North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents ∼52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout) were
Scientists estimate that there are 28,000 species of butterflies around the world . • Most butterflies are found in rainforests but can live in all the climates and altitudes of the world. • Butterflies migrate to avoid the cold. • Many believe that butterflies got their name because they flew around the buckets of milk on the farms. While the milk was being beaten in butter, many noticed that these flying insects would appear and soon were called butterflies. • Butterflies have three body parts , like all the other insects: the head, the chest (chest) and the abdomen (bottom). The four wings of the butterfly and the six legs are attached to the thorax. • Butterflies are colorful for many reasons . The colors help to attract a mate, absorb heat and color also helps to blend into the flowers when they feed. • As the caterpillar grows, the skin will move and squeeze to get rid of your skin. When the caterpillar has grown several thousand times its original size, it enters a stage of ...
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The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterflys migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of
In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of
The nano-photonic structures on the wings of three Papilionidae butterflies, Papilio blumei, Papilio ulysses and Papilio peranthus, were investigated. It was observed that the photonic structure is multi-layer with alternate air and cuticle layers forming one-dimensional photonic crystal. The multi-layer structures of the three butterflies differ subtly but are sufficient to account for the differences in their iridescence. The subtleness is more obvious in their polarized reflection results. We performed the simulation of polarized reflection using characteristic matrix method with parameters obtained from SEM images of butterfly wing scales cross-section. The simulated reflection spectra are matched with the experimental spectra to derive the effective refractive index of the air lamina in the butterfly wing scales. It shows that through varying the optical thickness and periodicities in air/cuticle bilayer stacks, the iridescent color of these three Papilionidae butterflies appear different. ...
Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly Stock Photo. csp21821478 - Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly or Blue Swallowtail or Battus philenor rests on some leaves. Affordable Royalty Free Stock Photography. Downloads for just $2.50, with thousands of images added daily. Subscriptions available for just $39.00. Our stock photo image search engine contains royalty free photos, vector clip art images, clipart illustrations.
Seasonal polyphenism demonstrates an organisms ability to respond to predictable environmental variation with alternative phenotypes, each presumably better suited to its respective environment. However, the molecular mechanisms linking environmental variation to alternative phenotypes via shifts in development remain relatively unknown. Here we investigate temporal gene expression variation in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana. This species shows drastic changes in eyespot size depending on the temperature experienced during larval development. The wet season form (larvae reared over 24 degrees C) has large ventral wing eyespots while the dry season form (larvae reared under 19 degrees C) has much smaller eyespots. We compared the expression of three proteins, Notch, Engrailed, and Distal-less, in the future eyespot centers of the two forms to determine if eyespot size variation is associated with heterochronic shifts in the onset of their expression. For two of these ...
South Floridas climate offers gardeners the opportunity to attract butterflies every month of the year. There are about 160 species of butterflies in Florida. You can make them a part of your garden. First some facts about our flying friends. Butterflies do not bite or carry disease. In their adult form they do no harm. Butterflies are cold blooded; they do not produce metabolic heat like humans, so they must rely on the sun to raise their body temperature so they can move about. Some bask with their wings open, others with wings shut. Many butterflies are territorial and fight, chasing others out of their territory. Butterflies can see ultraviolet light (light invisible to the human eye) which makes the markings on flowers very vivid to them and guides them to the nectar tubes. Some butterflies have ultraviolet reflectants or markings on their own wings which are visible only to other butterflies. Butterflies are pollinators. While they are not as abundant as bees, they do offer a particularly ...
A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI barcode region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central-Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbor-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular barcode. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric
What is the difference between butterflies, moths, and skippers?. Butterflies: drink and rest with their wings up, but sun themselves with their wings outstretched. They have smooth antennae with a knob at the end. Their body hardens into a chrysalis for metamorphosis. They are active in the daytime. Some can be quite colourful.. Moths: rest with their wings outstretched along their back, or tented. Have feathery antennae. They spin a cocoon with silk for metamorphosis, and some species are active during the night, while others are active during the day. They are usually muted colours. Their bodies are usually fuzzier and plumper than that of butterflies.. Skippers: are often considered a mix between butterflies and moths. They rest usually with their wings angled upwards, sometimes outstretched, although parted, and rarely completely folded upwards. Like butterflies, they are active during the day, and have smooth antennae with a club end, although the club is often hooked. Like moths they are ...
