Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with essential amino acids, nutrients required by aphids but deficient in their diet of plant phloem sap. Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. A comprehensive analysis of this family of plasmids unexpectedly revealed significantly incongruent phylogenies for different plasmid and ...
Research Articles. Wernegreen, J. J. and N. A. Moran. 2001.Vertical Transmission of Biosynthetic Plasmids in Aphid Endosymbionts (Buchnera). J. Bacteriol. 183:785-790.. Shigenobu S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa. 2000. Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS. Nature 407:81-86.. Fukatsu, T., N. Nikoh, R. Kawai and R. Koga. The secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000. 66:2748-2758.. Thao, M. L., N. A. Moran, P. Abbot, E. B. Brennan, D. H. Burckhardt and P. Baumann. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2898-2905.. Baumann L., Baumann P., M.L. Thao. 1999. Detection of messenger RNA transcribed from genes encoding enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis in Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids). Current. Microbiology 38:135-136.. Charles H., H. Ishikawa. 1999. Physical and genetic map of ...
Obligate nutritional symbioses require balance between the energetic needs of the host and the symbiont. The resident symbiont population size within a host may have major impacts on host fitness, as both host and symbiont consume and supply metabolites in a shared metabolite pool. Given the massive genome degradation that is a hallmark of bacterial endosymbionts of insects, it is unclear at what level these populations are regulated, and how regulation varies among hosts within natural populations. We measured the titer of the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola from different clones of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and found significant variation in titer, measured as Buchnera genomes per aphid genome, among aphid clones. Additionally, we found that titer can change with the age of the host, and that the number of bacteriocytes within an aphid is one factor likely controlling Buchnera titer. Buchnera titer measurements in clones from a sexual cross indicate that the symbiont genotype is not
Author Summary Bacterial lineages have repeatedly evolved intimate symbioses with eukaryotic hosts, the most famous cases being those of the cell organelles, mitochondria, and plastids. Symbiont genomes typically lose many ancestral genes, raising the question of how they function with so few genes. In organelles, part of the answer involves gene transfer to the host genome, allowing maintenance of essential functions. So far, the extent of gene transfer to hosts has not been assessed for other cases of intimate, obligate symbiosis. Aphids harbor an ancient coevolved intracellular symbiont, called Buchnera. We used the newly available sequence of the pea aphid genome to conduct an exhaustive computational search for genes of bacterial ancestry. We found that no functional genes have been transferred from Buchnera, ruling out such transfer as a driving force in genome reduction in this symbiont. However, the aphid genome does contain eight transcribed genes of apparent bacterial origin, some of which
Partitioning of symbolic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures
Aphids evolved novel cells, called bacteriocytes, that differentiate specifically to harbour the obligatory mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola. The genome of the host aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains many orphan genes that display no similarity with genes found in other sequenced organisms, prompting us to hypothesize that some of these orphan genes are related to lineage-specific traits, such as symbiosis. We conducted deep sequencing of bacteriocytes mRNA followed by whole mount in situ hybridizations of over-represented transcripts encoding aphid-specific orphan proteins. We identified a novel class of genes that encode small proteins with signal peptides, which are often cysteine-rich, that are over-represented in bacteriocytes. These genes are first expressed at a developmental time point coincident with the incorporation of symbionts strictly in the cells that contribute to the bacteriocyte and this bacteriocyte-specific expression is maintained throughout the aphids ...
