The differential adsorption heats of oxygen and NO, as well as catalytic oxidation behavior during NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation reactions over supported Pt-catalysts, were investigated by microcalorimetric measurements. The average heat of adsorption (Delta H) of oxygen ranged from 310 kJ/mol at 200 degrees C to 289 kJ/mol at 400 degrees C. Over this temperature range formation of platinum oxides and coverage dependence caused variations in the apparent heat of adsorption. NO heat of adsorption from 50 to 150 degrees C was near constant with an average value of 202 kJ/mol over the temperature range.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Surfactant has become a hot topic for its wide application in the bioremediation of PAHs. The aim of this work is to explore a microcalorimetric method to determine the toxic effect of pyrene on Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and the PAH-degrading bacteria Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) and to evaluate the effect of Tween 80 on biodegradation of pyrene. Power-time curves were studied and calorimetric parameters including the growth rate constant (k), half inhibitory concentration (IC50), and total thermal effect (QT) were determined. B. subtilis, B. cepacia and B. cepacia with Tween 80 were completely inhibited when the concentration of pyrene were 200, 800 and 1600μgmL-1, respectively. B. cepacia shows better tolerance to pyrene than B. subtilis. Tween 80 significantly improves the biodegradation of pyrene by increasing
The thermodynamics of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-peptide interaction have been characterized by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. GCC:B10 mAb, generated against human guanylyl cyclase C, a membrane-associated receptor and a potential marker for metastatic colon cancer, recognizes the cognate peptide epitope HIPPENIFPLE and its two contiguous mimotopes, HIPPEN and ENIFPLE, specifically and reversibly. The exothermic binding reactions between 6.4 and 42 degreeC are driven by dominant favorable enthalpic contributions between 20 and 42 degreeC, with a large negative heat capacity (DELTACp) of -421 +- 27 cal mol-1 K-1. The unfavorable negative value of entropy (DELTASb0) at 25 degreeC, an unusual feature among protein-protein interactions, becomes a positive one below an inversion temperature of 20.5 degreeC. Enthalpy-entropy compensation due to solvent reorganization accounts for an essentially unchanged free energy of interaction (DELTADELTAGb0 simeq 0). The role of water molecules in the ...
Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in the translocation of the cytotoxic nuclease into the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and release of its tightly bound immunity protein. A dogma of colicin biology is that the toxin coiled-coil connecting its functional domains must unfold or unfurl to span the periplasm, with recent reports claiming this reaction is initiated by receptor binding. We report isothermal titration calorimetry data of BtuB binding the endonuclease toxin ColE9 and a disulfide form (ColE9S-S) where unfolding of the coiled-coil is prevented and, as a consequence, the toxin is biologically inactive. Contrary to expectation, the thermodynamics of receptor binding, characterized by large negative values for TDeltaS, are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. We go on to delineate key features of the colicin translocon that assembles at the cell surface after BtuB
Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.
Integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and ion channels, mediate diverse biological functions that are crucial to all aspects of life. The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms, and in particular, the thermodynamic basis of the binding interactions of the extracellular ligands and intracellular effector proteins is essential to understand the workings of these remarkable nanomachines. In this review, we describe how isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) can be effectively used to gain valuable insights into the thermodynamic signatures (enthalpy, entropy, affinity, and stoichiometry), which would be most useful for drug discovery studies, considering that more than 30% of the current drugs target membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Structural and biophysical characterisation of membrane protein-ligand binding.
With their hydrolytic, optical and magnetic properties, lanthanide ions (Ln3+) are versatile probes for nucleic acids. In addition, nucleotide-coordinated Ln3+ ions form useful nanoparticles. However, the thermodynamic basis of their interaction is still lacking. In this work, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to study the binding between nucleotides and 14 different Ln3+ ions. Ln3+ interacts mainly with the phosphate of cytidine and thymidine monophosphate (CMP and TMP), while the nucleobases in adenosine and guanosine monophosphate (AMP and GMP) are also involved. Phosphate binding is fully entropy driven since the reactions absorb heat. Nucleosides alone do not bind Ln3+ and the purines need the phosphate for chelation. With increasing atomic number of Ln3+, the binding reaction with GMP goes from exothermic to endothermic. The entropy contribution starts to increase from Gd3+, explaining the gadolinium break observed in many Ln3+-mediated RNA cleavage reactions. This study ...
Oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx) is a manganese-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to form two moles of carbon dioxide and one mole of hydrogen peroxide. CsOxOx is the first oxalate oxidase reported to have a two beta barrel architecture (bicupin). The CsOxOx catalyzed oxidation of oxalate reaction can be monitored by coupling the product H2O2 to the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2,2-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Coupled enzyme assays often confound data interpretation. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measures heat changes that occur during a reaction. Therefore, ITC can measure reaction rates where both the substrates and products are spectrophotometrically silent and when the reaction products are unknown. In this work, we apply the multiple injection method of ITC to characterize the catalytic properties of oxalate oxidase. Steady-state kinetic
Isothermal titration calorimetry profiles of Alba1 binding to various DNA.A-DNA (a), and B-DNA (b) and CT-DNA (c), at 25°C in 50 mM NaH2PO4, pH 7.0.
The binding of a series of low molecular weight ligands towards trypsin and thrombin has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry and protein crystallography. In a series of congeneric ligands, surprising changes of protonation states occur and are overlaid on the binding process. They result from induced pK(a) shifts depending on the local environment experienced by the ligand and protein functional groups in the complex (induced dielectric fit). They involve additional heat effects that must be corrected before any conclusion on the binding enthalpy (DeltaH) and entropy (DeltaS) can be drawn. After correction, trends in both contributions can be interpreted in structural terms with respect to the hydrogen bond inventory or residual ligand motions. For all inhibitors studied, a strong negative heat capacity change (DeltaC(p)) is detected, thus binding becomes more exothermic and entropically less favourable with increasing temperature. Due to a mutual compensation, Gibbs free energy ...