Moth and butterfly are common names given to insects of the order Lepidoptera. There is no strong scientific basis for these terms. There is an evolutionary continuum from the most ancient moth group to the most sophisticated butterfly group. Some moths are more closely related to butterflies than to other moths.. There are some general differences between moths and butterflies. Moths usually hold their wings flat while resting, have feathery antennae, and are active at night. Butterflies tend to be more brightly coloured, have clubbed antennae, hold their wings erect while at rest, and are active by day. But there are exceptions to these generalisations. Many New Zealand moths fly during the day or at dusk. The black mountain ringlet butterfly holds its wings flat while at rest. Some New Zealand butterflies are drab, and most people would call them moths. One sure way to distinguish the two in New Zealand (this does not apply globally) is that all native butterflies have clubbed ...
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To assess the change in the size of the eastern North American monarch butterfly summer population, studies have used long-term data sets of counts of adult butterflies or eggs per milkweed stem. Despite the observed decline in the monarch population as measured at overwintering sites in Mexico, these studies found no decline in summer counts in the Midwest, the core of the summer breeding range, leading to a suggestion that the cause of the monarch population decline is not the loss of Midwest agricultural milkweeds but increased mortality during the fall migration. Using these counts to estimate population size, however, does not account for the shift of monarch activity from agricultural fields to non-agricultural sites over the past 20 years, as a result of the loss of agricultural milkweeds due to the near-ubiquitous use of glyphosate herbicides. We present the counter-hypotheses that the proportion of the monarch population present in non-agricultural habitats, where counts are made, has increased
The Monarch Butterfly. The knowledge of citizen scientists, biologists, and naturalists informs this books coverage of every aspect of the monarch butterflys life cycle (breeding, migration, and overwintering) from the perspective of every established monarch population...
Amazing pictures of 5 Unique Pictures Of Dogs In Animal Shelters is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 500 x 484 px and the image size only 188 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: blue dog pictures for sale, bulldog puppies for sale, dog for sale pictures, dogs for sale pictures, english bulldog for sale, .. ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of lepidoptera, swallowtail butterfly larvae image
Report sightings of migrating Monarch Butterflies. Journey North citizen scientists track monarch butterfly migration each fall and spring as Monarch Butterflies at Sanctuary in Mexico migrate to and from Mexico.
Monarch butterflies who have dark orange wings fly further than those with light orange wings, a new study has revealed.. Previous work has shown that monarch colouring is intended to warn their predators about their bitter taste and toxicity, and that migratory butterflies are darker coloured than non-migratory ones, suggesting an association between darker colour and increased fitness.. The current work, led by Andrew Davis of the University of Georgia, provides further evidence for this association.. The researchers tested 121 captive monarchs in an apparatus called a tethered flight mill, where they can quantify butterfly flight speed, duration, and distance, and found that those with darker orange wings overall flew longer distances than those with lighter wings.. "Butterfly researchers dont often look closely at colour variation between individuals of the same species. The results of this project will pave the way for a new line of inquiry into the significance of butterfly wing colour," ...
The Nymphalidae are members of the Superfamily Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults vary in size from small to large, and their front legs are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing shape is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins (anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed on sap flows, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit perching and patrolling behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying varies widely, as some species lay eggs in ...
