Looking for cacodylic acid? Find out information about cacodylic acid. 2 AsOOH Colorless crystals that melt at 200°C; soluble in alcohol and water; used as a herbicide Explanation of cacodylic acid
II. Cacodylate Buffer (arsenate buffer) pH 5-7.4. Advantages:. 1. Easy to prepare.. 2. Stable during storage for long periods of time.. 3. Does not support growth of microorganisms.. 4. Precipitates usually do not occur. Precipitates do not occur at low concentrations of calcium.. Disadvantages:. 1. Toxic. Contains arsenic.. 2. Unpleasant smell.. Preparation of Buffer:. Stock solutions:. 0.2M sodium cacodylate 1 liter. Na(CH3)2As02*3H20 (MW = 195.92) 42.8 gm. + ddH20 to make 1 liter. 0.2M HC1. Conc. HC1 (36-38%) 10 ml. ddH20 603 ml. Working buffer: 0.1M 100 ml. Adjust 50 ml of 0.2M sodium cacodylate to desired pH with 0.2M HC1. Dilute to 100 ml with ddH20 or dilute 1:1 with fixative.. pH 0.2M HC1 (ml). 6.4 18.3. 6.6 13.3. 6.8 9.3. 7.0 6.3. 7.2 4.2. 7.4 2.7. Buffer may also be made with cacodylic acid.. Stock solutions:. 0.2M cacodylic acid 1 liter. (CH3)2AsO2H (MW = 138.0) 27.6 gm. + ddH20 to make 1 liter. 0.2M NaOH 100 ml. NaOH (MW = 40) 0.8 gm. + ddH20 to make 100 ml. Working buffer: ...
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Hundreds of millions of people world-wide are exposed to unacceptable levels of arsenic in drinking water. This is a public health crisis because arsenic is a Group I (proven) human carcinogen. Human cells methylate arsenic to monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV). Although the liver is the predominant site for arsenic methylation, elimination occurs mostly in urine. The protein(s) responsible for transport of arsenic from the liver (into blood), ultimately for urinary elimination are unknown. Human multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) and MRP2 (ABCC2), are established arsenic efflux pumps, but unlike the related MRP4 (ABCC4), are not present at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. MRP4 is also found at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells making it an ideal candidate for urinary arsenic elimination. In the current study, human MRP4 expressed in HEK293 cells reduced the ...
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Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is believed to have negative effects on our heart and may even result in death. Runners, listen up! DMAA was found in the blood of a marathoner who died of cardiac arrest at the London Marathon last year. Her name: Claire Squires. In another instance, two American soldiers who took a supplement containing DMAA died of similar cause after undergoing fitness exercise during military training.
Arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenous (III) acid, arsenic (V) acid. The concentration of speciated arsenics is determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate the species coupled to an ICP-DRC-MS to detect the arsenic species. This analytical technique is based on separation by anion-exchange chromatography (IC), followed by detection using quadrupole ICP-MS technology, and includes DRC™ technology (Baranov VI et al., 1999), which minimizes or eliminates many argon-based polyatomic interferences (Tanner S et al., 2000) will require 0.5 mL of urine. Arsenic species column separation is largely achieved due to differences in charge-charge interactions of each negatively-charged arsenic component in the mobile phase, with the positively-charged quaternary ammonium groups bound at the columns solid-liquid interface. Upon exit from the column, the chromatographic eluent goes through a nebulizer, where it is converted into ...
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HydroxyElite 90ct By Hi Tech OxyElite Replacement With DMAA [HItech25] - USP Labs OXY Elite Original Formula is Now Back With DMAA called HydroxyElite Everyone knows how well Oxyelite worked, but because of some pressure the product was removed from the market. Hi Tech Pharma is not afraid of a little pressure and has brought this fat destroying muscle building turbine back
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has considered a proposal to list 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) as a schedule 9 compound. Schedule 9 compounds are prohibited substances which have no therapeutic…
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DMAA has been all over headlines in recent months and everyones starting to take sides. Lets take a look at USPlabs, GNC, NSF, FDA, CRN-UK and WADA and see where they stand.
Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals has released HydroxyElite, which is basically an OxyELITE Pro replacement / clone that INCLUDES 1,3 Dimethylamylamine (DMAA)!
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S4-2 Urinary Sulfur-Containing Metabolite Produced by Intestinal Bacteria following Oral Administration of Dimethylarsinic Acid to Rats(SYMPOSIUM 4: ARSENIC IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE TOXICITY)(Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting) (2004 ...
However better quality products, improved and more transparent supplement testing programmes coupled with more accurate and sophisticated anti-doping controls, mean the supplements industry - at least honest players - have little to worry about at next months London Olympics.. While acknowledging contamination issues have drawn unwanted attention at Olympiads past, Paul Brown, lab manager at reputed UK-based product tester, HFL Sport Science, points out that ever-heightened scrutiny around the nutritional inputs of elite athletes means there is a much reduced likelihood of a rogue product smiting an athlete - and besmirching the wider law-abiding industry.. Not that it is non-existent. On your marks: DMAA…. DMAA confusion​. "Historically there have been issues associated with supplements and contamination and it is something that is still pointed at as being an issue within the sports supplement industry,"​ Brown said.. "A prime example in relation to that would be DMAA which we have seen ...
Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Surprisingly, it was also found that DPS protects normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells (CECs) from clonogenic death after ionizing radiation (IR). Here we tested the DPS radiosensitizing effect in a clinically relevant model of prostate cancer and explored the radioprotective effect and mechanism of DPS on CECs. Methods and Materials: The radiation modification effect of DPS was tested in a mouse model of orthotopic xenograft prostate cancer and of IR-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. The effect of DPS on CEC DNA damage and DNA damage responses was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: In the mouse model of IR-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, DPS treatment before IR accelerated recovery from body weight loss and increased animal survival. DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, ...
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Prepared buffers are ready to use with fixative. Borate, citrate, Earles, Hepes, Millonig, mops, phosphate buffer saline, sodium cacodylate and Sorensens.. ...
NO2 OVERLOAD is the ultimate pre-workout drink. We fully believe that this formula is currently the best pre-workout supplement on the market. This is based using research and customer research. The new formula has had DMAA removed due to it becoming banned in the UK, however we feel the new formula is just as good, if not even better. NO2 OVERLOAD gives you pumps like youve never known before.. When using NO2 OVERLOAD youll find youself with explosive energy, strength and power throughout your workout. This product will give you strength and energy you never knew you had so be sure not to miss out on being able to hit new Personal Bests.. Guidelines: - DO NOT take more than 4 out of 7 days. - DO NOT take caffeine 2 hours either side of taking this product. - We strongly recommend only using half a scoop when first taking this supplement in order to ease yourself into its extreme effects. - DO NOT take with alcohol. - DO NOT take if you are preganant. - DO NOT take if you suffer from kidney or ...
http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm302133.htm Holy shit!!! DA NEWS RELEASEFor Immediate Release: April 27, 2012 Media Inquiries: Siobhan DeLancey, 301-796-4668 or 202-510-4177, [email protected]; Tamara Ward, 301-796-7567, [email protected] Trade Press Inquiries: Sebastian Cianci, 240-402-2291, [email protected] Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDAFDA challenges marketing of DMAA products for lack of safety evidence Agency cites
By Janet Klein, Lauren Specter and Adrian TaylorRock Center Updated 6:18 PM, April 12, 2013: In advance of Rock Centers report on the supplement industry, the FDA issued a warning about DMAA, the supplement present in the popular product Jack3
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Looking for online definition of dimethylarsinic acid in the Medical Dictionary? dimethylarsinic acid explanation free. What is dimethylarsinic acid? Meaning of dimethylarsinic acid medical term. What does dimethylarsinic acid mean?
