and runaway climate change?. No. As many already know, climate change is already happening and there have been many arguments about what is a relatively safe level of carbon concentration to avoid dangerous climate change impacts. The ...
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We present the direct evidence of defective and disorder places on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), visualizing the presence of amorphous carbon at those sites. These defective surfaces being higher in energy are the key features of functionalization with different materials. The interaction of the pi orbital electrons of different carbon atoms of adjacent layers is more at the bent portion, than that of regular portion of the CNT. Hence the tubular structure of the bent portion of nanotubes is spaced more than that of regular portion of the nanotubes, minimizing the stress. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
Rhondite is a nano-scale helical carbon-based structure created by Robert Job that may be used in the production of steels and alloys to increase hardness, strength, ductility, and wear resistance. Each helix is actually made up of small spheres called buckyballs or fullerenes. Each fullerene sphere contains metallic atoms inside of the carbon cage; and as such have created a subset known as metallofullerenes. It is the chaining and winding of the metallofullerenes into their natural shapes that produces the unique Rhondidic structure. Rhonditic steels contain about 0.35 to 2.25 percent carbon by weight. They are formed by mixing a high carbon and low carbon steel, such that the mixture as a whole has the desired carbon content. The mixture is then heated to a temperature at which the high carbon steel will melt, but kept below the melting point of the low carbon steel (~2750 F). The mixture is slightly cooled then maintained for time sufficient for the carbon present to form fullerenes and ...
A carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by incomplete carbonization of H3PO4-impregnated pulp fibers followed by sulfonation. XRD, FT-IR, BET, TGA, and acid density test were employed to characterize the structure and performance of the catalyst. Results showed that the catalyst was amorphous carbon composed of aromatic carbon sheets with -COOH, -OH and -SO3H groups. Previous impregnation with H3PO4 could promote porosity formation of the catalyst. The optimized carbonization temperature and time for the catalyst were 250 °C and 1.5 h. The -SO3H density and specific surface area for the catalyst prepared under the optimized conditions were 1.1 mmol g−1 and 118 m2 g−1, respectively. Compared to HZSM-5, Amberlyst-15 and previous reported carbon catalysts, the catalyst showed higher catalytic activity for transesterification of methyl acetate with n-butanol as hydrophobic reaction. The catalyst had good thermal stability, which could bear 200 °C without decomposition. The catalyst ...