The geopolymerization process of metakaolinite activated by alkali and alkali silicate solutions was revealed. The effects of alkali concentration, modulus of alkali silicate solution and reaction temperature on geopolymerization were studied systematically by isothermal calorimetry, as well as X-ray diffraction and 27Al/29Si MAS NMR. Results show that the geopolymerization process of metakaolinite under alkali activation condition can be reasonably supposed into three stages: (I) destruction, (II) polymerization and (III) stabilization. The rate of geopolymerization in KOH solution is higher than in NaOH solution and reaches the maximum in 15 mol/L KOH solution during stage II. The extent of geopolymerization increases with increasing of alkali content regardless of the existence of silicate anions in activator.. ...
67 matching references were found. Hernandez de la T.; Romero I., Physical interaction between n-alkanes, Rev. Colomb. Quim., 1987, 14, 71. [all data] Helmig, D.; Revermann, T.; Pollmann, J.; Kaltschmidt, O.; Hernández, A.J.; Bocquet, F.; David, D., Calibration system and analytical considerations for quantitative sesquiterpene measurements in air, J. Chromatogr. A, 2003, 1002, 1-2, 193-211, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00619-8 . [all data] Damon, A.A.; Hernández, A.S.; Rojas, J.C., Analysis of the fragrance produced by the epiphytic orchid Anathallis (Pleurothallis) racemiflora (orchidaceae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico, Lindleyana, 2002, 17, 2, 93-97. [all data] Paz Andrade, M.I.; Hernandez, C.; Nunez, L.; Jimenez Cuesta, E., Microcalorimetric study of heats of mixing for the systems benzene + o-, m- , and p-xylene at 50c, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1972, 69, 1132-5. [all data] Paz-Andrade, M.E.; Jimenez Cuesta, E.; Hernandez, C., Newassembly for microcalorimetric ...
en] A new microcalorimetric method for recording the kinetic parameters k(cat)/K-m and K-i of alpha-amylases using polysaccharides and oligosaccharides as substrates is described. This method is based on the heat released by glycosidic bond hydrolysis. The method has been developed to study the active site properties of the cold-active alpha-amylase produced by an Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium in comparison with its closest structural homolog from pig pancreas. It is shown that the psychrophilic a-amylase is more active on large macromolecular substrates and that the higher rate constants k(cat) are gained at the expense of a lower affinity for the substrate. The active site is able to accommodate larger inhibitory complexes, resulting in a mixed-type inhibition of starch hydrolysis by maltose. A method for recording the binding enthalpies by isothermal titration calorimetry in a low-affinity system has been developed, allowing analysis of the energetics of weak ligand binding using the ...
The MicroCal PEAQ-ITC is a highly sensitive, low volume isothermal titration calorimeter for the label-free in solution study of biomolecular interactions.
Three blended cements prepared by intergrinding 6-35% slag with clinker and gypsum, and a control portland cement, were sieved to yield 0-10 mu m, 10-30 mu m, 30-50 mu m, and ,50 mu m subgroups. Clinker/slag/gypsum contents, and oxide compositions of the subgroups differed significantly from the unsieved cements. Fine subgroups always contained more gypsum and had lower slag-to-clinker ratios than coarse subgroups. Heat evolution was investigated up to 48 h using isothermal calorimetry. Contribution of slag to early heat evolution was limited. 0-10 mu m particles evolved up to 5-10% of their heat in the first 30 min. Particle size affected the peak rate of heat evolution but not its timing. A linear relationship was observed between heat evolved from 0 to 24 h and from 24 h to 48 h. Median size or slag content of subgroups affected the positions of data points on this line. Heat evolved up to 24 h (or 48 h) was found to be closely related to particle size. Rate of heat development does not ...
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Dr. Toone is a physical organic chemist who studies relationships between structure and activity in the context of biology. Currently active programs exist in biocatalysis/applied enzymology, ligand binding and the activity of water, and the synthesis of novel donors of nitric oxide. The study of these problems makes use of synthetic organic chemistry, traditional enzymology, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, and the techniques of directed evolution.. ...
In the cement industry, the extrusion technique is used to produce flat shapes with improved resistance to compression. Extrusion is a plastic-forming process that consists of forcing a highly viscous plastic mixture through a shaped die. The material should be fluid enough to be mixed and to pass through the die, and on the other hand, the extruded specimen should be stiff enough to be handled without changing in shape or cracking. These characteristics are industrially obtained by adding cellulosic polymers to the mixture. The aim of this work is to understand the action mechanism of these additives on the major pure phases constituting a typical Portland cement: tricalcium silicate (C3S), dicalcium silicate (C2S), tricalcium aluminate (C(3)A), and tetracalcium iron-aluminate (C(4)AF). In particular, a methylhydroxyethyl cellulose (MHEC) was selected from the best-performing polymers for further study. The effect of this additive on the hydration kinetics (rate constants, activation energies, ...
I am a phD Student in Spain and i´m currently starting to work with ITC. What I want is to stablish Kd between my protein and some inhibitors. Actually I´m having quite a lot of problems because i´m not able to establish the optimal concentrations conditions to see the union. Could you explain me, please, how do you to to stablish which are your optimal conditions to work ...
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Biological phenomena in general involve molecular recognition on an intramolecular or intermolecular level. Intermolecular processes involve interaction between different types of macromolecules or between a macromolecule and small ligands.. Understanding the interplay between a macromolecular structure and the energetics of its stability and the binding of its partners relies on the knowledge of the parameters describing the equilibrium constant of the free energy, as a sum of enthalpy and entropy.. Modern calorimeters permit direct determination of enthalpy values for binding reactions and conformational transitions in biomolecules. Complete thermodynamics of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy are obtained for reactions of interest in a straightforward manner. Such data are of enormous value in drug design where they provide information about the balance of driving forces.. At the CBS, the Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to investigate all types of protein interactions, with an ...
We are organizing (again) a practical hands-on protein purification course from December 4th to 20th. We maximally can accommodate 16 participants, which will form groups of 2 to 4 participants. Each group needs 3 full days to go thru the practical exercises, but day 3 of the course will be overlapping with day 1 of the next group. Venue is Biomedicum Helsinki, rooms A516a1 (where the machinery is) and B318a/b (our lab). We will purify a protein (VEGF receptor 3) using a two-step protocol (affinity chromatography + gel filtration) on the the Äkta Avant FPLC device. On the third course day well assay its interaction with its ligand (VEGF-C) on the ITC (isothermal calorimetry) device. We have given a similar course in 2015 (http://www.helisci.fi/hbgs/FPLC2015/). This new course (https://courses.helsinki.fi/en/DPBM-135/120171139) will have a similar structure, but we expand it by one day to analyze protein interactions making use of the new isothermal calorimetry device of our B3P core facility. ...
