We investigated the thermotropic phase behavior of the distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)-cholesterol binary bilayer membrane as a function of the cholesterol composition (X(ch)) by fluorescence spectroscopy using 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene (Prodan) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fluorescence spectra, each of which has a single maximum, showed that the wavelength at the maximum intensity (lambda(max)) changed depending on the bilayer state: ca. 440 nm for the lamellar gel (L(beta) or L(beta)) and the liquid ordered (L(o)) phases, ca. 470 nm for the ripple gel (P(beta)) phase and ca. 490 nm for the liquid crystalline (L(alpha)) phase, respectively. The transition temperatures were determined from the temperature dependences of the lambda(max) and endothermic peaks of the DSC thermograms. Both measurements showed that the pretransition disappears around X(ch)=0.035. The constructed temperature-X(ch) phase diagram indicated that the phase behavior of the binary ...
Wet milling by a multi-ring media mill was carried out for aqueous slurries of Mg(OH)2 and TiO2 powder mixtures in the concentration range from 6.9 to 50 wt%. Rings used as grinding media were made of partially stabilized zirconia or polyoxymethylene. Products were characterized by thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and EPMA. ZrO2 contamination in the product was determined by X-ray flurescence analysis. The temperature of endothermic peaks of dehydration remained almost unchanged regardless of slurry concentration but decreased with increasing compressive force exerted by grinding rings. The homogeneity of the product is correlated with the temperature of exothermic peaks above 1100 K due to the crystallization of MgTiO3, but not with the endothermic peaks around 650 K. The increase of the slurry concentration increases the homogeneity of the product, facilitating the formation of single-phase MgTiO3 on subsequent heating. The increase of the compressive force of
31 P-NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Studies for Determining Vesicleâ s Drug Physical State and Fraction in Alendronate Liposomes Abstract.
Sodium chloride, the same substance that you sprinkle on your french fries for lunch, is a useful chemical. One of its most useful qualities is heat absorption. Salt -- the more common name for sodium chloride -- is a crystal that can absorb heat very effectively because of its particular physical and chemical ...
The objective of this science fair project is to observe the differences in heat absorption for darker colors vs. lighter colors.
Reversible transition of the ZP meshwork status by substitution treatment with dcp11 and gpp2.(a) RCAI staining of the VE substitutionally treated with dcp11 an
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Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data is used to advance stable and developable proteins into the pipeline, while optimising process and formulation conditions to maintain stability between manufacture and storage.. In 2017, Malvern launched the new MicroCal PEAQ-DSC Automated System, which has new features such as PEAQ-compliance, performance increases, smart experimental design and analysis software, and an autosampler.. This free whitepaper discusses eight reasons why you should update your MicroCal VP-Capillary DSC to the new system, including topics such as DSC data analysis in the regulated environment, increasing DSC productivity, experimental sample and scan set-up, automated objective data analysis, and objective study of data for compareability and biosimilarity studies.. ...
Figure 3 confirms the existence of a disordered structure both below and above the transition temperature as detected by the DSC experiment. The temperature evolution of the structure of the liquid has been followed looking at the Q position of the first maximum (around Q=13 nm-1) and minimum (around Q=4 nm-1) of I(Q) respectively identified as positions QA and QB.The Q values of these two points, reported as a function of temperature in the insets of Figure 3, show a jump at the temperatures corresponding to the LTL-HTL transition, as derived by the DSC measurements. The three transition temperatures for the maxima (full triangle) and the minima (full stars) of I(Q) reported on the phase diagram of Figure 2 show good agreement.. The combination of DSC and X-ray diffraction allowed us to draw the phase diagram of a solution undergoing inverse melting and to characterise the two different microscopic local structures of the disordered fluid phases, the LTL and the HTL observed in the low ...
Theory Seminar: Probing Gravitational Waves from First-Order Phase Transitions at eLISA Monday, 29 February 2016 from 12:00 to 13:00 (Europe/...
Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and plate count (PC), growth of Escherichia coli was measured in four initial E. coli cell concentrations cultured in tryptic soy broth (TSB) at 35C. The calorimeter measured the energy released and/or absorbed by E. coli cells during growth and expressed it as thermograms. The resulting thermograms accurately reflected cell growth and activity, and exhibited a close correlation with growth values recorded by PC. Heat release decreased notably in the final stage of the logarithmic growth phase, and no signal was generated once the stationary phase had begun. DSC accurately quantified growth in E. coli at different initial cell concentrations grown in TSB at 35C. Depending on initial E. coli concentration, DSC detected growth starting after just a few minutes and up to five hours. The detection limit of calorimeter was 4.3 0.4 log10 CFU. DSC is an effective alternative method for measuring bacterial growth in TSB in real time. This is the first report ...
PAPER Polar phase transitions in heteroepitaxial stabilized La0.5Y0.5AlO3 thin films Shenghua Liu1, Chunfeng Zhang1, Mengya Zhu1, Qian He2, Jak Chakhalian3, Xiaoran Liu3,4, Albina Borisevich2, Xiaoyong Wang1 and Min Xiao1,4 Published 1 September 2017 • © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Volume 29, Number 40 Article PDF Figures References PDF 18 Total downloads Turn on MathJax Get permission to re-use this article Share this article Article information Abstract We report on the fabrication of epitaxial La0.5Y0.5AlO3 ultrathin films on (001) LaAlO3 substrates. Structural characterizations by scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirm the high quality of the film with a − b + c − AlO6 octahedral tilt pattern. Unlike either of the nonpolar parent compound, LaAlO3 and YAlO3, second harmonic generation measurements on the thin films suggest a nonpolar-polar phase transition at T c near 500 K, and a polar-polar phase transition at T a ...
Differential scanning calorimetric thermograms of oxatomide (1), β-cyclodextrin (2), physical mixture (3), kneaded mixture (4), coevaporated (5), freeze-dried
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A number of compositions of ceramic oxide high T(sub c) superconductors were elevated for their glass formation ability by means of rapid thermal analysis during quenching, optical, and electron microscopy of the quenched samples, and with subsequent DSC measurements. Correlations between experimental measurements and the methodical composition changes identified the formulations of superconductors that can easily form glass. The superconducting material was first formed as a glass; then, with subsequent devitrification, it was formed into a bulk crystalline superconductor by a series of processing methods.. ...
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When gases evolve during a chemical reaction, a fraction of the reaction heat is lost with them. We have analyzed, both theoretically and experimentally, the deviations that this effect can produce on the determination of the reaction heat by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is shown that, even in the absence of gas overheating, deviations related to variations in the sample heat capacity can be substantial in experiments involving very intense DSC peaks. However, experiments performed on thermal decomposition of metal organic salts and on evaporation of liquids have shown that deviations usually arise from gas ...
Endotherm Life Science Molecules bietet als Auftragsforschungsunternehmen hochwertige Substanzen zur Entwicklung neuer Arzneistoffe für die Medizinische Chemie, und Biomarker für die Entwicklung von diagnostischen Testverfahren an.Die Produktpalette umfasst u.a. fokussierte und diversifizierte Substanzbibliotheken, Referenzstandards, Synthesebausteine, Pharmawirkstoffe und deren Verunreinigungen, Fluoreszenzfarbstoffe sowie Naturstoffe und ihre Metabolite.
Flash Differential Scanning Calorimetry revolutionizes rapid-scanning DSC. The Flash DSC 1 can analyze reorganization processes that were previously impossible to measure.
A method and apparatus for simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and microdielectrometry is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sample cell containing a sensor for measuring the dielectric and thermal properties of the sample. The method applies a voltage to a material while heating the material over a temperature range and then simultaneously measuring the current gain of the material, the temperature of the material and the energy input to the material.
The catalytic effects of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles on the dehydrogenation properties of NaAlH4, prepared by ball milling, are investigated. The onset temperatures for NaAlH4 + 7 mol% MnFe2O4 are 95 C, 152 C and 327 C for the ...