It is generally admitted that when a body becomes conjugated, its essential chemical character is not altered by the presence of the conjunct: thus for instance, the series of acids CnHnO4, formed by the conjunction of the radicals CnH(n+1) with oxalic acid, have the same neutralizing power as the original oxalic acid; and, therefore, if we assume the organo-metallic bodies above mentioned to be metals conjugated with various hydrocarbons, we might reasonably expect, that the chemical relations of each metal to oxygen, chlorine, sulphur, &c. would remain unchanged; a glance at the formulae of these compounds will however suffice to show us that this is far from being the case: it is true that cacodyl forms protoxide of cacodyl and cacodylic acid, corresponding the one to a somewhat hypothetical protoxide of arsenic, which, if it exist, does not seem to possess any well-defined basic character, and the other to arsenious acid[12]; but no compound corresponding to arsenic acid can be formed, and ...
What is arsenic and where do you find it?. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is widely distributed in the earths crust. Arsenic can exist in several oxidation states with other elements as inorganic or organic arsenic. It is a silvery-gray, semimetallic substance that tarnishes in air. Inorganic and organic arsenic compounds are white in color, and have no smell or special taste. Inorganic arsenic occurs naturally in certain types of soils and rock formations. Inorganic arsenic compounds are mainly used as a preservative in pressure-treated wood to make it resistant to rotting and decay. Organic arsenic compounds are used to make insect killers, weed killers, and fungicides.. Who is exposed to arsenic?. Anyone can be exposed to arsenic since low levels of arsenic are present in soil, water, food, and air. People are primarily exposed to arsenic through eating food (fish and shellfish), drinking water, or breathing air containing arsenic. If wells are drilled in areas where naturally ...
There has been intense debate about whether DMAA, which was first manufactured synthetically by drug giant Eli Lily in the 1940s, is in fact a constituent of geranium.. According to a single analysis by Chinese researchers reportedly using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and published in the Journal of Guizhou Institute of Technology​ (1996, Vol. 25, pp. 82-85) - The Ping Paper - DMAA is a constituent of geranium oil, but no other published analysis has reported its presence.. Very good work performed by a reputable team of scientists​. Commenting independently on the new analysis, James Neal-Kababick, Director of Flora Research Laboratories, told NutraIngredients-USA that the paper "comprehensively puts the final coffin nail in the long suffering DMAA debate​. ​. "The researchers have comprehensively addressed the issues of analysis, accounted for numerous variables and once again, like so many other recent publications have shown using no less than three ...
In mammals, methylation occurs in the liver by methyltransferases, the products being the (CH3)2AsOH (dimethylarsinous acid) and (CH3)2As(O)OH (dimethylarsinic acid), which have the oxidation states As(III) and As(V), respectively.[2] Although the mechanism of methylation of arsenic in humans has not been elucidated, the source of methyl is methionine, which suggests a role of S-adenosyl methionine.[25] Exposure to toxic doses begin when the livers methylation capacity is exceeded or inhibited. There are two major forms of arsenic that can enter the body, arsenic (III) and arsenic (V).[26] Arsenic (III) enters the cells though aquaporins 7 and 9, which is a type of aquaglyceroporin.[26] Arsenic (V) compounds use phosphate transporters to enter cells.[26] The arsenic (V) can be converted to arsenic (III) by the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase.[26] This is classified as a bioactivation step, as although arsenic (III) is more toxic, it is more readily methylated.[27]. There are two routes ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Arsenic methylation capability and human health. AU - Hsueh, Yu Mei. AU - Huang, Yung Kai. AU - Chung, Chi Jung. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The metabolism of inorganic arsenic takes place through a series of reactions, including reduction and oxidative methylation reactions. Biomethylation is considered a major detoxification pathway for inorganic arsenic. However, interspecies differences exist according to the efficiency with which inorganic arsenic is metabolized and excreted in urine. Intermediate trivalent methylated arsenic species are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than inorganic compounds. The arsenic methylation profile is influenced by demographic characteristics, lifestyle, diet and genetic susceptibility. Inefficient methylation is related to the risk of cancer and noncancer disease.. AB - The metabolism of inorganic arsenic takes place through a series of reactions, including reduction and oxidative methylation reactions. Biomethylation is considered a major ...