Introduction. COMPARING THE ENTHALPY CHANGE OF COMBUSTION OF DIFFERENT ALCHOHOLS. Aim The aim of my experiment will be to find out which alcohols have a higher enthalpy change of combustion. The comparison of the enthalpy changes of these fuels will then determine the alcohol efficiency and effectiveness. I will experiment on the first 5 consecutive primary alcohols. These are; methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol and hexan-1-ol. The reason why I chose these fuels is because they are the most reliable and accurate fuels to compare within the group; which also have the smallest variable, add one carbon each time, to the aliphatic chain. All combustion reactions are exothermic which is why I am expecting all the values for the enthalpy change of combustion to always be negative. CH3OH + 1.5O2 CO2 + 2H2O METHANOL CH3CH 2OH+ 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O ETHANOL CH3CH 2 CH 2OH+ 4.5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O PROPAN-1-OL CH3CH 2 CH 2 CH 2OH+ 6O2 4CO2 + 5H2O BUTAN-1-OL CH3CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2OH+ 7.5O2 5CO2 + ...
Chemokines are peptide ligands that activate G protein-coupled receptors and that bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the cell surface. Through these two interactions, chemokines participate in leukocyte migration and inflammatory signaling. Although studies of crystals and solution structures indicate that chemokines are dimers, various experiments with monomeric interleukin 8 (IL-8) suggest that the monomer may activate its GPCR, CXCR1. Fernando et al. provide in vitro evidence from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and sedimentation equilibrium studies that IL-8 interacts with the N-terminal domain of CXCR1 (site 1) as a monomer. Sedimentation equilibration experiments showed a 1:1 stoichiometry and suggested that the dimeric IL-8 in solution must dissociate to bind the receptor peptide. ITC experiments supported the conclusion that the ligand dimer dissociated and then IL-8 bound to the receptor as a monomer. The authors propose that the dimeric IL-8 serves as a negative regulator for ...
For Ni/CeZrO catalyst prepared in supercritical isopropanol main features of methane dry reforming reaction mechanism were studied by the pulse microcalorimetric technique. The reaction scheme is described by a step-wise redox mechanism with independent stages of CH4 transformation on Ni/support interface producing syngas with participation of support oxygen bridging species (the rate-limiting stage) and fast reoxidation of support sites by CO2 yielding CO regenerating reactive oxygen species.
Divided into thirteen chapters, the book introduces readers to the basics of thermodynamics as it applies to calorimetry, the evolution of the calorimetric technique, as well as how calorimetric techniques are used in the thermodynamic studies of macromolecules, detailing instruments for measuring the heat effects of various processes.
Abstract: The formation constant (K) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔC.ΔH.ΔS) in reactions in which complexes of adenosine triphosphate with magnesium ion and calcium ion are formed have been obtained by a microcalorimetric method ...
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
The paper frankly discusses some of the limits of using enthalpy arrays. For example, since the fragment should be present at a higher concentration than enzyme, very tight binders would require unfeasibly low enzyme concentrations. This limits the practical range of the technique to inhibitors with KIs ranging from ~500 nM to 2 mM. Also, as Morgen G observed in a comment to the last post, this is more of a biochemical assay (monitoring the heat of an enzymatic reaction) rather than what most people think of when you say the word calorimetry (monitoring the heat of binding, as in the case of isothermal titration calorimetry). Still, enthalpy arrays seem pretty cool; hopefully folks will warm to them ...
When extremely low temperature calorimetry measurements are not necessary, BT2.15 can be equipped with a high performance chiller adapted to the users temperature range. -10 to 195 °C, -30 to 165 °C and -50 to 115 °C are already available. More can be made available on request.. High pressure cell ...
Ligand-mediated regulation of protein assembly occurs frequently in different cellular contexts. Auto-regulated assembly, where a ligand acts as its own competitive inhibitor, provides a mechanism for exquisite control of assembly. Unlike simple protein-ligand systems a quantification of the binding thermodynamics is not straightforward. Here, we characterize the interactions of a recently identified model system in which the oligomerization of cytochrome c is controlled by sulfonato-calix[8]arene, an anionic supramolecular scaffold. Isothermal titration calorimetry and thermodynamic modelling, in combination with Bayesian fitting, were used to quantify the ligand binding and assembly equilibria for this system. The approach and variations of this model may prove useful for the analysis of auto-regulated protein assembly in general ...
Thanks to cashmemorz for providing the following link:. https://brilliantlightpower.com/validation-report-of-275-kw-of-power-at-5-mw-liter-power-density-produced-by-the-suncell/. A news update on the Brilliant Light Power website reports that a validation of their SunCell technology has been carried out by Dr. Mark Nansteel Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley in March 2020, and he has written a report of his testing which can be accessed at this link:. https://brilliantlightpower.com/pdf/Waterbath_Calorimetry_Data_and_Analysis_031120.pdf. Dr. Nansteel writes in the Summary section of his report:. The energy flows and enthalpy changes essential to the calorimetric measurement were carefully measured in the tests. These measured quantities were subsequently used with rigorous statements of energy conservation to determine the energy released by the plasma. Here, the plasma energy is defined as energy released in excess of the conventional electrical energy dissipated between the ...
No binding heat in Substrate and Enzyme ITC - posted in Molecular Biology: Dear all, I did the ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) between an enzyme with its known substrate on Microcal ITC200. The concentartion of the ligand (substarte) is 1mM; and the concentration of the enzyme is 100 uM; 1.8 ul/injection X 22 injection; However, there is no heat of binding observed in the raw data (isotherms). (dilution of substrate(substrate to buffer control) seems to consume some heat; dilution o...