Heliconius cydno, the cydno longwing, is a nymphalid butterfly that ranges from Mexico to northern South America. It is typically found in the forest understory and deposits its eggs on a variety of plants of the genus Passiflora. It is a member of the Heliconiinae subfamily of Central and South America, and it is the only heliconiine that can be considered oligophagous. H. cydno is also characterized by hybridization and Müllerian mimicry. Wing coloration plays a key role in mate choice and has further implications in regards to sympatric speciation. Macrolide scent gland extracts and wing-clicking behavior further characterize this species. Listed alphabetically: H. c. alithea Hewitson, 1869 H. c. barinasensis Masters, 1973 H. c. chioneus Bates, 1864 H. c. cordula Neustetter, 1913 H. c. cydnides Staudinger, 1885 H. c. cydno Doubleday, 1847 H. c. hermogenes Hewitson, 1858 H. c. gadouae Brown & Fernández, 1985 H. c. galanthus Bates, 1864 H. c. lisethae Neukirchen, 1995 H. c. pachinus Salvin, ...
A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. Both are of the order Lepidoptera. The division of lepidopterans into moths and butterflies is a popular, not a scientific distinction. While butterflies are considered to be a natural group-having descended from a single common ancestor-moths are an artificial group, defined as any lepidopteran that is not a butterfly. However, neither hold formal taxonomic rank.. Popularly defined, most species of Lepidoptera are moths, and about 70 of the 80 families of the order. Butterflies can be considered to be a small group that arose from within the "moths.". In general, moths are considered to be distinct from butterflies in that moths are chiefly nocturnal, while butterflies are diurnal; moths have comb-like or feathery antennae while butterflies have thin, slender, and filamentous antennae; and moths have a stouter and more furry-looking body, duller coloring, and proportionately smaller wings than butterflies. However, there are many exceptions ...
The breeding of common butterflies for export plus their by-products help to fund the Centers host-plant research, development and the breeding of rare butterflies. Only hand bred sources, not those captured from the wild, are used by the Center to protect the butterfly population. Only the surplus from these hand bred butterflies are used for making by-products for both the local and foreign markets ...
To learn more, I recommend the new Butterflies of Illinois: A Field Guide by Michael Jeffords, Susan Post, and James Wiker. This beautiful book contains descriptions, field photos, and life-size specimen photos of all Illinois butterfly species.. I also encourage you to visit the Kim St John Butterfly Habitat at Wildlife Prairie Park. The house showcases native Illinois butterflies using a modest structure of metal hoops covered with netting. The house covers 2,600 square feet and is filled with larval and nectar plants.. Finally, reduce pesticide use and use more native plants. Butterflies are insects and are susceptible to most insecticides. Many insects feed on the native plants they evolved with over time. Although adult butterflies feed on many different types of nectar, their larvae need specific (and often) native plants in order to survive.. Plant your own butterfly garden this summer. Then, sit back and enjoy the show. Butterfly gardening is very rewarding.. ...
Xerces Societys Western Monarch Thanksgiving Count isnt done yet, but it found that the butterfly population dropped down an order of magnitude in 2018.
Atmospheric Nostalgia. Butterflies are powerful symbols in many cultures, often believed to represent material or spiritual transformation. In Greek, the word psyche means both butterfly and soul. Butterflies start life as eggs that hatch into caterpillars (larvae). As the caterpillars grow, they molt (shed their skins) several times until their final molt produces a chrysalis, or pupa. When the butterfly is truly formed, it emerges from the chrysalis and pumps fluid from its body into its wings. Adult butterflies live anywhere from one week to six or eight months.. Butterflies are threatened by loss of habitat due to human development, and by environmental factors such as pollution, pesticides, and genetically modified crops. While many gardeners strive to attract butterflies, some destroy the larvae because they do not recognize them as immature butterflies.. This card features three species of butterfly found in North America: the Viceroy, Western Tiger Swallowtail, and Malachite. The ...
Many insect species have a well-developed visual system with the capacity to see colour, i.e. objects in their environment are discriminated by their spectral content. Butterflies are considered to be highly visual animals and are generally believed to possess colour vision. Nevertheless, definitive evidence for colour vision was only recently obtained for two papilionid species, the Japanese yellow swallowtail Papilio xuthus (Kinoshita et al., 1999) and the Australian orchard butterfly Papilio aegeus (Kelber and Pfaff, 1999). In the classical example of insect colour vision, the honeybee Apis mellifera, three photoreceptors form the standard set of photoreceptors underlying colour vision, with spectral sensitivities in the ultraviolet, blue and green, respectively (Menzel and Backhaus, 1989), corresponding well with the absorption spectra of three identified rhodopsins (Townson et al., 1998). These rhodopsins are assumed to be expressed in anatomically well-defined photoreceptors (Menzel and ...