Commonly found arsenic species in human urine are AsIII (arsenite), AsV (arsenate), MMA (monomethyl arsenic acid), DMA (dimethylarsinic acid) and AB (arsenobetaine). Evidence has shown that these species vary in toxicity and have the potential to be used as biomarkers for human exposure. For human exposure assessments in areas that have naturally occurring arsenic contaminated sources, or those who live or work near contaminated environmental sites where arsenic has been used, it is important to fully understand what species of arsenic residents are being exposed to in order to grasp the risk of arsenic exposure. Since it is difficult to determine direct human exposures, a swine model was used as a surrogate. Urine samples from these studies were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LCICPMS) to quantitate arsenic species. There was a range of 64-74% DMA determined in swine urine samples for all test soils where a range of 60-75% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and risk of arsenic-induced urothelial carcinoma in residents of southwestern Taiwan. AU - Hsu, Ling I.. AU - Chen, Wu Ping. AU - Yang, Tse Yen. AU - Chen, Yu Hsin. AU - Lo, Wann Cheng. AU - Wang, Yuan Hung. AU - Liao, Ya Tang. AU - Hsueh, Yu Mei. AU - Chiou, Hung Yi. AU - Wu, Meei Maan. AU - Chen, Chien Jen. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Arsenic exposure is an important public health issue worldwide. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is consistently observed. Inorganic arsenic is methylated to form the metabolites monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid while ingested. Variations in capacity of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation might explain individual variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced cancers. Methods. To estimate individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced UC, 764 DNA specimens from our long-term follow-up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of trivalent arsenicals on cell proliferation in mouse and human microvascular endothelial cells. AU - Dodmane, Puttappa R.. AU - Arnold, Lora L. AU - Pennington, Karen L.. AU - Singh, Rakesh K. AU - Cardoso, Ana Paula Ferragut. AU - Cohen, Samuel Monroe. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been associated with cancerous and non-cancerous health effects, including cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanism for a presumed toxic effect of arsenic on vascular tissue is not clear. Our working hypothesis is that inorganic trivalent arsenic and its methylated metabolites react with cysteine-containing cellular proteins and alter their function leading to adverse events such as cytotoxicity or proliferation. In this study, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC1) and mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MFP-MVEC) were exposed to arsenite (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), or dimethylarsinous acid ...
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The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) is recommending that methods to minimise the levels of inorganic arsenic in rice products should be investigated in the light of recent dietary exposure studies in the German population.. Analyses of rice and rice products in Germany have shown that many contain relatively high concentrations of carcinogenic inorganic arsenic. Some products, such as rice cakes, were found to contain more inorganic arsenic than rice grains, but the reason for this is not known.. The BfR has calculated the intake of toxic inorganic arsenic compounds through the consumption of rice and rice products in Germany and concludes that they could make a significant contribution to the overall intake, especially in children. "Because inorganic arsenic compounds are classified as carcinogenic for humans, foodstuffs should only contain as little as reasonably achievable," says BfR President Professor Dr Dr Andreas Hensel.. The Institute is advising food manufacturers to ...
Arsenic toxicity is species-dependent for mammals and is transformed to other metabolites in various organs. In order to understand its metabolism, in-vitro simulation experiments were set up for various organ tissues. As(V) was transformed to As(III), while DMA(V) was changed to DMAS in sheep rumen, but the suspected MA-V) was not formed. This is different for the incubation of seaweed in rumen fluid, which points to a different unknown source for MA(V). In another study, dog MDCK kidney cells showed that inorganic arsenicals were methylated in kidney cells while the exposed DMAS was only oxidized to DMA(V) in kidney cells, and the exposed DMA(V) rarely transformed. The toxicities of arsenicals in dog kidney cells is dependant upon the uptake rates and the transformation of arsenicals. DMAS was as toxic as the inorganic arsenic species and an order to magnitude more toxic than the oxo-species. Methylated arsenic species can accumulate in hair and wool and can be used as a biomarker for arsenic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption. AU - Meharg, A. A.. AU - Williams, P. N.. AU - Deacon, C. M.. AU - Norton, Gareth John. AU - Hossain, Mohammed Kamal. AU - Louhing, D.. AU - Marwa, Ernest Melkiory. AU - Lawgalwi, Y.. AU - Taggart, Mark Antony. AU - Cascio, Claudia. AU - Haris, P.. PY - 2014/11. Y1 - 2014/11. N2 - Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed ...