Microcalorimetry and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to conduct thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of the scission of calf thymus DNA catalyzed by bleomycin A5 (BLM-A5) in the presence of ferrous ion and oxygen. The molar reaction enthalpy for the cleavage, the Michaelis- Menten constant for calf thymus DNA and the turnover number of BLM-A5 were calculated by a novel thermokinetic method for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to be )577 ± 19 kJÆmol)1, 20.4 ± 3.8 lM and 2.28 ± 0.49 · 10)2 s)1, respectively, at 37.0 °C. This DNA cleavage was a largely exothermic reaction.... ...
Reaction calorimeters uncover potential safety issues and provide process information under using real time heat flow or heat flux calorimetry.
In the new paper, the researchers tried merging compound 1 with another fragment, compound 2, which also binds at two positions within the protein. Several merging strategies were attempted, and although they all stabilized the protein against thermal denaturation and could be characterized crystallographically bound to the protein, most were no better at blocking DNA binding than the original fragments. Compound 5, however, did show enhanced activity, and was the subject of additional SAR. This led to compound 15, which showed low micromolar binding by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and functional activity. (Oddly, compound 1 appeared to bind considerably more tightly by ITC than suggested by its functional activity, perhaps a result of having two binding sites.) The crystal structure of the optimized, merged compound bound to EthR revealed that compound 15 binds as expected (gray), overlaying with one copy each of compound 2 (magenta) and compound 1 (cyan ...
Characterizing the interactions and stability of biomolecules. Microcalorimetry is used to study reactions involving biomolecules, including interactions
Characterizing the interactions and stability of biomolecules. Microcalorimetry is used to study reactions involving biomolecules, including interactions
Ectodomain shedding of glycoprotein (GP) Ibα is thought to mediate the clearance of activated, aged or damaged platelets. A monoclonal antibody, 5G6, has been developed recently to specifically bind to the GPIbα shedding cleavage site and to inhibit its shedding. However, the molecular mechanism underlying antigen recognition and inhibitory specificity is not clear. To elucidate the structural basis for 5G6 binding to GPIbα, we determined the crystal structure of 5G6 Fab fragment in complex with its epitope peptide KL10 (GPIbα residues 461-470, KLRGVLQGHL), to 2.4-Å resolution. Key residues in both 5G6 and KL10 were mutated to validate their effects in antibody binding by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The 5G6 Fab-KL10 peptide complex structure confirmed the direct association of 5G6 with its target GPIbα residues and elucidated the molecular basis underlying its binding specificity and high affinity. The similar binding properties of 5G6 Fab fragment to GPIbα on human platelets ...
The project will start with the design and ordering of CooA (wild type/mutants) and its response element (wild type/mutants) sequences. CooA mutants were reported to have higher affinity for CO. They were included in our order to shorten CO response time if needed. Two promoters, PCOOF and PCOOM, were previously reported as strong and weak promoters of CooA. We will also design several PCOOF promoter mutants (point mutations). These mutants are expected to have changed affinity for CooA. Binding affinity of CooA and mutated promoters will be determined as a part of characterization work package which includes Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence (ITF). Following this, promoters with different CooA affinities will be coupled and constructs will be prepared for in-vivo cell sensor experiments ...
The project will start with the design and ordering of CooA (wild type/mutants) and its response element (wild type/mutants) sequences. CooA mutants were reported to have higher affinity for CO. They were included in our order to shorten CO response time if needed. Two promoters, PCOOF and PCOOM, were previously reported as strong and weak promoters of CooA. We will also design several PCOOF promoter mutants (point mutations). These mutants are expected to have changed affinity for CooA. Binding affinity of CooA and mutated promoters will be determined as a part of characterization work package which includes Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence (ITF). Following this, promoters with different CooA affinities will be coupled and constructs will be prepared for in-vivo cell sensor experiments ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calorimetric measurements of sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite). AU - Drebushchak, V. A.. AU - Ogienko, A. G.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2019, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/6/1. Y1 - 2020/6/1. N2 - Calorimetric measurements of sodium chloride dihydrate NaCl·2H2O (mineral name hydrohalite) were carried out with using DSC. Heat capacity from 190 to 250 K was measured and found to increase from 109 to 137 J mol−1 K−1. The enthalpy of formation of hydrohalite from solid ice and halite at 273.15 K was derived from the thermal effect of melting/decomposition in DSC measurements and found to be close to − 1.8 kJ mol−1. The same DSC results show clearly that the upper temperature limit for the existence of hydrohalite is several degrees greater than the current value of 273.15 K accepted for the peritectic decomposition of hydrohalite. The phase diagram of the NaCl-H2O system needs ...
Complexing between soy proteins (SP) and gum arabic (GA) was achieved by mutual titration of soy protein and gum arabic and was characterized using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), turbidity, sedimentation and ternary phase boundaries. In the first section, SP were titrated into GA (SP-to-GA titration) under salt-free condition (no added NaCl) at pH 3.0 and pH 5.6, respectively. ITC experiments displayed exothermic processes at both pH status, but the enthalpy changes (ΔH) at pH 3.0 was −0.70 ± 0.02 cal/g as compared to −0.10 ± 0.01 cal/g at pH 5.6. For SP-to-GA titration at pH 3.0, a sudden turbidity increase was observed at the critical SP/GA mass ratio (rφ) of 0.42, which was approximately equal to the charge density ratio of GA and SP (0.36), indicating the charge compensation was achieved at phase separation point. In the second part, GA was titrated into SP (GA-to-SP titration) under salt-free condition at pH 3.0. An immediate turbidity increase was observed when GA was ...
The general belief that chemical structure determines the biological effect of drugs has led to several techniques to establish structure-activity relationships (SAR) that is useful in the development of more active compounds. Predicting toxic effects based on SAR, one can obtain toxicological data with a low cost-benefit ratio. Chlorophenols that represent a class of toxic agents frequently used in industrial processes are not satisfactorily described in the literature in relation to their toxicity. The main objective of this work is to relate the microbial activities of phenol, anisole and their chlorinated derivatives on Chromobacterium violaceum respiration with their physicochemical properties. Anisole and its chlorinated derivatives were used to evaluate the influence of phenol acidity on biological activity. The calculations were carried out at the semi-empirical AM1 and ab initio DFT levels employing the basis sets CEP-31G, CEP-31+Ge CEP-31G** that were parameterized using the ...