The main question motivating this study was whether the elimination of ancestral regulatory genes in reduced and rearranged symbiont genomes corresponds to less responsive transcriptional control or whether these organisms have novel mechanisms for regulating gene expression. Specifically, we addressed whether amino acid biosynthetic genes are subject to transcriptional regulation in response to changes in amino acid concentrations encountered by the hosts. The amino acid biosynthetic pathways, some of the best-studied systems of transcriptional regulation, show dramatic responses in E. coli and related bacteria; for example, the combined mechanisms of trp operon regulation in E. coli can effect a change in transcription rates of up to 500-fold (38). In B. aphidicola, amino acid biosynthesis is central to its symbiotic role, yet the underlying genes have lost most of their ancestral regulatory systems (Table 1). Expression of these genes is relevant to the ecology of aphids/B. aphidicola. For S. ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Eukaryotes often form intimate endosymbioses with prokaryotic organisms. Cases in which these symbionts are transmitted cytoplasmically to host progeny create the potential for co-speciation or congruent evolution among the distinct genomes of these partners. If symbionts do not move horizontally between different eukaryotic hosts, strict phylogenetic congruence of their genomes is predicted and should extend to relationships within a single host species. Conversely, even rare host shifts among closely related lineages should yield conflicting tree topologies at the intraspecific level. Here, we investigate the historical associations among four symbiotic genomes residing within an aphid host: the mitochondrial DNA of Uroleucon ambrosiae aphids, the bacterial chromosome of their Buchnera bacterial endosymbionts, and two plasmids associated with Buchnera. DNA sequence polymorphisms provided a significant phylogenetic signal and no homoplasy for each data set, yielding completely and ...
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR further verified the conspicuous upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolisms (Figure 8 . 2A) . The bacteriocyte is
Our comparison highlights the first clear pattern of genome-scale evolution: obligately host-associated bacteria show enhanced stability of genome architecture relative to sequence evolution (Fig. 2), which is also indicated by comparisons of pathogen genomes (5).B. aphidicola is the most extreme organism analyzed so far, with no rearrangements or gene acquisitions and only a few gene losses during the past 50 My (Fig. 2, C and D). This stasis is remarkable because E. coli, S. typhi, and S. typhimurium, the closest relatives of B. aphidicola, have highly labile genomes (Fig. 2, C and D). The ratio of insertions and deletions (indels) and rearrangements per nonsynonymous substitutions is more than 2000-fold higher in modern E. coli and Salmonella spp.; this represents a massive difference even when normalized for the eightfold difference in genome size.. The B. aphidicola (Sg) genome sequence also provides insight into the ecological role of the endosymbionts in the supplementation of the hosts ...
Ligesom andre bladlus har ogs Cinara stammelusene mange fjender. Svirrefluer ses tit st stille i luften som sm helikoptere t t ved en bladluskoloni (svirrefluer kan forveksles med hvepse, men de har et tydelig rygvis flyvem nster), hvorved de fors ger at l gge ders g. Svirrefluens larver der mange bladlus. Flere arter af marieh ns (og deres larver) er ivrige bladluse spisere ligesom der ogs findes galmyg larver og snyltehvepse der kan parasitere lusene ...
Именно поэтому редактирование на этом сайте. Единственная причина, почему мне нравится темная эстетика. Я заметил, как хорошо она выглядела, когда я поставил свежий влажный верхний слой почвы на. Вопросы о раст ...
article{931223, abstract = {Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and ...
Yvan Rahbé, Nicolas Sauvion, Gérard Febvay, W.J. Peumans, A.M.R. Gatehouse. Toxicity of lectins and processing of ingested proteins in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Wiley, 1995, 76, pp.143-155. ⟨hal-02701887⟩ ...
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Background |p|In many insect taxa, wing polymorphism is known to be a consequence of tradeoffs between flight and other life-history traits. The pea aphid |i|Acyrthosiphon pisum|/i| exhibits various morphs with or without wings associated with their complex life cycle including wing polyphenism in viviparous females, genetic wing polymorphism in males, and a monomorphic wingless phenotype in oviparous females and fundatrices. While wing differentiation has been investigated in some detail in viviparous females and males, these processes have not yet been elucidated in monomorphic morphs. The ontological development of the flight apparatus, including wings and flight muscles, was therefore carefully examined in oviparous females and fundatrices and compared with other morphs.|/p| Results |p|The extensive histological examinations showed that flight-apparatus primordia were not at all produced throughout their postembryonic development in oviparous females and fundatrices, suggesting that during the
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
Anyone who has grown anything has at one time or another come in contact with some type of Aphid. There are over 4,400 species of Aphids worldwide, and are affectionately termed plant lice. Pea Aphids attack forage crops such as Peas, Alfalfa, and Clovers. They can take out a crop within a series of weeks due…
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
Our results confirmed that there were significant differences between the two strains of apterous A. pisum in host relocation. Some biological differences were observed between the two aphid strains. These two A. pisum strains were identified by COI sequences (primers shows in Table S1) and confirmed as the same species. Our preliminary tests also showed that the two A. pisum strains could mate and produce normally. The LZ strain was superior at host seeking and leaf identification under starvation, but the movement ability of the YL strain was actually stronger than the LZ strain. Considering the relationship between energy reserves and movement ability of the two aphid strains, this phenomenon was probably caused by higher glycogen reserves that provide more energy for walking a longer distance and spreading out a wider range. We found that the key enzyme activities between the two strains were not significantly different, and the differences in glycogen reserves between the two strains might ...
The bacterial communities of aphids were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments generated by PCR with general eubacterial primers. By both methods, the -proteobacterium Buchnera was detected in laboratory cultures of six parthenogenetic lines of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and one line of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae, and one or more of four previously described bacterial taxa were also detected in all aphid lines except one of A. pisum. These latter bacteria, collectively known as secondary symbionts or accessory bacteria, comprised three taxa of -proteobacteria (R-type [PASS], T-type [PABS], and U-type [PAUS]) and a rickettsia (S-type [PAR]). Complementary analysis of aphids from natural populations of four aphid species (A. pisum [n 74], Amphorophora rubi [n 109], Aphis sarothamni [n 42], and Microlophium carnosum [n 101]) from a single geographical location revealed Buchnera ...
The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of nucleotidic composition and codon usage in the pea aphid genome (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A collection of 60,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the pea aphid has been used to automatically reconstruct 5809 coding sequences (CDSs), based on similarity with known proteins and on coding style recognition. Reconstructions were manually checked for ribosomal proteins, leading to tentatively reconstruct the nea-complete set of this category. Pea aphid coding sequences showed a shift toward AT (especially at the third codon position) compared to drosophila homologues. Genes with a putative high level of expression (ribosomal and other genes with high EST support) remained more GC3-rich and had a distinct codon usage from bulk sequences: they exhibited a preference for C-ending codons and CGT (for arginine), which thus appeared optimal for translation. However, the discrimination was not as strong as in drosophila, suggesting a reduced degree of translational
AANAT gene / Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) / Aphididae (aphids) / biological rhythm / central nervous system / circadian clock / clock gene / GT2. Adaptation of phytophagous species, their natural enemies and symbionts / Insecta / insulin-like peptide / life cycle / melatonin / parthenogenetic organism / photoperiodism / prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) / seasonality / sexual morph / signalling pathway ...
This study examines the effects of climatic conditions on interactions among pea and lentil yields, pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) infestations, and outbreaks of PEMV (Pea enation mosaic) and BLRV (Bean leaf roll) viruses in the Palouse region of easternWashington. The study analytically and empirically evaluates the effects of aphid outbreaks on per acre yields, implicitly including the effects of adopted pest management activities and explicitly taking into account possible effects of climatic conditions on the severity of pea aphid outbreaks. The results show that aphid outbreaks have historically decreased pea and lentil yields by approximately 5% and 7% on average respectively. Elbakidze, Levan; Lu, Liang; Eigenbrode, Sanford
Research Interests: ? Molecular, cellular and developmental mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity ? Evolution of insect reproductive plasticity ? Developmental control of cell division Phenotypic plasticity, the expression of alternate physiological states, morphological forms and/or distinct behaviors in response to specific environments, is a universal phenomenon in animals. Although the evolution of plastic responses is well understood theoretically, little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms of this response. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an emerging model system, exhibits an adaptive plasticity in which changes in environmental cues result in either clonal reproduction (via parthenogenesis) or sexual reproduction (via meiosis). How aphids have evolved plasticity in this fundamental process is unknown. The goal of my research program is to understand this reproductive plasticity at the molecular and cellular level. Aphid phenotypic plasticity offers a unique, ...
Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance. The pea aphid is a model organism for biological study whose genome has been sequenced and annotated. In the autumn, female pea aphids lay fertilized eggs overwinter that hatch the following spring. The nymphs that hatch from these eggs are all females, which undergo four moults before reaching sexual maturity. They will then begin to reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis, like most aphids. Each adult female gives birth to four to 12 female nymphs per day, around a hundred in her lifetime. These develop into mature females in about seven to ten days. The life span of an adult is about 30 days. Population ...
The base question behind the process of genome miniaturization is whether is occur trough large steps or due to a constant erosion of the gene content. In order to assess the evolution of this process is necessary to compare an ancestral genome with the one where the shrinkage is supposed to be occurred. Thanks to the similarity among the gene content of Buchnera aphidicola and the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, 89% identity for the 16S rDNA and 62% for orthologous genes was possible to shed light on the mechanism of genome miniaturization.[33] The genome of the endosymbiont B. aphidicola is characterized by a genome size that is seven times smaller than E. coli (643 kb compared to 4.6 Mb)[34][35] and can be view as a subset of the enteric bacteria gene inventory.[35] From the confrontation of the two genomes emerged that some genes persist as partially degraded.[35] indicating that the function was lost during the process and that consequent events of erosion shortened the length as ...
Given the phylogenetic similarity between the stinkbug symbionts and Buchnera, the researchers wondered whether their biology might be similar as well. They divided egg masses into two groups and deprived one group of capsules to generate sibling populations with and without gut symbionts. Adults lacking symbionts showed developmental delays, grew smaller, failed to copulate or reproduce, and died prematurely. Like aphids depend on their endosymbionts, plataspid stinkbugs depend on their gut symbionts to survive how they do this, however, will be interesting to discover. Like Buchnera, the gut endosymbionts also appear to have co-evolved with their host. The phylogenetic tree of the stinkbugs, the researchers found, perfectly agreed with the phylogenetic relationships of the gut symbionts. Maternal transmission of the symbiont capsule provides a means of stable transmission, but other factors such as physiological compatibility may come into play ...
The availability of genomic data in the last decade relating to different aphid species has allowed the analysis of the genomic variability occurring among such species, whereas intra-specific variability has hitherto very largely been neglected. In order to analyse the intra-genomic variability in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, comparative analyses were performed revealing several clone-specific gene duplications, together with numerous deletions/rearrangements. Our comparative approach also allowed us to evaluate the synteny existing between the two M. persicae clones tested and between the peach potato aphid and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Even if part of the observed rearrangements are related to a low quality of some assembled contigs and/or to the high number of contigs present in these aphid genomes, our evidence reveals that aphid clones are genetically more different than expected. These results suggest that the choice of performing genomes sequencing combining different
With the recent completion of the sequencing of the Aphid (aphis pisum) genome many new areas are now open for research and exploration. One thing that has been discovered is that there are multiple versions of
The most interesting and debated node in the whole tree of symbiotic bacteria is undoubtedly the putative origin of many symbiotic lineages within Enterobacteriaceae (Charles et al , 2001). In Figure 1 .1, this node is presented in its maximal version, encompassing several major P-symbionts and many minor lineages (node P). However, in the published studies, the whole issue has mostly been addressed by analyzing phylogenetic relationships of the two most popular groups, Buchnera and Wigglesworthia. Although retrieved by a majority of phylogenetic studies, the monophyly of the symbiotic cluster containing these two P-sym-biont lineages has been legitimately questioned This doubt arises because the genomes of P-symbionts meet typical conditions leading to phylogenetic artifacts Compared to their free-living relatives, P-symbiotic lineages display remarkably high frequency of AT in their sequences This bias is considered one of the most significant symptoms of genome degradation in symbiotic ...