High in the eucalyptus trees in coastal southern California, a cluster of migrating monarch butterflies formed huddled masses, as if to brave the chill. I could appreciate their need for warmth as my own wind-chilled fingers refused to move, making the delicate task of handling one of the netted butterflies even more challenging.
Modeling population dynamics that include mutualistic interactions is an important and complex problem in theoretical biology and quantitative ecology. Mutualistic interactions, which are generally considered relationships in which two or more species benefit from each others presence, play a significant role in determining population dyanmics, and are essential to fully understanding the dynamics of interacting species. However, mutualistic interactions are a historically understudied topic in ecology; accurately describing populations in multi-species interactions is inherently challenging (Hastings & Powell, 1991), and models describing these populations increase greatly in complexity as the intricacy and interdependence of the relationship increases. As such, there have been relatively few attempts within the field to fully account for the particulars of these relationships. Through numerical simulation of lycaenid butterfly and aphid populations together with deterministic and stochastic ...
When exposed to butterflies with four brilliant ultraviolet-reflecting spots for only three hours, females no longer show preference for the type of males found in the wild. But females initially exposed to drabber males with one or zero spots did not change their original preferences.. "There is a bias in what females learn, and they learn extra ornamentation is better," said Antónia Monteiro, EEB professor and senior author of the paper.. The findings that social environment can change mating preference of female butterflies helps explain how novel wing patterns evolve, say the researchers Now Westerman wants to discover how female butterflies learn to make these choices.. "What we have found is a previously unexplored mechanism for biasing the evolution of morphological diversity," Westerman said. "We are now investigating what other cues are being evaluated during the learning period and what prevents females from mating with members of other species.". Study was funded by the National ...
The monarch butterfly is sometimes called the milkweed butterfly because its ... http://www.zoomschool.com/subjects/butterfly/species/Monarch.shtml ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 6fd80-NTUxN
Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio Troilus, Larva or Caterpillar Photographic Print by Gary Meszaros. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. 100% satisfaction guaranteed.
British butterfly larvae and pupae, historical illustration of the larvae and pupae of butterflies that were known to occur in the British Isles in the 19th century. The larvae here are: 1. Swallowtail (Papilio machaeon), 2. Orange tip (Euchloe cardamines), 3. Silver-washed fritillary (Argynnis paphia), 4. Peacock butterfly (Vanessa io), 5. Purple emperor (Apatura iris) and 6. Duke of Burgundy fritillary (Hamearis lucina). The pupae are: 7. Swallowtail (Papilio machaeon), 8. Orange tip (Euchloe cardamines), 9. Silver- washed fritillary (Argynnis paphia), 10. Purple emperor (Apatura iris), 11. Duke of Burgundy fritillary (Hamearis lucina) and 12. Dingy skipper (Nisoniades tages). Taken from: British Butterflies and Moths by William Furneaux, which was published in 1897. - Stock Image Z355/1850
Download bug, butterfly, flying insect, insect, monarch, monarch butterfly icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Kristian Pettyjohn found in the icon set Insects - Essentials
From the UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA and the department of interchangeable lexicon comes this study that may have merit, except they cant seem to decide if it is weather or climate having an effect by the way they word it.. Research into extreme weather effects may explain recent butterfly decline. Researchers investigated the impact of Extreme Climatic Events (ECEs) on butterfly populations. The study shows that the impact can be significantly positive and negative, but questions remain as to whether the benefits outweigh the negative effects.. While it is well known that changes to the mean climate can affect ecosystems, little is known about the impact of short-term extreme climatic events (ECEs) such as heatwaves, heavy rainfall or droughts.. Osgur McDermott-Long, PhD student and lead author from the School of Environmental Sciences at UEA, said: "This is the first study to examine the effects of extreme climate events across all life stages of the UK butterflies from egg to adult butterfly. ...