Retroviral genome recognition is mediated by the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the virally encoded Gag polyprotein, which interacts with cognate RNA packaging elements that typically reside within the 5-untranslated region (5-UTR) of the genome. Recent studies suggest that the packaging signal of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), a member of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)/BLV family and a non-primate animal model for HTLV-induced leukemogenesis, comprises elements that reside within both the 5-UTR and gag open reading frame. The recombinant BLV NC protein has been prepared and purified. Electrophoretic mobility shift and isothermal titration calorimetry studies with RNA fragments corresponding to these proposed packaging elements have been conducted. The gag-derived RNAs did not exhibit significant affinity for NC, suggesting an alternate role in packaging. However, an 83-nucleotide fragment of the 5-UTR that resides just upstream of the gag start codon binds NC stoichiometrically and with ...
The binding of insulin to the G-quadruplexes formed by the consensus sequence of the insulin-linked polymorphic region (ILPR) was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The thermal denaturation temperature of insulin was increased by almost 4 oC upon binding to ILPR G-quadruplex DNA as determined by DSC. The thermodynamic parameters (KD, H, G and S) of the insulin-G-quadruplex complex were further investigated by temperature-dependent ITC measurement over 10-37 °C. The binding of insulin to the ILPR consensus sequence displays micromolar affinity in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, which and is mainly driven by entropic factors at below 25 °C but by enthalpic factors terms at above 30 °C. The interaction was also examined in several different buffers and results showed that observed H is dependent on the ionization enthalpy of the buffer used. This indicates proton release upon the binding of G-quadruplex DNA to insulin. ...
In: XXII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy. American Institute of Physics, Melville, USA, pp. 839-840. ISBN 9780735408180 ISSN 0094-243X (doi:10.1063/1.3482842) Vine, G.J., Chowdhry, B.Z. and Mitchell, J.C. (2005) Antimicrobial properties of surface-active agents by flow calorimetry. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 57 (S1). S107-S107. ISSN 0022-3573 (Print), 2042-7158 (Online) (doi:10.1211/002235705778248406) Seidel, J., Pinkrah, V.T., Mitchell, J.C., Chowdhry, B.Z. and Snowden, M.J. (2004) Isothermal titration calorimetric studies of the acid-base properties of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) cationic polyelectrolyte colloidal microgels. Thermochimica Acta, 414 (1). pp. 47-52. ISSN 0040-6031 (doi:10.1016/j.tca.2003.11.012) Pinkrah, V.T., Snowden, M.J., Mitchell, J.C., Seidel, J., Chowdhry, B.Z. and Fern, G.R. (2003) Physicochemical properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) cationic polyelectrolyte colloidal microgels. Langmuir, 19 (3). pp. ...
The purpose of this investigation was to further elucidate calorimetric properties of cartilage samples from femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis from live surgeries. The natural course of this disease is one of steady progression with eventual collapse of the femoral head, followed by secondary osteoarthritis in the hip joint. All samples showed a clear denaturation peak on the calorimetric curve. Cartilage obtained from necrotic femoral head required the lowest amount of energy for decomposition. The use differential scanning calorimetry as part of thermal analysis was a reliable method for differentiating. ...
A novel method for the determination of the point of micellar saturation has been developed. To exemplify the theory a model system was considered, this being the saturation of two aqueous micellar solvents with dimethyl phthalate ester (DMP). Upon addition of a hydrophobic compound to an aqueous micellar system partitioning will occur. On further addition, the inner hydrophobic regions will eventually be unable to accommodate any more DMP and, at this specific concentration, the micelle is saturated. With a comparatively large enthalpy change upon partitioning the point of saturation can be determined by a corresponding significant reduction in enthalpy change.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition of septanose carbohydrates by concanavalin A. AU - Castro, Steve. AU - Duff, Michael. AU - Snyder, Nicole L.. AU - Morton, Martha D. AU - Kumar, C. V.. AU - Peczuh, Mark W.. PY - 2005/11/7. Y1 - 2005/11/7. N2 - The ability of the jack bean lectin concanavalin A (ConA) to bind seven membered ring (septanose) monosaccharides has been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.. AB - The ability of the jack bean lectin concanavalin A (ConA) to bind seven membered ring (septanose) monosaccharides has been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=27844440774&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=27844440774&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1039/b509243d. DO - 10.1039/b509243d. M3 - Article. VL - 3. SP - 3869. EP - 3872. JO - Organic and Biomolecular ...
Research Interests: Statistical genetics, data modeling and analysis Research experiences Undergraduate thesis: Study on epigenetical regulator CDYL - Feb 2017 - Jun 2017 Supervisor: Haitao LI, professor at Medical School, Tsinghua University - Cloned and got 8 CDYL point mutants, used isothermal titration to test their binding ability to the ligand Acetyl-CoA. Try to confirm the location of catalytic pocket in the amino acid sequence. - Purified and crystalized the CDYL-Acetyl-CoA compound and used x-ray to get structure information. Enrichment of low-abundance genes by engineered ttAgo - Aug 2015 - Dec 2016 Research student (RA), Supervisor: Haitao LI, professor at Medical School, Tsinghua University - Took charge of the TtAgo experiment, modified the purification of TtAgo; succeeded increasing enriching efficiency of low-abundance long noncoding RNA. - Proved the interaction effectiveness of ttAgo-gDNA-mRNA using negative gel electrophoresis and QPCR. - Summarized the process and results
0056]The system described with reference to FIG. 1 may be generalized to n display screens, as shown in FIG. 4. In this figure, the display system comprises n display screens 10 (where n is an integer number more than 2), each screen being controlled by a corresponding display unit 3. The correction system according to the invention comprises a calorimetric measurement and correction system using the separation line 12 between two adjacent screens. Each rank i measurement and correction system (where i is an integer number between 1 and n-1) includes a sensor 7 positioned facing a separation line 12 between two adjacent screens 10 with ranks i and i+1, this sensor being coupled to a calculation device 5 calculating the rank i calorimetric drift, which is connected to a rank i correction device 6, inserted in the control video system of the rank i+1 display unit 3. Therefore this system includes n-1 calorimetric measurement and correction systems, the rank 2 to n display units 3 being adjusted ...