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The aim of this paper is to report on the presence of chemical interferences in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine when using a method based on selective volatile arsine species generation, chromatographic separation, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry HGAAS detection. An abnormal profile of...
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The researchers performed genetic association analysis to screen for the presence of statistically significant effects of genotypes on arsenic metabolism, as indirectly reflected by urinary arsenic metabolite levels. Dr. Klimeckis research team first developed polymorphism catalogs for GSTO, PNP, and AS3MT, within ethnically defined human populations. From these catalogs, the researchers selected 23 polymorphic sites within these three genes to test in the study population. They determined phenotypes for each study participant, noting standard demographic characteristics, the ratio of As(III) to As(V) in urine and the ratio of urinary dimethylarsenic(V) to monomethylarsenic(V) (D:M) in urine. Three polymorphic sites in the AS3MT gene were found to be significantly associated with D:M ratios in the total population. To the researchers surprise, subsequent analysis of this association revealed that the association signal for the entire population was actually caused by an extremely strong ...
Dissection. Sacculi from adult American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were rapidly dissected into an oxygenated saline solution [containing (in mm): 120 NaCl, 2 KCl, 0.1 CaCl2, 3 dextrose, 5 HEPES, and 0.02% phenol red] and cleaned of extraneous tissue (Assad and Corey, 1992). The pH was adjusted to 7.23 with NaOH, and the final osmolarity was 250 mOsm/kg. Otolithic membranes overlying saccular epithelia were removed in fresh saline solution with fine forceps after incubation of the tissue in 75 μg/ml of subtilisin (Type XXVIII; Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 20 min.. Immunohistochemistry. Tissues were fixed for 18 min in 4% formaldehyde in 80 mm sodium cacodylate buffer with 4 mm CaCl2, pH 7.35, at room temperature with gentle agitation. After fixation, tissues were rinsed (one time for 5 min) in 80 mm sodium cacodylate buffer without CaCl2 and (three times for 5 min each) in PBS (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY) diluted to ∼250 mOsm, pH 7.4. This and all subsequent steps used PBS adjusted to ...
This application note demonstrates the ability to measure various arsenic forms in white rice, building upon previous work using HPLC/ICP-MS. The results described demonstrate that the combination of Flexar HPLC and NexION ICP-MS is suitable for the analysis of different forms of arsenic in white rice.
Understanding the biogeochemical behaviour of arsenic in the weathering and shallow subsurface environment depends critically upon determining the nature and distribution of the chemical species present in natural waters. To this end, coupled ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) is widely used, though species fractionation during ultrasonic nebulization, and matrix-dependent ionization in the plasma are analytical issues that need to be addressed. Hexapole collision cell technology is shown to be effective in suppressing chloride-based polyatomic interferences. Irrespective of the analytical technique used, As(III)/As(V) ratios of natural waters may change substantially during storage due to (1) differential adsorption of arsenic species on hydrated ferric oxides (HFOs); and (2) microbial activity. A wide range of apparently contradictory speciation changes observed by various workers can be rationalized in terms of the differences of microbial consortia ...
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Citation: Ritchie, A.W., Edmonds, J.S., Goessler, W. and Jenkins, R.O. (2004) An origin for arsenobetaine involving bacterial formation of an arsenic-carbon bond. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 235 (1) pp.95-99 ...
Liquid chromatography combined with element specific detection is commonly applied in speciation analysis. In these analyses, to obtain reliable data chemical species should not be transformed. To preserve chemical species during the separation step, fast chromatographic procedures and mild separati …
Element speciation analysis requires an efficient and rapid separation of element species and their highly sensitive detection. In order to preserve the