When planting for butterflies and to attract butterflies to your garden it is important to plan for all four stages of a butterflys life: adult, egg, caterpillar, and chrysalis.. When you spend the time to attract butterflies to your garden, it can be a rewarding experience. Adult butterflies feed on nectar, which is obtained from flowering plants. In due course the adults lay their eggs, which need an unobtrusive leafy or grassy spot. When caterpillars hatch from the eggs, they will need all kinds of plant protein (although some are carnivorous) to prepare for the day when they form a chrysalis, and the whole process begins again.. One group of nectar-producing plants native to Australia is Micromelum minutum, small trees or shrubs of the citrus family Rutaceae. These plants are more commonly known as Lime Berry, Micromelum, Tulibas Tilos, Talafalu and Chememar. Other native Australians are Bursaria spinosa (Sweet Bursaria, Christmas Bush, Blackthorn, Prickly Box), Leptospermum (Teatree), ...
Oberhauser, K.S., O. R. Taylor, S. M. Reppert, H. Dingle, K. R. Nail, R. M. Pyle, C. Stenoien. 2013. Are monarch butterflies true navigators? The jury is still out. PNAS 110(39):E3680.. Diffendorfer J.E., Loomis J.B., Ries L., Oberhauser K.S., Lopez-Hoffman L., Semmens D., Semmens B., Butterfield B., Bagstad K., Goldstein J., Wiederholt R., Mattsson B., Thogmartin W.E. 2013. National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12065.. Zipkin, E., L. Ries, R. Reeves, J. Reetz, K.S. Oberhauser. 2012. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly. Global Change Biology 18:3039-3049. Pleasants, J., K.S. Oberhauser. 2012. Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: Effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conservation and Diversity. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x. Oberhauser, K.S., G. Lebuhn. 2012 . Insects and plants: Engaging undergraduates in authentic ...
Western Monarch Butterfly Count Join the local team conducting the Western Monarch Butterfly Count of overwintering western monarch butterflies at Elwood Grove and other nearby locations. Documentation helps us understand the declines in monarch butterfly populations. For more information, please email the regional coordinator, Charis van der Heide. Find out more information
Common blue butterflies (Polyommatus icarus) sequester flavonoids from their larval host plants and allocate these UV-absorbing pigments to the wings. In field experiments using dummies constructed from female butterflies, mate-searching males inspected flavonoid-rich dummies more intensively than those with little or no flavonoids. Flavonoid content as signalled by UV-wing pattern may indicate ontogenetically determined female quality or enhance detectability to males. ...
And in adult stage they only sip nectar from flowers vegetation and trees. This gives them the necessary nutrients to endure mate and reproduce. Many butterflies also derive various minerals and vitamins such as sodium and amino acids from mud puddles and wetlands. Mud puddling is nonetheless restricted to male butterflies.. A butterflys antenna is sensitive to touch and style. Mouthparts of grownup butterflies is named proboscis which is developed for sucking fluid nutrients like nectar sugar prosperous liquid present in flowers and vegetation. Most butterflies thrive on nectar from plants but some also suck juices from more than ripe or rotten fruits bird droppings and animal dung.. ...
The yellow tip Anthocharis scolymus has a heterogeneous retina with two types of ommatidia, details of which we have identified by light and electron microscopy. Using light microscopic histology, the ommatidial types are characterized by a difference in color and distribution of the perirhabdomeral pigment clusters (Fig. 2). Combined histology and fluorescence microscopy reveals that the trapezoidal ommatidial type emits strong fluorescence under 420 nm excitation light (Fig. 3). Electron microscopy further reveals that the ommatidial types differ in the shape of the rhabdom and the arrangement of the rhabdomeral microvilli (Fig. 4).. The eye heterogeneity of Anthocharis scolymus with two ommatidial types seems rather simple, for other insect species so far studied have three or more types of ommatidia. In another pierid butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, three types of ommatidia are evident, even by light microscopy, from three distinct patterns of pigment clusters: trapezoidal, square and ...