31 P-NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Studies for Determining Vesicleâ s Drug Physical State and Fraction in Alendronate Liposomes Abstract.
Yes, if youre talking about the simple calorimeters that are used in high school labs, which basically consist of thermometers suspended in a container filled with water. The difference between these calorimeters and bomb calorimeters is that simple calorimeters maintain a constant pressure (since its not completely enclosed, and gases can enter and exit the container), while bomb calorimeters maintain a constant volume (sealed so gases cannot flow between the system and the surroundings ...
CheY, the 129 amino acid chemotactic protein from Escherichia coli, is a good model for studies of folding of parallel alpha/beta proteins. We report here the thermodynamic characterization of the wild-type CheY at different pH values and in different buffers and denaturation conditions. The denaturation of CheY by urea monitored by circular dichroism and fluorescence fits the two-state unfolding model. The stability of the protein is ionic strength dependent, probably due to the presence of three Asp residues in very close proximity in its active site. The presence of a Mg2+ ion, which seems to interact with Asp 13 in the active site, stabilizes the native structure by up to 6.9 kJ mol-1. The CheY maximum stability (31.7 +/- 2.1 kJ mol-1), without magnesium, is reached at pH 5.1. Analysis of scanning calorimetry data has shown that temperature-induced unfolding of CheY is not a two-state process and proceeds through a highly populated intermediate state, corresponding to protein dimers, as was ...
The effect of copper(II) ions (Cu+2) on the structure of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) was investigated spectroscopically using UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) and calorimetrically using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), at different temperatures. Results of the UV-visible studies showed that adding Cu+2 to β-lg solution caused increasing turbidity, indicative of protein aggregation. It was noticeable that the rate of increasing turbidity was directly proportional to increasing temperature. The far-UV CD studies displayed that the Cu+2 cannot induce any significant changes in the secondary structures of β-lg at different temperatures. Also, the ITC data indicated that the binding process of Cu+2 to β-lg is mainly entropically driven. The results highlight that copper ions cause the tertiary structure of β-lg to change and induce a slightly open structure leading to the formation of supramolecular aggregates in β-lg which may result in the reduced allergenicity of β-lg ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic study of the discrimination between uridine and thymidine derivatives by hydrophobic, stacking, and intercalating interactions. AU - Rekharsky, M. V.. AU - Nakamura, Asao. AU - Hembury, G. A.. AU - Inoue, Y.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Thermodynamic parameters for the complexation reactions of uridine/thymidine nucleobases and related compounds, with hosts of differing binding modes and properties (natural cyclodextrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methlpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin tetrachloride and bis-intercaland macrocycle) have been determined by titration microcalorimetry and/or fluorometry, in an aqueous buffer. For each of these hosts the effect of the 5-methyl group on the binding affinities was investigated. Although the affinities of uridine and thymidine towards cyclodextrins and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetrachloride are very similar, the intercalation of these compounds into the bis-intercaland macrocycle has been shown to ...
Global Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Market 2020 research affords a number one review of the business enterprise inclusive of characterizations, companies, displays and organisation chain shape. The evaluation is recommended with Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) market trends research, evaluation additionally covers each the winning and earlier cutting-edge market developments, drivers and barriers faced through Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Market.. Request a sample copy of the report : https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/14254679 Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) market research report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving Revenue growth and profitability. The industry report lists the leading competitors and provides the insights strategic industry Analysis of the key factors influencing the market.The report includes the forecasts, Analysis and discussion ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Simon Hodgkin.. The Hitomi X-ray Observatory was launched on February 17 and lost on March 26th. In the meantime its Soft X-ray Spectrometer, a microcalorimeter operating at 50 mK, spent 3 days observing the Perseus cluster and measuring the velocity broadening of the hot intracluster gas to a precision of 10 km/s. This is one to two orders of magnitude better than achieved before and briefly opened the door on high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of extended objects.. This talk is part of the Institute of Astronomy Colloquia series.. ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 1uy1: Binding Sub-Site Dissection of A Family 6 Carbohydrate-Binding Module By X-Ray Crystallography and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
In this thesis, the syntheses of oligosaccharides for interaction studies with various lectins are described. The first section reports the syntheses of tetra, tri- and disaccharides corresponding to truncated versions of the glucosylated arm of Glc1Man9(GlcNAc)2, found in the biosynthesis of N-glycans. The thermodynamic parameters of their interaction with calreticulin, a lectin assisting and promoting the correct folding of newly synthesised glycoproteins, were established by isothermal titration calorimetry. In the second section, a new synthetic pathway leading to the same tetra- and trisaccharides is discussed. Adoption of a convergent strategy and of a different protecting group pattern resulted in significantly increased yields of the target structures. The third section describes the syntheses of a number of monodeoxy-trisaccharides related to the above trisaccharide Glc-α-(1→3)-Man-α-(1→2)-Man-α-OMe. Differentsynthetic approaches were explored and the choice of early introduction ...
Introduction. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. This means that energy, instead of disappearing, is either transformed, transferred, dispersed, or dissipated. When energy is lost by a system, it will be acquired by the surroundings. Heat can be described as the amount of energy needed to cause the temperature of a substance to rise and it is transferred from warmer areas to cooler ones. In order to be able to measure the change in heat or enthalpy of a reaction, a colorimeter can be used. The calorimeter was first introduced in the 18th century and can be used with any procedure that involves the flow heat between a system and its surroundings (CACT). It is capable of measuring the heat created or exchanged after a reaction has occurred in a system with a constant pressure.. A calorimeter can be used to find the specific heat of a substance or even the heat of neutralization between a base and an acid. A basic calorimeter is composed of ...
Determination of stability constants of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts with the negatively charged sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin: comparison of affinity capillary electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry and thermodynamic analysis of the interaction. / Holm, René; Østergaard, Jesper; Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Jensen, Henrik; Shi, Wei; Peters, Günther H.J.; Westh, Peter.. In: Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 1-4, 2014, p. 185-194.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal article - Annual report year: 2013 ...