A dense article that includes a dense TFE copolymer film is provided. The dense TFE copolymer film includes a first endotherm between about 50 C. and about 300 C., a second endotherm between about 320 C. and about 350 C., and a third endotherm between about 350 C. and about 400 C. To form the dense article, a core shell TFE copolymer is formed into a pellet, ram extruded into a tape, dried into a dried preform, and then stretched into a dense TFE copolymer film that exhibits improved physical and mechanical properties. The dense TFE copolymer film is produced directly from the dried preform at a deformation temperature less than about 335 C. and without increasing the porosity of the dried preform, as would conventionally be done in expansion processes. The dense TFE copolymer films have a methane permeability less than about 20 μg*micron/cm2/min. The dense articles have a void volume less than about 20%.
Metal roofs are excellent materials that have excellent durability and exceptoinal performance. However, how can you reduce their heat absorption?
Polymer chain motion was not restricted by the ORMOGLASS and two different phases were present in contrast to what was previously observed in ormoglass coated PLA.17 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the thermal properties of the polymer were globally not affected by the incorporation of the ORMOGLASS. In fact, the thermograms of the hybrid fibers associated with the first heating ramp were similar to those of PLA fibers. Moreover, based on the second heating ramps, no significant differences in Tg were observed for the PLA and the hybrid fibers, as expected (Fig. S4, ESI†). Interactions at the nanometric level can be created thanks to the intrinsic advantages of the fabrication method,24 but no strong chemical interactions, able to induce significant modifications in Tg, were formed. Note that Tg in this amorphous PLDLLA (70% LL/30% LD PLA) ranges between 55 and 60 °C and basically depends on the molecular weight.25 The higher the ORMOGLASS content, the earlier the ...
By Darcy Simonis, ABB Food and beverage production requires a large range of temperatures. This means that plants must have effective cooling systems to deal with the excess heat. Removing the excess heat from the system requires a cooling tower, however, traditional designs require frequent maintenance
where ki is the degree of node i, α and a are tunable parameters. In spatial driven model (a = 0), the spatial distance distribution follows the power-law feature. The mean topological distance l and the clustering coefficient C exhibit phase transitions at same critical values of α which change with the dimensionality d of the embedding space. When a ≤ 0, the degree distribution follows the shifted power law (SPL) which interpolates between exponential and scale-free distributions depending on the value of a. ...
Our DSC portfolio of applications, instruments and services, combined with our expertise in materials characterization, can help you push the edge of science. Greater access to insights, a far more effective work experience and the answers you need.
By simulating from a half-gel starting structure, we are able to determine accurately the phase transition temperature of pentadecanes with the optimized L-OPLS parameters (Siu et al., JCTC 2012 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Phase Transitions at Clean and Metal-Covered Si(111) Surfaces Investigated by Rheed Spot Analysis. AU - Hasegawa, Shuji. AU - Nagai, Yasuyoshi. AU - Oonishi, Toshio. AU - Kobayashi, Nobuhiko. AU - Miyake, Takashi. AU - Murakami, Shuuichi. AU - Ishii, Yuuji. AU - Hanawa, Daiki. AU - Ino, Shozo. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - Structural phase transitions between various kinds of superlattice structures formed on a Si(111) surface have been investigated by spot analysis of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Reversible transitions induced by temperature changes and irreversible ones induced by metal depositions were observed. Detailed discussions on the dynamics of the phase transitions are made by quantitative analyses of integrated spot intensity and profile. For a phase transition of 7x7âŸ1x1 structures on a clean Si(111) surface, a hysteresis with temperature difference of 5° C between in heating and cooling processes was found in the spot ...
Paracetamol is a sparingly soluble bitter tasting drug. It is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic. Complexation of drug with different cyclodextrins (?, ? and HP-?-CD) was attempted to improve solubility of Paracetamol. During the drug excipient interaction studies, ?, ? cyclodextrins elicited analytical interference and showed considerable absorbance at ?max (243.5 nm) of Paracetamol while the ones constituting of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) did not show any such interference. Therefore, the present study is concentrated on exploring HP-?-CD as complexing agent. Phase solubility studies showed that complexation of Paracetamol/HP-?-CD at molar ratio 1:1 and showed AL type solubility curve. Complexation was done by various methods like physical mixing, kneading and freeze drying and resulting drug complexes were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermograms obtained showed an endothermic peak for
Polyester-like thermoplastic products obtained as a result of the reaction between lignins and terephthaloyl chrolide were examined. Steam exploded lignin (L) and sodium lignosulphonates (LS) were modified with terephthaloyl chloride. Some molecular and thermal properties of lignin modificates were determined. As a result of TG analysis it can be stated that modified product have higher temperature of a maximum weight loss than initial lignins. In thermograms of the initial lignins only endothermic peaks at 124 and 121°C for LS and 111°C for L can be observed. In case of modified LS the additional enothermic peak at 401°C is noticed. It is probably caused by thermal decomposition of the products. For modified product of LS an exothermic peaks at 313°C is observed. Molecular properties of lignins and products of their modification were evaluated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Due to GPC application a comparison of molecular weight distribution both for lignins and for products of ...
Polyester-like thermoplastic products obtained as a result of the reaction between lignins and terephthaloyl chrolide were examined. Steam exploded lignin (L) and sodium lignosulphonates (LS) were modified with terephthaloyl chloride. Some molecular and thermal properties of lignin modificates were determined. As a result of TG analysis it can be stated that modified product have higher temperature of a maximum weight loss than initial lignins. In thermograms of the initial lignins only endothermic peaks at 124 and 121°C for LS and 111°C for L can be observed. In case of modified LS the additional enothermic peak at 401°C is noticed. It is probably caused by thermal decomposition of the products. For modified product of LS an exothermic peaks at 313°C is observed. Molecular properties of lignins and products of their modification were evaluated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Due to GPC application a comparison of molecular weight distribution both for lignins and for products of ...
High sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.) and uv-visible spectrophotometry have been used to study the thermal unfolding of alpha-chymotrypsin in presence of calcium chloride at pH = 2.8, 3.4, 5.0, 7.0, and 8.2. Quantitative thermodynamic parameters accompanying the thermal transitions have been evaluated. In the absence of calcium ions, the thermal denaturation of a-chymotrypsin is a reversible process giving a ratio of the vant Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy of 0.92 at pH = 2.8. At pH values higher than 5.0, the thermal denaturations in the absence of calcium chloride were observed to be completely irreversible. In the presence of calcium chloride, alpha-chymotrypsin undergoes irreversible thermal denaturation and its thermal transitions are found to be scan-rate dependent fitting to the model N-2 --, I, yielding an average activation energy of (419 +/- 16) kJ (.) mol(-1) using different approaches at pH = 2.8. It is also observed that at pH 2.8 and 3.4, calcium reduces the ...
For this endpoint one study is available. The explosive properties of the test item were assessed according to Regulation EC No. 440/2008 Method A.14. Explosive Properties and OECD Test Guideline 113 (1981): Thermal Stability (DSC measurement). In the DSC-measurement the energy of the exothermic decomposition of the test item was , -500 J/g. The onset temperature for the exothermic decomposition was 350°C. Therefore, further tests for explosive properties had not to be performed. It is concluded that the test item has no explosive properties. ...
This article reports the temperature dependence of the structural and photoelectrical properties of C60 thin films with varying crystal structure and oxygen content near the orientational disorder/order phase transition at about 260 K. X-ray diffraction data demonstrate that highly crystalline oxygen-free C60 films undergo the first-order phase transition at 252 K with a lattice parameter discontinuity Δa/a of 0.22%; no discontinuity was observed in C60 films with coexisting amorphous and nanocrystalline phases. A strong effect of the phase transition on the dark- and photoconductivity in those films is presented: In highly crystalline C60 films both dark- and photoconductivity increase as the temperature is lowered through the transition region. However, opposite temperature changes of the conductivity are observed in nanocrystalline/amorphous C60 films. In situ exposure of samples to oxygen gas suppresses any critical behavior. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fabrication and characterization of a solid polymeric electrolyte of PAN-TiO2-LiClO4 AU - Abd Rahman, Mohd Yusri. AU - Ahmad, Azizan. AU - Ismail, L. H C. AU - Mat Salleh, Muhamad. PY - 2010/2/15. Y1 - 2010/2/15. N2 - The ionic conductivity of PAN-TiO2-LiClO4 as a function of TiO2 concentration and temperature has been reported. The electrolyte samples were prepared by solution casting technique. Their conductivity was measured using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The highest room temperature conductivity of 1.8 × 10-4 S cm-1 was obtained at 7.5 wt % of TiO2 filler. It was observed that the relationship between temperature and conductivity were linear, fitting well in Arrhenius and not in Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The pre-exponential factor, σ0 and Ea are 1.8 × 10-4 S cm-1 and 0.15 eV, respectively. The conductivity data have been supported by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis. DSC analysis showed that there was a significant change in glass ...
Dortmund Data bank - Thermophysical Properties | Benzene, CAS Number: 71-43-2 | 1-Propanol, CAS Number: 71-23-8 | SpringerMaterials 2014
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat. Such internally generated heat is mainly an incidental product of the animals routine metabolism, but under conditions of excessive cold or low activity an endotherm might apply special mechanisms adapted specifically to heat production. Examples include special-function muscular exertion such as shivering, and uncoupled oxidative metabolism such as within brown adipose tissue. Only birds and mammals are extant universally endothermic groups of animals. Certain lamnid sharks, tuna and billfishes are also endothermic. In common parlance, endotherms are characterized as "warm-blooded". The opposite of endothermy is ectothermy, although in general, there is no absolute or clear separation between the nature of ...
A paper structure having at least three regions is disclosed. The paper structure has a first region, a patterned second region, and a third transition region connecting the first and second regions. The first and second regions are disposed at different elevations, and can each have a thickness less than a thickness of the transition region. An apparatus and process for making such a paper structure are also disclosed.
This is also reflected in the solubility versus temperature phase diagram (Fig. 3A), which shows a region of concentrations where the HB oligomer is unstable (below the dashed purple line and above the black solubility line) and a region where the oligomer is metastable (above the dashed purple line). Similar arguments can be made for the other metastable phases, such as the two, three, and four β-sheet fibril phases. We emphasize that we did not calculate free energies as we were able to calculate the solubilities directly; the discussion here is mainly presented for pedagogical purposes.. Knowledge of the thermodynamically stable and metastable phases in the phase diagram allows us to determine the conditions under which the oligomer or fibril can form. A previous discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD) study of Aβ16-22 kinetic aggregation by Cheon et al. (6) found that at 20 mM and T* = 0.2, corresponding to 342 K, a system of peptides in a random configuration first forms a fibril nucleus, ...
FT-IR and 2D correlation spectroscopy were employed to study the microstructural changes ocurring during phase transitions of a liquid crystal poly(amidoamine) codendrimer (PAMAM (L1)16(L2)16) generation 3, functionalized on the terminal groups by one-chain promesogenic calamitic units (4-(4-decyloxybenzoyloxy)salicylaldehyde (L1)) and two-chain promesogenic calamitic units (4-(3,4-didecyloxybenzoyloxy)salicylaldehyde (L2)). Spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearangements allowing for molecular shape change on going from a liquid−crystalline organization to another were found. The transition temperatures were calculated, and they are in good agreement with the DSC data. Spectral analysis gives evidence of the LC phase transitions and to an additional transition associated with the existence of conformers. Various types of hydrogen bonding have been established ...
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Thermogram of a cat. The different colours represent different temperatures. The lightest colours are the hottest temperatures, while the darker colours represent cooler temperatures. Thermography uses special cameras that can detect light in the far-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (900-14,000 nanometers or 0.9-14 µm) to create an image that represents an objects temperature. - Stock Image Z934/0730
Industrially textured PLA multifilaments were heat set under different conditions at 110 ºC for 1 min and subjected to one cycle of deformation up to 20%. Thermal transitions of the original textured, heat set and cyclic strained filaments were measured using differential scanning calorimetry from 25 to 250 ºC. Cyclic deformation induces an endo-exo transition at peak temperatures between 55 - 60 ºC that is not observed in the original textured and heat set multifilaments. There is another endo-exo transition with peak temperatures between 67 and 72 ºC in all filaments, the intensity of which varies according to texturing conditions, heat setting and cycle strain. Texturing conditions, heat setting and cyclic strain play a role in thermal transitions, the strain at breaking and elastic properties of the filaments. The crystallinity and magnitude of the endo-exo thermal events detected by DSC are related to the strain at breaking and elasticity of polylactide textured ...
You may also wish to search for items by Massalska-Arodz. 7 matching references were found. Rachwalska, M.; Massalska-Arodz, M.; Moscicki, J.K.; Jaich, A., Calorimetric study of NPOB, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1982, 80, 157-164. [all data] Bamezai, R.K.; Godlewska, M.; Massalska-arodz, M.; Sciesinski, J.; Witko, W., The adiabatic calorimetry study of the polymorphism of solid 4,4-di-n-butyloxyazoxybenzene, Phase Transitions, 1990, 27(2-3), 113-119. [all data] Mayer, J.; Witko, W.; Massalska-Arodz, M.; Williams, G.; Dabrowski, R., Polymorphism of right handed (S) 4-(2-Methylbutyl) 4´-Cyanobiphenyl, Phase Transitions, 1999, 69, 2, 199-213, https://doi.org/10.1080/01411599908208019 . [all data] Sciesinski, J.; Sciesinska, E.; Massalska, E.; Massalska-Arodz, M.; Wasiutynski, T.; Zielinski, P.M.; Witko, W., Polymorphism of righthanded octyloxycyanobiphenyl, IEEE Trans. Dielect. Electr. Insul., 2001, 8, 3, 522-526, https://doi.org/10.1109/94.933377 . [all data] Massalska-Arodz, M., Specific-heat ...
The outermost membrane of gram-negative bacteria is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rich bilayer assembly that acts as the first line of defense for bacterial cells in adverse physical and chemical environments. Besides the LPS, the outer membrane has radially extending O-antigen polysaccharide chains and β-barrel membrane proteins that make the bacterial membrane physiologically unique compared to the phospholipid cell membranes. To study the molecular complexity and dynamics of the LPS rich membrane, we have developed coarse grained parameter set for the outer membrane compatible with the Martini force field. The coarse grained model was benchmarked against available experimental and atomistic simulations data for properties such as membrane thickness, density profiles of the residues, area per lipid, gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperatures, order parameters, and radial distribution functions. More than 17 membrane compositions were studied with a combined simulation time of over 100
In accordance with column 2 of REACH Annex VII, the boiling point study does not need to be conducted as the substance decompose before boiling. A study similar to OECD 102 and EU Method A.2 was performed to determine the melting point of the test item using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analysis was carried out in the DSC 1 STAR SYSTEM by Mettler Toledo. A SWISSI M20 crucible was used for the determination. The measuring range was between 25 °C to 300 °C at a heating rate of 2.0 °C/min. The analysis was performed as a duplicate determination. The decomposition of the test item releases an average energy of 818.5 J/g. The onset temperature of melting is an average 72.5 ° C. The decomposition temperature is at an average of 80.8 °C. As the test item decomposes right after melting, no boiling point could be determined. therefore, no test on boiling point is needed. ...
A chemical registry was created from a literature review and included characteristics relevant to XL such as molecular weight, carcinogenicity/mutagenicity, toxicity, hydrophobicity, and commercial availability. From this registry, compounds were then selected for efficacy screening using an ex vivo rabbit corneal cross-linking simulation set up. XL solution was administered via a corneal reservoir for 30 min in 0.1M NaHCO3 at either pH 7.4 or 8.5. The epithelium was left intact and 0.5% proparacaine was applied prior to XL. The control contralateral eye was treated identically with vehicle. Effectiveness of XL was based on shifts in thermal denaturation temperature (Tm) as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (Perkin-Elmer DSC 6000). Favorable DSC results were validated using biomechanical inflation tests with digital image correlation (DIC) as previously described by Myers et al.. ...
1B5U: CONTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN BONDS TO THE CONFORMATIONAL STABILITY OF HUMAN LYSOZYME: CALORIMETRY AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF SIX SER-|ALA MUTANT