Of the many creatures at home in the garden, few can match the grace and beauty of butterflies. They are important pollinators and a delight to see in any garden.. A garden that includes plants for the entire life cycle will attract a variety of native butterflies. Butterfly larvae need host plants for food and as a place to pupate, while adult butterflies require nectar sources for food and plants for egg-laying.. Tips for Planting a Butterfly Garden. ...
Its easy to plan a garden that will encourage butterflies to visit. The key is to provide a combination of nectar plants on which the butterflies can feed and larval food plants that will encourage them to reproduce in the area.. Butterfly Gardening. Butterflies are most active throughout the summer, particularly late summer, so plan your garden to have plenty of nectar-producing flowers over the course of the summer and early fall.. Most butterflies like full sunshine, so yard gardens or plants on the deck should be in full sun if possible. However, if you live near the woods, you may be able to attract members of the few species that prefer shade.. Natural Pest Control. When caring for a butterfly garden, it is important not to use pesticides or anything else that might be harmful to butterflies. Instead, you can plant marigold and mint, which act as natural insect repellents. If you have a large yard, planting onions throughout at random intervals will repel pests and stop the spread of root ...
Glanville Fritillary Melitaea cinxia. Larvae are pupating. Please email to check availability before ordering. Thank you.. Feed on Narrow-leaved Plantain. Easiest to keep on potted foodplant, enclosed in a sleeve. The larvae are gregarious, living in a tight bunch at the base of the plant, and spreading out more as they grow larger. The ginger head capsule and jet black body distinguish these larvae from other species. In Britain this species lives mainly on the Isle of Wight coast, but they have been established elsewhere in Britain. Maybe they could be encouraged in more localities.. These larvae will produce butterflies this spring.. ...
Mimicry where warning signals in different species evolve to look similar has long served as a paradigm of convergent evolution. However, little is known about the genes that underlie the evolution of mimetic phenotypes nor to what extent the same or different genes drive such convergent evolution. Here, we characterize one of the major genes that controls mimetic wing pattern evolution in Heliconius butterflies. Mapping, gene expression, and population genetic work all identify a single gene, optix, that controls radically variable red wing patterns across multiple species of Heliconius. Our results show that the cis-regulatory evolution of a single transcription factor can repeatedly drive the convergent evolution of complex color patterns in distantly related species, thus blurring the distinction between convergence and homology.. ...
The Radiating Butterflies Group studies the parallel radiations of some 300 species of mycalesine butterflies (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) that inhabit the forests and savannah habitats of the old world tropics. Our aim is to reveal the patterns and processes of ecological speciation in this diverse group of tropical butterflies.. We are assembling several extensive datasets for these radiations, covering major traits both with respect to adaptation to ecological environments and to the acquisition of reproductive isolation.. For more information click here.. ...
who directs the conservation group Monarch Watch. "Should they be there? Probably not. But will they do immense harm? Probably not.". If monarch populations keep falling, the coastal regions could become more important, Dr. Oberhauser said. Migration can limit disease by weeding out the sick and allowing butterflies to leave contaminated plants behind. If year-round milkweed changes the migratory behavior of enough monarchs, she said, "it could have really far-reaching impacts.". So far, evidence that monarchs stop migrating to breed is indirect. "People plant tropical milkweed and then we see monarchs reproducing when they should be migrating or overwintering," Dr. Altizer said. "There needs to be more experimental work done.". And that is why Ms. Satterfield drove all night to catch butterflies in Texas. The monarchs she collected in Dallas and at another site without tropical milkweed will help her assess the plants effects at four coastal sites where it is common. She plans to analyze ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Danaus plexippus, Monarch, larvae image
For a variety of personal reasons I havent been able to download the photos from my big camera since mid June so here are some very out of date sightings of moths and butterflies from Ffos Las. It has bean a dreadful summer so far as far as the butterflies are concerned with numbers much lower than in previous years and some species such as wall brown not seen at all when they have been seen regularly in previous years ...
Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary ...