TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of antigen-induced acute bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mast cell degranulation by a nonanticoagulant heparin. T2 - Comparison with a low molecular weight heparin. AU - Ahmed, Tahir. AU - Campo, Carlos. AU - Abraham, Michael K.. AU - Molinari, Jussara F.. AU - Abraham, William M.. AU - Ashkin, David. AU - Syriste, Thomas. AU - Andersson, Lars O.. AU - Svahn, Carl M.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Inhaled heparin prevents antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and inhibits anti-IgE-mediated mastcell degranulation. We hypothesized that the antiallergic action of heparin may be dependent on molecular weight and related to its nonanticoagulant properties. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of a nonanticoagulant fraction of heparin (LA-heparin) on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mast-cell degranulation, and compared its antiallergic activity with that of a low molecular weight ...
To our knowledge, no data have been provided as to whether and to what extent dynamic hyperinflation, through its deleterious effect on inspiratory muscle function, affects the perception of dyspnoea during induced bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that dynamic hyperinflation accounts in part for the variability in dyspnoea during acute bronchoconstriction. We therefore studied 39 consecutive clinically stable patients whose pulmonary function data were as follows (% of predicted value): vital capacity (VC), 97.8% (S.D. 16.0%); functional residual capacity, 105.0% (18.8%); actual forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1)/VC ratio, 56.1% (6.3%). Perception of dyspnoea using the Borg scale was assessed during a methacholine-induced fall in FEV1. The clinical score and the treatment score, the level of bronchial hyper-responsiveness and the cytological sputum differential count were also assessed. In each patient, the percentage fall in FEV1 and the ...
Isocapnic dry gas hyperpnea causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs that is mediated by release of tachykinins from airway sensory nerves. Exogenous neuropeptides can induce microvascular leak. Therefore we tested whether dry gas hyperpnea also elicits bronchovascular hyperpermeability by measuring Evans blue-labeled albumin extravasation along the airways of mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. We found that 1) room temperature dry gas hyperpnea increased Evans blue extravasation in extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways as a specific consequence of local airway heat/water losses, 2) capsaicin pretreatment ablated the bronchoconstrictor response to dry gas hyperpnea and reduced bronchovascular leak only in intrapulmonary airways, 3) phosphoramidon given to capsaicin-pretreated animals partially restored dry gas hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction and increased the vascular hyperpermeability response to hyperpnea in intrapulmonary airways, and 4) propranolol administration had no important
Combination therapy of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics induces bronchoprotection in COPD. Mechanical forces that arise during bronchoconstriction may contribute to airway remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the impact of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics on bronchoconstriction-induced remodeling. Because of the different mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics, we hypothesized functional interactions of these two drug classes. Guinea pig precision-cut lung slices were preincubated with the PDE4 inhibitors CHF-6001 or roflumilast and/or the anticholinergics tiotropium or glycopyorrolate, followed by stimulation with methacholine (10 μM) or TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) for 48 h. The inhibitory effects on airway smooth muscle remodeling, airway contraction, and TGF-β release were investigated. Methacholine-induced protein expression of smooth muscle-myosin was fully inhibited by CHF-6001 (0.3-100 nM), whereas roflumilast (1 µM) had smaller effects. Tiotropium and ...
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with respect to their effect on ciliary activity. The lowest ciliostatic effect was observed with
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One systematic review (search date 2002, 22 crossover randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and eight parallel-group RCTs) examined regular versus as-required use of short-acting beta2-agonists in asthma control. Most studies did not allow concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids, and only data from the crossover studies were suitable for pooling. The review found no difference in morning peak flow rates, but regular use improved evening peak flow rates, reduced diurnal variation, and reduced the need for reliever medication. However, the clinical relevance of these results is uncertain, because exacerbation rates, and quality-of-life scores did not differ and one RCT (n = 117) showed better symptom control over 24 hours with as-required use than with regular use. In some studies, regular use was associated with deterioration of airway responsiveness after stopping medication, increased allergen-induced bronchoconstriction, and tremor [Rodolfo et al, 2005 ...
Contractile force generated by smooth muscle cells lining the airways is responsible for the acute bronchoconstriction and reduced airflow that characterises an asthma attack. This force is generated by sub-cellular acto-myosin interactions in the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Key to the transmission of this force to the extracellular domain (and the rest of the tissue) is the further interaction of the ASM cell with its extracellular matrix (ECM) mediated by integrins that provide both mechanical and biochemical links between the cell and its ECM. I will present some models illustrating how mechanical behaviour emerges at the cell and tissue level from biochemical bond formation and dissociation, coupled to mechanical properties of the cell and ECM. Understanding these force-generating and force-transmission mechanisms could ultimately enable identification of potential targets to reverse bronchoconstriction and develop novel asthma therapies.. ...
Ex-vivo precision-cut lung slices are perhaps the most complex non-animal model available to assess pulmonary injury. PCLS are created from donor tissues obtained in a clinical setting and are created and maintained at IIVS using our custom PCLS culture system. The tissue offers an advantage over other models since it contains all lung cell types present in the tissue at the time of slicing. Further, it retains the native architecture of the lung - including small airways and respiratory parenchyma. PCLS have been maintained for many weeks and demonstrate changes not shown in other complex models of the lung. Acute (including robust cytokine responses, loss of viability, etc.) and chronic (increases in activated macrophage staining, collagen deposition, tissue remodeling) toxicities can be monitored following test article-exposures. PCLS have also been used to show no effect level and to identify drug concentration-specific reversibility of inflammatory marker expression - a key element in ...
P.H. Howarth, B.S. Sihra, S.T. Holgate; The Influence of Non-Specific Airway Reactivity on the Immediate Bronchoconstrictor Response to Exercise and Antigen in Asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 33P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067033P. Download citation file:. ...
Marcus A.M. De Aguiar, Andreas Gros, Yaneer Bar-Yam, Jose G. Venegas, and Tilo Winkler, What causes airway instability and ventilation defects during bronchoconstriction in asthma?, American Thoracic Society 2013 International Conference (May 17-22, 2013 ...
Traditionally β blockers have been avoided in asthma due to concerns about acute bronchoconstriction. There is increasing evidence that cardioselective β blockers can now be used though they seldom are. In this trial stable patients with asthma on ,1000 µg/day of beclometasone dipropionate equivalent dose were randomised to propranolol or placebo (Heart 2014;100:219-23). Tiotropium was given concurrently to propranolol throughout the trial. Prior to randomisation a subgroup underwent a safety visit and received a single dose of intravenous esmolol. The trial looked at the effect of these drugs on spirometry and total airway resistance (R5%). There was no significant change in FEV1 or total airway resistance (R5%) following esmolol infusion at 2 min, 8 min, 16 min and 32 min. However there was a significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. For those treated with propranolol and tiotropium there was a non-significant rise in FEV1 predicted 30 min post 10 mg dose, this continued to 3 ...
Med inform . . Akselrod s, gordon d, ubel fa, et al gender differences in the cardiovascular system is commonly found within it. See aacom web page at aacom ecop, which was confirmed with appropriate management, avascular necrosis of the same signal is suppressed until the tenderness subsides. A normal color does not yield to the appropriate adjustments should be customized to improve athletic performance. Lastly, the philosophy of treating acute bronchoconstriction.
We obtained dynamic and flow-interrupted (quasi-static) pressure-volume loops from the lungs of anesthetized paralyzed open-chest mongrel dogs by measuring tracheal flow and pressure and alveolar pressure (PA) in three different regions using alveolar capsules. We used continuous tidal ventilation to obtain dynamic PA-volume loops and used the single-breath-interrupter technique to construct quasi-static pressure-volume loops for the same tidal volume (VT). We used three different VTs (15 and 20 ml/kg and inspiratory capacity) under control conditions and a VT of 15 ml/kg after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. We found that quasi-static hysteresis was negligible under control conditions for VT of 15 and 20 ml/kg. Quasi-static hysteresis became more important (36 +/- 11% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop) during inspiratory capacity ventilation and after induced bronchoconstriction (27 +/- 12% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop). We conclude that during tidal ...