The tumor suppressor protein, p53, is mutated or dysregulated in nearly all human cancers(1). The amino terminal domains are essential for transcriptional activation in stressed cells and play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and senescence. The transactivation (TAD) and proline rich domains in this region are dynamic and intrinsically disordered; lacking stable secondary or tertiary structure. This region contains multiple binding sites; arguably, the most significant of these is for p53s negative regulator, the E3 ligase, MDM2. An important, but less understood interaction involving the single stranded DNA binding protein, RPA70A, is hypothesized to be involved in maintaining genome integrity(2-4). Additionally, the amino terminus contains an important single nucleotide polymorphism that has demonstrated different affinity for MDM2 and is of significant biological importance in the induction of apoptosis (5). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
Hi Emily, Some direct methods are available to study the kinetics of protein to DNA binding. 1. Isothermal titration calorimetry. 2. Surface plasmon resonance. Both are widely used, but the second is easier in practice, to my opinion. You need a tag (His-tag will do) on your protein for it to be immobilized. You can measure kinetics very sensitively and quickly using these two techniques. Regards, Clement ...
Many proteins fibrillate at low pH despite a high population of charged side chains. Therefore exchange of protons between the fibrillating peptide and its surroundings may play an important role in fibrillation. Here, we use isothermal titration calorimetry to measure exchange of protons between buffer and the peptide hormone glucagon during fibrillation. Glucagon absorbs or releases protons to an extent which allows it to attain a net charge of zero in the fibrillar state, both at acidic and basic pH. Similar results are obtained for lysozyme. This suggests that side chain pKa values change dramatically in the fibrillar state ...
KtrAB is a key player in bacterial K+ uptake required for K+ homeostasis and osmoadaptation. The system is unique in structure and function. It consists of the K+-translocating channel subunit KtrB, which forms a dimer in the membrane, and the soluble regulatory subunit KtrA, which attaches to the cytoplasmic side of the dimer as an octameric ring conferring Na+ and ATP dependency to the system. Unlike most K+ channels, KtrB lacks the highly conserved T(X)GYG selectivity filter sequence. Instead, only a single glycine residue is found in each pore loop, which raises the question of how selective the ion channel is. Here, we characterized the KtrB subunit from the Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus by isothermal titration calorimetry, solid-supported membrane-based electrophysiology, whole-cell K+ uptake, and ACMA-based transport assays. We found that, despite its simple selectivity filter, KtrB selectively binds K+ with micromolar affinity. Rb+ and Cs+ bind with millimolar affinities. ...
Translational GTPases run the ribosomal cycle, and the ribosome talks back - it recruits the GTPases when it is a certain state, affects trGTPases affinity to G nucleotides and activates the GTP hydrolysis when needed. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we showed that binding of GDP nucleotide and of SRL rRNA element to translational GTPases IF2 and EF-G are mutually exclusive. This suggests a neat mechanism for the destabilisation of the ribosome-bound GDP form of the GTPase: the moor has done his duty, the moor can go. ...
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a nano-scaled particulae material that has been shown to improve strength in cementitious pastes. One advantage of CNCs compared to other nano-materials is that CNCs are renewable and sustainable. The objective of this investigation is to investigate the influence of additional alkali content on the behavior of CNCs in cement paste. This work evaluates flexural and compressive strength as a function of heat of hydration-which measures the extent of reaction. Previous mechanical tests on cement paste containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have shown CNCs to improve the flexural strength of cement paste by approximately 30%. Isothermal calorimetry testing showed that degree of hydration of the cement paste containing CNCs increases compared to the plain system. Since properties of cement composites are time dependent, specimens were tested at degree of hydration. The hypothesis of this work is that CNC will improve the strength gain as a function of hydration. In
The three most common cement s for rock injection in Norway were characterized in terms of grout flow properties, stability and initial set for w/c = 1.2, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6 at 8 and 20°C. The fineness was characterized by Blaine, BET and particle size distribution (PSD). The test methods w ere bleeding, consistency (ring and Marsh Cone), setting by Vic at and temperature evolution in insulated cup. Additional rheology tests with parallel plate rheometer and isothermal calorimetry for hydration evolution were performed for mixes at 20°C only. Only one of the three cements tested could be utilized at all w /c levels ...
Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the movement of heat between different objects.[1] Thermodynamics also studies the change in pressure and volume of objects. A branch of math called statistics is often used in thermodynamics to look at the motion of particles. Thermodynamics is useful because it helps us understand how the world of the very small atoms connects to the large scale world we see everyday. Thermodynamics also has two main branches called classical thermodynamics[2][3] and statistical thermodynamics.[4][5][6] An important idea in thermodynamics is that of a thermodynamic system. An example of a thermodynamic system is a brick. A brick is made up of many atoms which all have their own properties. All thermodynamic systems have two kinds of properties, extensive and intensive. For the brick, the extensive properties are the ones you get by adding up all the atoms. Things like the volume, energy, mass, and charge are extensive because two of the same brick put together ...
Author: Vollhardt, D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008-08-28; Title: Thermodynamic characterization of mixed monolayers of two similar amide amphiphiles different only by exchange of substituents position
ITC is a versatile method for the determination of ligand binding constants (KBs) in solution by measuring the binding heats that are released (enthalpic) or consumed (entropic). ITC is a very direct method which can be applied to a large diversity of ligand- receptor systems. The generated data reveal also the thermodynamic driving forces that give rise to ligand binding. It is therefore a very informative technology for structure based design of inhibitor molecules. An example of a set of ITC experiments is shown on the left. The figures shows the raw titration heats (upper panel) as well as the normalized binding heats (binding isotherm) for each injection on the lower panel as well as a non-linear least squares fit (solid line). Shown are three titration experiments (Bromodomain of BRD4): A) Bank titration (ligand into buffer, B) Inactive (-)-JQ1 stereo isomer. As expected no significant heat effects have been observed C) Active (+)-JQ1 showing exothermic strong binding (2).. ...
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Observed or Experimental value of colligative property when Vant Hoff factor is given calculator uses Experimental Value of Colligative Property=Vant Hoff Factor*Theoretical value of colligative property to calculate the Experimental Value of Colligative Property, The Observed or Experimental value of colligative property when Vant Hoff factor is given is calculated by multiplying Vant Hoff Factor with the theoretical value of colligative property.