Huerta-Cepas J, Marcet-Houben M, Pignatelli M, Moya A, Gabaldón T. 2010. The pea aphid phylome: a complete catalogue of evolutionary histories and arthropod orthology and paralogy relationships for Acyrthosiphon pisum genes.. Insect Mol. Biol.. 19 Suppl 2:13-21. Abstract ...
Spring is around the corner and so are the Conifer Aphids Aphids suck the sap from the green foliage causing unsightly brown dead patches which can destroy whole hedges.
The aim of this symposium is to bring together researchers in quite a number of diverse fields who are working on various aspects related to the origin and integration of cellular organelles (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts) and more general aspects of invertebrate and plant endosymbiotic systems (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, insects and endosymbiotic bacteria). In this volume we will discuss evidence for coevolution and integration of endosymbiotic partners. Contents of this volume include the following topics: Status of Cell Symbiosis Theories; Possible Codescendants of Cell Organelles; Coevolution of Associations: A View at the Organismic Level; Coevolution of Symbiont Genome and Plasmone; a View at the Cellular and Molecular Levels; and Model Developments and Behavioral Interactions. Keywords: Deoxyribonucleic acids.*CELLS(BIOLOGY)
Aphids. Aphids Aphids Aphids. Aphids everywhere. Plum Tree Aphids. Blue Shirt Aphids. You know what... Lets not even talk about aphids today. Here are some pretty pictures of things that are not covered in aphids ...
Parasitised aphids (superfamily Aphidoidea). These aphids have been infected by the wasp Praon sp. by being injected with its eggs. Here, the larva of the wasp have left the hollowed shell of the aphid after feeding on its innards, and have begun to pupate within the volcano-like cocoon beneath it. - Stock Image C003/5811
We spent a good hour picking aphids today. Our friends recommended an easy aphid control method: they wrap a piece of tape around their fingers and run it across the leaves and stems. All the aphids stick to the tape, … Continue reading →. ...
When it comes to ways on how to get rid of aphids, most people prefer using some sort of woolly aphid treatment to eliminate them.
Aphids may be little in size, but are a big problem. Here are a couple ways to control aphids naturally. Continue reading →. ...
I keep seeing people experiencing Root Aphid issues. There is a ton of confusion about combating this pest out there, and for good reason. They are...
by Merry Youle | Because it prefers to dine on some of our valued crop plants, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is considered a major pest - thus a Bad Guy from our perspective. Pea aphids are not without their enemies. Enemy number one is a parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. As parasitoid wasps are used to do, females provide for their offspring by...
The high osmotic pressure generated by sugars in plant phloem sap is reduced in phloem-feeding aphids by sugar transformations and facilitated water flux in the gut. The genes mediating these osmoregulatory functions have been identified and validated empirically in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: sucrase 1 (SUC1), a sucrase in glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), and aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a member of the Drosophila integral protein (DRIP) family of aquaporins. Here, we describe molecular analysis of GH13 and AQP genes in phloem-feeding representatives of the four phloem-feeding groups: aphids (Myzus persicae), coccids (Planococcus citri), psyllids (Diaphorina citri, Bactericera cockerelli) and whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED). A single candidate GH13-SUC gene and DRIP-AQP gene were identified in the genome/transcriptome of most insects tested by the criteria of sequence motif and gene expression in the gut. Exceptionally, the psyllid Ba. cockerelli transcriptome included a ...
Many insect groups depend on ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that undergo long-term genomic degradation due to inactivation and loss of ancestral genes. Sap-feeding insects in the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha show complex symbioses with at least two obligate bacterial symbionts, inhabiting specialized host cells (bacteriocytes). We explored the symbiotic relationships of the spittlebugs (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidea) using phylogenetic and microscopy methods. Results show that most spittlebugs contain the symbionts Sulcia muelleri (Bacteroidetes) and Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with each restricted to its own bacteriocyte type. However, the ancestral Zinderia symbiont has been replaced with a novel symbiont closely related to Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) in members of the ecologically successful spittlebug tribe Philaenini. At least one spittlebug species retains Sulcia and Zinderia, but also has acquired a Sodalis-like symbiont, possibly representing a ...
Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major protein components of the venom injected at oviposition by Aphidius ervi to ensure successful development in its aphid host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. A combined large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to identify 16 putative venom proteins among which three γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (γ-GTs) were by far the most abundant. Two of the γ-GTs most likely correspond to alleles of the same gene, with one of these alleles previously described as involved in host castration. The third γ-GT was only distantly related to the others and may not be functional owing to the presence of mutations in the active site. Among the other abundant proteins
Sabri, A.; Leroy, P.; Haubruge, E.; Hance, T.; Frere, I.; Destain, J.; Thonart, P. (2010). Isolation, pure culture and characterization of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov., the R-type of secondary endosymbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (9): 2081-2088. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.024133-0. ISSN 1466-5026 ...
هدف:شته سبز گندم، Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) یکی از آفات مهم گندم است که با تغذیه از گیاه و انتقال ویروس‌های بیماری‌زا، تولید این محصول را محدود می‌کند. کفشدوزک شکارگر Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) از شکارگرهای مهم شته‌ها بوده و توانایی بالایی در کنترل آن‌ها در اکوسیستم‌های زراعی مختلف از قبیل محصولات باغی، زراعی و گلخانه‌ای دارد. حشرات در مواجه شدن با ترکیبات شیمیایی ممکن است از مقاومت بیوشیمیایی استفاده کنند که در آن آفت‌کش قبل از رسیدن به جایگاه تاثیر، توسط یک یا چندین آنزیم مختلف خنثی می‌شود. در بررسی حاضر، اثر غلظت‌های زیرکشنده دو آفت‌کش تیاکلوپرید و افوریا روی ...
Here and in and a previous article (8), we have identified a protein, Protein C002, that appears to play an essential role (or roles) in the foraging and feeding of the pea aphid on fava beans, a typical host plant for this aphid species.. Protein C002 can, on the basis of our results, be considered a specialized, salivary gland protein, which does not exclude the possibility that it is synthesized in other organs in small amounts. Indeed, we have a preliminary indication that transcript c002 occurs in gut, but at ≈100-fold lower amounts than in salivary gland (10). The organ distribution of transcript c002 (and Protein C002) is one of the many aspects of this transcript and protein that will be under continued investigation in our laboratories.. Both Protein C002 and its transcript occur in the principal salivary glands in the pea aphid but apparently in only some of those cells (≈5 of the 21 cells within each lobe). This restriction of expression of the c002 gene to a subset of secretory ...
Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have already been discovered in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but simply no such example continues to be discovered from extracellular types. obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These results suggest that not really the endocellular circumstances themselves however the inhabitants genetic qualities of the vertically transmitted symbionts are most likely in charge of the peculiar hereditary traits of the insect symbionts. We suggested the designation Ishikawaella capsulata for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont organizations could be manipulated quickly, give a novel system that allows experimental methods to untouched areas of the insect-microbe mutualism previously. Furthermore, comparative analyses from the sister groupings, the endocellular as well as the extracellular would result in insights into the way the different symbiotic life-style have got affected their genomic ...
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By Iqbal Pittalwala, University of California - Riverside Aphids are devastating insect pests and cause great losses to agriculture worldwide. These sap-feeding plant pests harbor in their body cavity bacteria, which are essential for the aphids fecundity and survival. Buchnera, the bacterium, benefits also because it cannot grow outside the aphid. This mutually beneficial relationship is sabotaged, however, by the bacterium which proceeds to betray the aphid, a research team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside has found.. Although this betrayal is unintentional, it nevertheless alerts the plant about the aphids presence and the aphids are unable to reproduce in large numbers, said Isgouhi Kaloshian, a professor of nematology, who led the research project. A protein from the bacterium, found in the aphid saliva and likely delivered inside the plant host by the aphid, triggers plant immune responses against the aphid. It seems that the plant immune system targets the ...
Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Hamiltonella defensa has an extremely dynamic genome. It is relatively small, only 2.1 Mb which consists of a 2,110,331-bp circular chromosome. It encodes 2,100 protein-coding genes, has a relatively large number of pseudogenes, and is littered with mobile DNA, insertion sequences, and phage remnants. Horizontal gene transfer plays a role in its dynamic genome. Additionally, approximately half of H. defensas DNA comes from toxin-encoding bacteriophages called APSEs. APSEs are similar to lamda-like phages, which are bacterial viruses that infect E. coli. It has other similarities to the E. coli bacterium, including a similar number of pseudogenes. H. defensa is auxotrophic for 8 of its 10 essential amino acids. It relies on Buchnera, a primary endosymbiont of aphids, to synthesize these amino acids. However, despite H. defensas limited biosynthetic ...
1. Facultative endosymbiotic bacteria of insects are known to affect life-history traits of their hosts, and can provide important fitness benefits under certain environmental conditions. While several distinct endosymbiont-induced effects have been reported, there is no data on whether heritable facultative endosymbionts in any species affect their hosts performance at low temperatures, something that could have a major effect on insect physiology and survival, and thus population structure and distribution. 2. The original facultative endosymbionts were experimentally removed from five clonal genotypes of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fab., which were then exposed to frost. 3. Aphid genotypes differed considerably in survival following the exposure and in fecundity of the survivors. However, the presence of the facultative symbionts had no overall effect on the studied traits. 4. The results suggest that the facultative symbionts have limited effects on the cold hardiness of their grain aphid
This chapter talks about the symbiosis of microbes and mitochondria. Mutations, including deletions of DNA, happen constantly, so the unused genes have long since disappeared from the genomes of mitochondria that inhabit our cells. In fact, mutations are still raining down on the genomes of our mitochondria, and these continue throughout our lives, contributing to various diseases and disorders. These malfunctions are the main reason we even think about our mitochondria. Another reason the mitochondria can live with so few genes is that many of the ancient genes of the mitochondrial ancestor have changed addresses, moving from the chromosome of the mitochondrion to our own chromosomes but sending their working products back to the mitochondrial homeland to carry out needed work. Some symbiotic bacteria have fewer than 200 genes, and the symbionts we call organelles can have even fewer, as in our own mitochondria with their miserly 15. Buchnera uses its ancestral genes for making the amino acids ...
Phloem feeding insects, such as aphids, feed almost continuously on plant phloem sap, a liquid diet that contains high concentrations of sucrose (a disaccharide comprising of glucose and fructose). To access the available carbon, aphids hydrolyze sucrose in the gut lumen and transport its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. Although sugar transport plays a critical role in aphid nutrition, the molecular basis of sugar transport in aphids, and more generally across all insects, remains poorly characterized. Here, using the latest release of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, genome we provide an updated gene annotation and expression profile of putative sugar transporters. Finally, gut expressed sugar transporters are functionally expressed in yeast and screened for glucose and fructose transport activity. In this study, using a de novo approach, we identified 19 sugar porter (SP) family transporters in the A. pisum genome. Gene expression analysis, based on 214, 834 A. pisum expressed
Acyrthosiphon loti (green trefoil aphid). Identification, biology, distribution, host plants, natural enemies, damage caused. Creative commons images.
Moroldo, M, Paillard, S, Marconi, R, Legeai, F, Canaguier, A, Cruaud, C, De Berardinis, V, Guichard, C, Brunaud, V, Le Clainche, I, Scalabrin, S, Testolin, R, Di Gaspero, G, Morgante, M, Adam-Blondon, AF (2008). A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance. BMC Plant Biol., 8:66. Legeai, F, Paux, E, Guilhot, N, Adam-Blondon, AF, Alaux, M, Salse, J, Sourdille, P, Leroy, P, Feuillet, C (2008). Physical mapping in large genomes: accelerating anchoring of BAC contigs to genetic maps through in silico analysis. Funct. Integr. Genomics, 8, 1:29-32. Rispe, C, Kutsukake, M, Doublet, V, Hudaverdian, S, Legeai, F, Simon, JC, Tagu, D, Fukatsu, T (2008). Large gene family expansion and variable selective pressures for cathepsin B in aphids. Mol. Biol. Evol., 25, 1:5-17. Rispe, C, Legeai, F, Gauthier, JP, Tagu, D (2007). Strong heterogeneity in nucleotidic composition and codon bias in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) shown by ...