Video articles in JoVE about carrier proteins include Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins, Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies, Basophil Activation Test for Investigation of IgE-Mediated Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity, A Rapid and Quantitative Fluorimetric Method for Protein-Targeting Small Molecule Drug Screening, Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices.
The term asthma comes from the Greek and means wheezing or oppression. This refers to various forms of chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. This inflammation causes bronchoconstriction, chest tightness and shortness of breath.
Bronchodilating compositions and methods are provided. The compositions are intended for administration as a nebulized aerosol. In certain embodiments, the compositions contain formoterol, or a derivative thereof. Methods for treatment, prevention, or amelioration of one or more symptoms of bronchoconstrictive disorders using the compositions provided herein are also provided.
Bronchioles make up the small air passages to the lungs. During an asthma attack the airway becomes inflamed and produces thick mucus. This inflammati...
Background Imaging studies have demonstrated that ventilation during bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma is patchy with large ventilation defective areas (Vdefs). Based on a theoretical model, we postulated that during bronchoconstriction, as smooth muscle force activation increases, a patchy distribution of ventilation should emerge, even in the presence of minimal heterogeneity the lung. We therefore theorized that in normal lungs, Vdefs should also emerge in regions… Read more ...
Asthma has become the most common chronic disease of childhood. Some countries report higher incidence in the higher income groups. The U.S. reports a higher increase in incidence in lower socioeconomic income groups. Studies in the 1980s reported a connection between asthma and sensitivity and increased exposure to dust mites with people spending more time […]. View Post ...
Dr. Mackinnon responded: Chest pain. If it occurs only with deep inspiration, likely causes could include |a href="/topics/muscle-strain" track_data="{
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among British children by ethnicity has not been studied. METHODS: Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured before and after an exercise challenge test using a cycle ergometer in 593 nine year olds from Scottish and inner city English schools. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association between changes in PEFR with exercise by reported asthma, ethnicity, and sex. RESULTS: The probability of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was greater among the asthmatics than in either the children without asthma attacks or wheeze, or in the children with only wheeze (p , 0.01). Asian children were 3.6 times more likely to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than white inner city children, and also were more likely to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than those from the other ethnic groups (p , 0.01). CONCLUSION: Exercise challenge can assess the prevalence of asthma in the community and detect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuation of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs by a new xanthine derivative (HWA448). AU - Sugiyama, Haruhito. AU - Gang, Wu. AU - Bergren, Virginia A.. AU - Eda, Ryosuke. AU - Bergren, Dale R.. AU - Hopp, Russell J.. AU - Bewtra, Againdra K.. AU - Townley, Robert G.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - We examined the effect of a new xanthine derivative, HWA448, on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in actively sensitized guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on two occasions, separated by 10 days. Two weeks after the second injection, the animal was placed in a two-chambered whole body plethysmograph and specific airway resistance (SRaw) was monitored for 10 min after an aerosol inhalation of BSA. HWA448 prevented the increase in SRaw after challenge (at 5 and 20 mg/kg i.p.). Aminophylline also prevented the increase in SRaw at 20 mg/kg, but not at a 5-mg/kg dose. The concentration of HWA448, which ...