What you write is correct about all reactions proceeding if starting with reactants only, these will decrease in concentration and products increase until equilibrium is reached. How long this takes is a matter for chemical kinetics not thermodynamics. Strictly speaking thermodynamics has nothing to say about this process as it deals only with equilibrium situations. Think of the word spontaneous in thermodynamics as not having the same meaning as the word used in general language, but describes only that $K_p , 1$ so that $\Delta G^{\mathrm{0}},0 $.. The graph below shows $\Delta G=\Delta G^\mathrm{0} +RT\ln(Q)$ where for a reaction $\ce{A ,=,B}$ at equilibrium $\displaystyle Q\equiv K_p=\frac{p_B}{p_A}$ where $p$s are the partial pressures. The $\Delta G$ is the gradient of $G$ with extent of reaction $\xi$ which is zero when only reactants are present and is $1$ when $1$ mole of reactants have been converted to products. Thus $\Delta G$ is the slope of the curve shown in the plot in the ...
However, in simple terms, it can be said, Systems that are in thermal equilibrium exist at the same temperature. Examples of how to use laws of thermodynamics in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs All things in the observable universe are affected by and obey the Laws of Thermodynamics. The first law concerns the conservation of energy. Among them are the isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic processes. The first, second and third laws helps to define the physical quantities that describes a thermodynamic system at thermodynamic … Two kg of air at 500kPa, 80°C expands adiabatically in a closed system until its volume is doubled and its temperature becomes equal to that of the surroundings which is at 100kPa and 5°C. Second law of thermodynamics: The entropy of any isolated system always increases. Thermodynamics, science of the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy. Thus, the Laws of Thermodynamics are the Laws of Heat Power. The law is based on ...
Extended indirect calorimetry as a physiological phenotyping tool in mouse nutritionalintervention studies, with a focus on metabolic programming by ...
When gases evolve during a chemical reaction, a fraction of the reaction heat is lost with them. We have analyzed, both theoretically and experimentally, the deviations that this effect can produce on the determination of the reaction heat by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is shown that, even in the absence of gas overheating, deviations related to variations in the sample heat capacity can be substantial in experiments involving very intense DSC peaks. However, experiments performed on thermal decomposition of metal organic salts and on evaporation of liquids have shown that deviations usually arise from gas ...
lists a charge of 0 for both the aqueous proton and electron. Data in this this column are used in CHNOSZ only to specify the charge that is input to the g-function (Tanger and Helgeson, 1988; Shock and Helgeson, 1988). Setting it to zero prevents activation of the g-function, which would result in non-zero contributions to thermodynamic properties, conflicting with the conventions mentioned above. All other calculations in CHNOSZ obtain the elemental makeup, including the correct charge for the species, by parsing the chemical formulas stored in the database.^^. **Likewise, GEM-Selektor defines independent components to be stoichiometric units usually consisting of elements and charge; the latter, which is named Zz and has a standard molal entropy of -65.34 J/mol/K and heat capacity of -14.418 J/mol/K (negative one-half those of gaseous hydrogen), is negated in the formula of the fictive aqueous electron (Kulik, 2006).. ^^ Relatedly, charged amino acid sidechain groups have a charge ...
Video created by 肯塔基大学 for the course 化学. In this unit, we will learn about thermochemistry, which is the study of the thermal energy transfer (heat) in chemical reactions. We will learn how these measurements of heat are made via calorimetry. ...
When 22.7mL of o.500 M H2SO4 is added to 22.7mL of 1.00 M KOH in a coffee-cup calorimeter at 23.50 degrees Celsius, the temperature rises to 30.17 degrees Celsius. Calculate the delta h of this reaction. (Assume that the total volume ...
High-resoln. ac calorimetric data near the Curie point are reported for several single crystals of gadolinium. The crit. temp. and the shape of the heat-capacity curve near Tc both depend on the sample-prepn. procedure, including heat treatments. The heat-capacity data are analyzed in terms of predictions of renormalization-group theory. This anal. shows that the crit. behavior of Gd is consistent with the picture of a complex crit. behavior consisting of a series of crossovers dictated by the interplay between short-range and magnetic-dipolar interactions ...
Its has a lower density which suggests a lower weight for the calorimeter with pure CsI. Its higher refractive index indicates that it would be easier to achieve better light collection uniformity for tapered pure CsI crystals like the pion beta modules. Finally, pure CsI has a long nuclear interaction length and consequently, there would be fewer hadronic interactions in CsI, especially in the pion beta modules. Some other properties of undoped CsI include radiation hardness and temperature dependence of the light output. Wei and Zhu observed a continuous decrease in the light yield of undoped CsI after 1 kRads [Wei-92]. According to their findings, pure CsI can sustain high counting rates up to 10 kRads. Woody et al. reported an increase in the light yield and the decay time of the fast component of pure CsI, and a shift to longer wavelengths at low temperatures Woo-90. A tomography system has been designed and is in operation at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the objective to examine the ...
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Hesss law can be used to calculate enthalpy changes that are difficult to measure directly. In this video, well use Hesss law to calculate the enthalpy change for the formation of methane, CH₄, from solid carbon and hydrogen gas, a reaction that occurs too slowly to be measured in the laboratory.
Thermodynamics is a part of science which is related with heat, temperature and energy. It is concerned with various forms of energy and its mutual conversion. The Thermodynamic behavior of different quantities or matter is controlled by 4 laws of thermodynamics. In this universe there is always a relation between any matter and energy. Thermodynamics is applicable in wide range of Science, Technology and Engineering world.
The First Law of the Thermodynamics is related to the conservation of energy, while the Second Law of Thermodynamics argue that some of the thermodynamics processes are impermissible and does not entirely follow the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Mechanical Engineering Online course and notes for Metallurgical Thermodynamics & Kinetics,Third Law Of Thermodynamics. Download Mechanical Engineering, Third Law Of Thermodynamics in Metallurgical Thermodynamics & Kinetics notes
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS BY MCCONKEY 5TH EDITION PDF - Applied Thermodynamics (5th Edition) by A Mc Conkey and T D Eastop is a very simple language thermodynamics book for various. Applied Thermodynamics. For