Two of the groups in our programme (Gabaldón and Guigó) have participated in the analysis of the genomic sequence of the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum, published this week in PLoS Biology. This first published genome of a basal hemimetabolous insect, provides an out-group for comparison with other sequenced insects, and pavesthe way to elucidate molecular mechanisms in. ...
Although pea aphid populations can vary quite a bit from field to field it is important to monitor their populations to ensure that loss due to their feeding doesnt occur.
The giant willow aphid is a European or Asian aphid species that has spread to other regions of the world. The aphids can form dense colonies on host trees.
Aphids are serious agricultural pests, not only because they consume plant saps, but also because they transmit plant diseases that destroy all kind of crop plants.
Its possible that humidity could be an issue, but to be honest Ive never had much of a problem with it. Usually the problems are temperature - too high = poor quality wilting plants and very few aphids, or cultures only produce one yielld, or too many peas added to a culture/too wet culture = rotten peas and a bad smell ...
Many aphid species feed above ground on stems and leaves; but root aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hide below the soil line as they feast on plant roots. Typically wingless, these tiny, yellowish-green pests ...
They are! Look, my trap plant is a complete surprise. It wasnt intentional, it just happened that way. Let me tell you about the rose trap plant! I think it is just a matter of having plants that can be sacrificed to the aphids. These broccoli, with heads already cut seem to be perfect for trapping aphids, or is it increasing aphids. Aphids are like tornados -neighboring house is perfectly fine and yours is destroyed. Aphids all over one rose, not at all on the other. Soap sprays work, plus shooting with strong water or straight out squishing with fingers.. ReplyDelete ...
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Useful tips on aphids removal. Aphids removal is important for a healthy garden. Having pests in your garden can be a real problem, and aphids can be one of those major problems. These little insects feed off of your plants; they have a sharp mouth that helps them to pierce plant tissue so that that they can eat the plant sap of your beautifully cultivated garden. All types of vegetation can be vulnerable to aphids, but especially new growth and those that have been recently planted.
Aphids- Synonyms Of Aphids | Aphids - (সমার্থক, প্রতিশব্দ)|All Type of Online Bangla Dictionary en2bn, bn2en, Definition, synonym, Thesaurus and Language Center.
Buy Ants And Aphids Close-Up 2 by illych on VideoHive. Ants and aphids close-up. Shooting by two objectives. Depth of sharpness 1-3??.
Observation - Funky siphunculi: aphid off Buddleia - UK and Ireland. Description: This long-legged aphid with long siphunculi struck me as unfamiliar and possibly distinctive. One seen, off Buddleia.
It seems I am not alone in the aphid battle, as many of you have asked about this gardeners quandary. So heres the latest. I recently went away for a couple of days and thought the aphids would get out of hand, to my delight when I returned everything looked super happy and healthy...though when…
Endosymbiotic theory It has been suggested that Proto-mitochondrion be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) It has been suggested that Transfer of
Now I have aphids. Arghh! I sprayed some organic bug killer but what about lady bugs? They sell them at the gardening store, would the bug spray kill the lad
aphids_that_eat_brussels_sprouts_are_smaller_than_normal_and_live_in_undersized_populations_which_has_a_negative_knockon_effect_up_the_food_chain_according_to_new_research_published_today_8_february_in_science
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Last week we began to explore the role of beneficials in our gardens. After all, not every little critter we find in our outdoor space is bad, even if attractive! e us begin with one of the . . .
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Do you like the idea of entertaining bugs in your garden or are you a little averse to it? Youll be amazed to know that many ...