Exercise-induced asthma, or E.I.A., occurs when the airways narrow as a result of exercise. The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is frequently an asthma trigger. It might be expected that people with E.I.B. would present with shortness of breath, and/or an elevated respiratory rate and wheezing, consistent with an asthma attack. However, many will present with decreased stamina, or difficulty in recovering from exertion compared to team members, or paroxysmal coughing from an irritable airway. Similarly, examination may reveal wheezing and prolonged expiratory phase, or may be quite normal. Consequently, a potential for under-diagnosis exists. Measurement of airflow, such as peak expiratory flow rates, which can be done inexpensively on the track or sideline, may prove helpful. While the potential triggering events for E.I.B. are well recognized, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. It usually occurs ...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is a sudden narrowing of the airways when you exercise. Exercise can make symptoms worse in most people who have asthma.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. T2 - Role of tachykinins. AU - Hsu, Chun-Chun. AU - Lin, Ruei-Lung. AU - Lin, You-Shuei. AU - Lee, Lu-Yuan. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Hsu CC, Lin RL, Lin YS, Lee LY. Bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats: role of tachykinins. J Appl Physiol 115: 688-696, 2013. First published July 11, 2013; doi:10.1152/ japplphysiol.00491.2013.-This study was carried out to determine the effect of allergic inflammation on the airway response to increasing airway temperature. Our results showed the following: 1) In Brown-Norway rats actively sensitized by ovalbumin (Ova), isocapnic hyperventilation with humidified warm air (HWA) for 2 min raised tracheal temperature (Ttr) from 33.4 ± 0.6°C to 40.6 ± 0.1°C, which induced an immediate and sustained ( ,10 min) increase in total pulmonary resistance (RL) from 0.128 ± 0.004 to 0.212 ± 0.013 ...
Acute bronchoconstriction in asthmatics is triggered by inhaled allergen activating mast cells in the lung. Mast cells respond to allergen by releasing mediator...
Introduction: In pulmonary hypertension, imatinib impedes proliferation and ameliorates pulmonary haemodynamics. However, the relaxant potential of imatinib is virtual unknown. Aims and objectives: We wanted to elucidate whether and how imatinib may modulate the tone of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and pulmonary veins (PVs). Methods: Imatinib-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from humans and guinea pigs (GPs); baseline luminal vessel area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and imatinib-induced changes of pre- and postcapillary resistances were studied in the isolated perfused lung (GP). Results: In GPs, imatinib (100µM) relaxed PVs (126%) pre-constricted with BP0104 and prevented epinephrine-induced contraction of PAs. In PVs, inhibition of adenyl cyclase (SQ22536) and PKA (KT5720) reduced imatinib-induced relaxation. Conversely, imatinib increased cAMP. Further, inhibition of KATP-channels (glibenclamide), ...
I think there are two possible approaches to the information shown in the screenshot in any bibliographic style. In one approach the publication year is treated as the volume number. In the other, the issue number is used as a volume number. I believe it would be best to treat the year as the volume number in APA 6th and may be best to take the other approach in AMA 10th (since the publication year and volume number are immediately adjacent in AMA 10th). Possible bibliography entries are shown below:. In APA 6th:. Milan, S. J., Hart, A., & Wilkinson, M. (2013). Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013(10), CD010391. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010391.pub2. Milan, S. J., Hart, A., & Wilkinson, M. (2013). Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, CD010391. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010391.pub2. In AMA 10th. 1. Milan SJ, Hart A, Wilkinson M. Vitamin C for asthma and ...
Vitamin C consumption may have a beneficial effect on respiratory symptoms encountered after exercise, according to a meta-analysis published in the journal BMJ Open by Dr Harri Hemila from the University of Helsinki. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a temporary narrowing of the airway which can occur during or after exercise, resulting in a decline in forced expiratory volume (FEV) and affecting around 10% of the general population to about 50% in some fields of competitive athletics. Formerly, this condition was called exercise-induced asthma. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. Hemila identified three suitable trials (Schachter and Schlesinger, Cohen et al and Tecklenburg et al), through Medline and Scopus. The studies were all randomised, double blind and placebo controlled trials and involved a total of 40 participants who each consumed between 0.5g and 2 g of vitamin C before exercise according to the individual study. Despite the differences in age of ...
Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50 mg · kg−1IP) and placed supine on a heating pad (ATC-101B; Unique Medical, Tokyo, Japan) that maintained body temperature at 36-37°C. The trachea was cannulated with a stainless steel tube (2 mm ID), and rats were mechanically ventilated (model 683, Harvard Apparatus, South Natick, MA) with a tidal volume of 7 ml/kg, a respiratory rate of 60 breaths/min and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 2.5 cm H2O. Based on the preliminary study, under this artificial ventilation, Paco2and Pao2were kept at 35-40 mmHg and 100-110 mmHg, respectively, throughout the experimental period of 1 h. The Pawwas measured through the T-type tube set in the inspiratory line. Every 15 min, to prevent the resorption atelectasis, the lung was transiently inflated by occluding the expiratory line for a short time so that the end-expiratory airway pressure increased by 2.5 cm H2O. A polyethylene catheter (ID 0.35 mm, OD 0.55 mm) was inserted into the left femoral ...
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) occurs when vigorous exercise induces bronchoconstriction. Preexercise warm-up routines are frequently used to elicit a refractory period and thus reduce or prevent EIB. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of preexercise routines to attenuate EIB. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed, with steps taken to avoid publication and selection bias. Preexercise warm-up routines were classified into four groups: interval high intensity, continuous low intensity, continuous high intensity, and variable intensity (ie, a combination of low intensity up to very high intensity). The EIB response was measured by the percent fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after exercise, and the mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. RESULTS: Seven randomized studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed that high intensity (MD -10.6%, 95% CI -14.7% ...
Asthma is a disease of the lungs, symptoms include wheezing, breathlessness, and chest tightness.. Two main features of asthma are underlying inflammation and bronchoconstriction (tightening of the muscles around small tubes in the lungs). The inflammation can be treated with daily steroid inhalers. The bronchoconstriction can be treated with a beta2-agonist to relax the muscles. This opens up the airways and makes it easier to breathe. Beta2-agonists can be used two ways: to provide relief from symptoms of chest tightness (short-acting beta2-agonists) and to help prevent symptoms from occurring (long-acting beta2-agonists, or LABAs).. When asthma is not controlled by daily low-dose ICS, many asthma guidelines recommend additional daily LABA, such as formoterol. The author team are confident that LABA improves lung function, quality of life, and worsening symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. However, there is long-standing controversy about how safe ...
Introduction: During exacerbations of obstructive lung diseases, inflammation and the accompanying bronchoconstriction lead to significant airway narrowing, i.e. resistive breathing (RB). In order to distinguish between the effects of the mechanical stressor and the underlying inflammation we developed a RB model via tracheal banding (TB), and investigated the effects of RB in mice with pre-existing lung inflammationinduced by endotoxin inhalation. Since smooth muscle tone is a crucial determinant of bronchoconstriction and involves nitric oxide (NO) signaling through soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation, the expression of sGC was studied. Materials and Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent resistive breathing for 24 hours by placing a nylon band around the extrathoracic trachea, providing a 50% tracheal occlusion. The following groups were studied: 1. TB mice and quietly breathing sham operated mice (controls) 2. Mice treated with inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
We all know people can develop asthma. We also all know an asthma attack can be life-threatening without appropriate medical intervention. What you may not know is our capricious cat friends can also develop this airway disease. This week I share some insight into this important feline malady with a sincere hope of increasing awareness … [Read more…] ...
Data Synthesis:. Pooled results of 22 trials showed that regular β2-agonist use, compared with placebo, did not change the mean FEV1 after treatment or the net FEV1 treatment effect but substantially reduced the following: the peak FEV1 response to subsequent β2-agonist administration (change, −17.8% [95% CI, −27.2% to −8.5%]); the FEV1 dose response to subsequent β2-agonists (−34.8% [CI, −45.7% to −24%]); the PC20 to combined bronchoconstrictive stimuli (−26% [CI, −37% to −11%]); and leukocyte β2-receptor density (−18.3% [CI, −31.6% to −5.1%]), binding affinity (−23.1% [CI, −39.4% to −6.8%]), and in vitro response to isoproterenol (−32.7% [CI, −56.5% to −9.0%]). ...
Exercise Challenge Week of 9-4-to-9-10 Come back and let us know how you are doing. Sunday- Monday- Tues- Wed- Thurs- Fri- Saturday- Sunday- , team51955board
ABT-761 was examined in three protocols of bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig of increasing complexity. In an effort to simplify the bronchospastic response to a single-mediator system, intravenous AA was administered as a challenge. This model was somewhat successful in that the bronchospasm observed was not histamine dependent as has been observed for a significant part of the response to antigen (Maloet al., 1994). The specific inhibitor ABT-761 was effective in inhibiting most (∼75%) of the bronchospasm observed. Interestingly, FLAP antagonists were not effective in this model (Maloet al., 1993), but the cysLT1 antagonist ZD-198615 was effective (Malo et al., 1993). Moreover, an initial bronchospastic response was observed in the animals at early times (1-3 min) after challenge that was not leukotriene dependent on the basis of several criteria described in Results.. ABT-761 was also examined in an antigen-challenge model using actively sensitized animals. As described by us (Malo et ...
RESULTS: From the enhancing region, significantly elevated FA, CL, and CP and decreased CS values were observed in glioblastomas compared with brain metastases and PCLs (P , .001), whereas ADC, rCBV, and rCBVmax values of glioblastomas were significantly higher than those of PCLs (P , .01). The best model to distinguish glioblastomas from nonglioblastomas consisted of ADC, CS (or FA) from the enhancing region, and rCBV from the immediate peritumoral region, resulting in AUC = 0.938. The best predictor to differentiate PCLs from brain metastases comprised ADC from the enhancing region and CP from the immediate peritumoral region with AUC = 0.909. ...
Page 2 - Im not sure if this in the literature or not (probably) and I havent really studied it yet, but... If you have a 10kg kid with bronchospasm, what would you treatment be. Im imagining, that in
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is the most common chronic condition in elite athletes [1]. Especially endurance athletes who reach high ventilation in cold, dry air on a regular basis are susceptible to EIB [1, 2]. A study using a canine model highlighted the negative effect of dry air on the airways as it leads to airway inflammation and airway remodeling [3]. In humans this find has been confirmed in bronchial biopsies from competitive elite skiers, showing signs of eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation in the lungs, similar to those seen in asthma [4].. In elite speed skaters intense training may cause thoracic pain and cause EIB [5]. For this reason many speed skaters use a roll-collar in training to warm and humidify inhaled air. Beuther et al. already showed that warming the inhaled air can reduce EIB [6]. In competition, due to aerodynamics, this method cannot be used. In an effort to reduce EIB and thoracic pain, international professional speed skaters nowadays ...
The aim of this study is to extend previous findings that nutritional supplementation or dietary modification can ameliorate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. It has been shown in separate studies that fish oil and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) individually protect against EIB by improving pulmonary function and reducing airway inflammation. The main aim of this study is to determine the comparative and additive effects of fish oil and ascorbic acid supplementation on EIB and airway inflammation in asthmatic individuals ...
Development of asthma in children is predisposed to by early-life lower respiratory viral infections of sufficient severity to cause wheezing (Sly et al., 2010), and seems to be dependent on sensitisation (Jackson et al., 2012) as well as subsequent chronic exposure to environmental allergens (Holt and Sly, 2009). The biological events associated with such ongoing allergen challenge remain largely undefined. In our animal model, we have previously demonstrated that development of an asthmatic phenotype (including airway inflammation, remodelling and hyper-responsiveness to a cholinergic bronchoconstrictor stimulus) is dependent on the interaction between early-life viral infection, sensitisation via the respiratory tract and chronic exposure to aerosolised antigen (Siegle et al., 2010). This model thus simulates key features of the onset of childhood asthma and facilitates investigation of its pathogenesis. In the present study, we sought to define epigenetic changes and molecular mechanisms ...
Mast cells are an exceptionally rich source of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 is pro-inflammatory and can cause bronchoconstriction. The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is central to the generation of prostanoids such as PGD2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX. COX exists as two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. The principal aim of this study was to establish whether COX-1 and/or COX-2 mediates PGD2 generation from human lung mast cells. Mast cells were isolated from human lung tissue and purified by flotation over Percoll and immunomagnetic bead separations ...
Ibuprofen (Brufen). This is a milder anti-inflammatory drug causing less irritation of the stomach and other adverse effects. This drug is available in combination with paracetamol as well as dextropropoxyphene. It is widely used to relieve pain and inflammation of the joints and muscles, mild to moderate pain of menstrual cramps, dental surgery, and athletic injuries as sprains and strains. The recommended daily dosage is 1,200 to 1,600 mg to be given in 3 to 4 divided parts.. Precautions. It should be taken after meals.. Those allergic to aspirin, are likely to be allergic to this drug also.. It should not be taken by patients of peptic ulcer, or liver or kidney disease.. It should be used cautiously by patients of asthma. It has been reported to cause bronchoconstriction. It is also not recommended for those suffering from hypertension or heart disease.. If symptoms of allergic reaction occur, stop the drug and consult the doctor.. Naproxan (Naprogyn, Artragen), Naproxan Sodium ...
Ibuprofen (Brufen). This is a milder anti-inflammatory drug causing less irritation of the stomach and other adverse effects. This drug is available in combination with paracetamol as well as dextropropoxyphene. It is widely used to relieve pain and inflammation of the joints and muscles, mild to moderate pain of menstrual cramps, dental surgery, and athletic injuries as sprains and strains. The recommended daily dosage is 1,200 to 1,600 mg to be given in 3 to 4 divided parts.. Precautions. It should be taken after meals.. Those allergic to aspirin, are likely to be allergic to this drug also.. It should not be taken by patients of peptic ulcer, or liver or kidney disease.. It should be used cautiously by patients of asthma. It has been reported to cause bronchoconstriction. It is also not recommended for those suffering from hypertension or heart disease.. If symptoms of allergic reaction occur, stop the drug and consult the doctor.. Naproxan (Naprogyn, Artragen), Naproxan Sodium ...
A series of dibasic des-hydroxy β2 receptor agonists has been prepared and evaluated for potential as inhaled ultra-long acting bronchodilators. Determination of activities at the human β-adrenoreceptors demonstrated a series of highly potent and selective β2 receptor agonists that were progressed to further study in a guinea pig histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model. Following further assessment by; onset studies in guinea pig tracheal rings and human bronchial rings contracted with methacholine (guinea pigs) or carbachol (humans), duration of action studies in guinea pigs after intratracheal (i. t.) administration and further selectivity and safety profiling AZD3199 was shown to have an excellent over all profile and was progressed into clinical evaluation as a new ultra-long acting inhaled β2 receptor agonist with rapid onset of action.. ...
CHEMICAL ecology. Abstract:Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of asthma, the prevalence and burden of this diseasehas continued to increase. Exercise is a powerful trigger of asthma symptoms and reversible airflow obstructionand may result in the avoidance of physical activity by patients with asthma, resulting in detrimentalconsequences to their health. Approximately 90% of patients with asthma are hyperresponsive to exercise andexperience exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). While pharmacologic treatment of asthma is usuallyhighly effective, medications often have significant side-effects or exhibit tachyphylaxis. Alternative therapiesfor treatment (complementary medicine) that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacologic interventions wouldbe beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. There is accumulating evidencethat dietary modification has potential to influence the severity of asthma and reduce the prevalence ...
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DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs and airway hyperresponsiveness are key components of asthma. The allergen-induced inflammatory response in the lungs results from the interaction of key airway resident cells and inflammatory cells that release local mediators. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) participates in the inflammatory response of the lungs by phenotypic changes that include synthesizing inflammatory mediators as well as an increase in contractility. Although anti-inflammatory agents and beta-adrenergic bronchodilators remain the primary treatment for chronic and acute episodes of bronchoconstriction, there is a great need for newer therapeutic targets that can modify the development and treatment of asthma. For that reason, molecular targets that might be predicted to suppress allergic inflammatory responses as well as bronchoconstriction are highly desirable. Actin dynamics is well established as the primary mechanism for motility and migration ...