TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of Aspergillus fumigatus real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage samples (BAL) for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, including azole-resistant cases, in high risk haematology patients: the need for a combined use with galactomannan. AU - Sanguinetti, Maurizio. AU - De Carolis, Elena. AU - Mikulska, Malgorzata. AU - Furfaro, Elisa. AU - Drago, Enrico. AU - Pulzato, Ilaria. AU - Borghesi, Maria Lucia. AU - Zappulo, Emanuela. AU - Raiola, Anna Maria. AU - Grazia, Carmen Di. AU - Bono, Valerio Del. AU - Cittadini, Giuseppe. AU - Angelucci, Emanuele. AU - Viscoli, Claudio. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is challenging, particularly in high-risk patients with lung lesions other than typical according to 2008-EORTC/MSG criteria. Even if microbiology is positive, they still remain unclassified according to 2008-EORTC/MSG. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides new mycological documentation of IA. This retrospective study ...
The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased angiostatin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from ARDS patients and from human volunteers after lung instillation of endotoxin. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. AU - Lijnen, H. Roger. AU - Suffredini, Anthony F.. AU - Pepper, Michael S.. AU - Steinberg, Kenneth P.. AU - Martin, Thomas R.. AU - Pugin, Jérôme. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by a disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, due to both an epithelial and an endothelial dysfunction. Whereas epithelial apoptosis seems to be mainly mediated by Fas ligand, the mediators of endothelial damage remain to be identified. Angiostatin, a powerful inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo, also specifically induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. The concentration of various enzymes that cleave angiostatin from plasminogen was reported to be significantly increased in bronchalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from patients with ARDS. Therefore, in this study, we ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article MYCOLOGICAL MICROSCOPIC AND CULTURE EXAMINATION OF 400 BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE (BAL) SAMPLES
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Cytological evaluation of tracheal aspirate and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid in comparison to endoscopic assessment of lower airways in horses with recurrent airways obstruction or inflammatory airway disease - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
The usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in the immunosuppressed patient was studied in 97 patients. In immunosuppressed patients, the available diagnostic procedures are often invasive and have variable yield and a potential for serious complications. Bronchoalveolar lavage had an overall diagnostic yield of 66% (61 of 92 diseases). It was most effective in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections, including infection with Pneumocystis carinii (18 of 22 cases), cytomegalovirus pneumonia (10 of 12 cases), fungal pneumonia (5 of 6 cases), and mycobacterial disease (4 of 5 cases). The technique was also helpful in confirming pulmonary hemorrhage (7 of 9 cases) but was less useful for diagnosing malignancy (10 of 22 cases) and drug-induced toxicity (6 of 15 cases). Findings of bronchoalveolar lavage were additive with those of transbronchial biopsies, brushings, and washings in the diagnosis of most of the diseases. The procedure was safe, even in ...
en] An increased production of NO* and peroxynitrite in lungs has been suspected during acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, and recent studies provided evidence for an alveolar production of nitrated compounds. We observed increased concentrations of nitrites/nitrates, nitrated proteins and markers of neutrophil degranulation (myeloperoxidase, elastase and lactoferrine) in the fluids recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) of patients with ALI and correlated these changes to the number of neutrophils and the severity of the ALI. We also observed that BALFs stimulated the DNA-binding activity of the nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) as detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in human alveolar cells (A549) and monocytes (THP1). The level of activation of the NF-kappaB-binding activity was correlated to the concentration of nitrated proteins and myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, in vitro studies confirmed that NO*-derived species (peroxynitrite and nitrites) and the ...
Several components of cellular and humoral immunity were examined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood of 15 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and the results were compared to data from 25 healthy controls (including 5 asymptomatic homosexual men). Compared with that of controls, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients tended to have more lymphocytes and significantly more neutrophils; a lower OKT4/OKT8 ratio, due to an increase in total OKT8 cells; and normal total OKT4 cell counts, despite a significant decrease in numbers of OKT4 cells in peripheral blood. Patients also had significantly more IgG-releasing cells and higher IgG levels than controls in lavage fluid. These data show that, in the lung lining fluid of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, significant alterations in cellular and humoral immunity exist that differ in several important respects from immunity in controls and from corresponding changes in patients peripheral blood. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel approach for analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) using HPLC-QTOF-MS-based lipidomics. T2 - Lipid levels in asthmatics and corticosteroid-treated asthmatic patients. AU - Kang, Yun Pyo. AU - Lee, Won Jun. AU - Hong, Ji Yeon. AU - Lee, Sae Bom. AU - Park, Jeong Hill. AU - Kim, Donghak. AU - Park, Sunghyouk. AU - Park, Choon Sik. AU - Park, Sung Woo. AU - Kwon, Sung Won. PY - 2014/9/5. Y1 - 2014/9/5. N2 - To better understand the respiratory lipid phenotypes of asthma, we developed a novel method for lipid profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) using HPLC-QTOF-MS with an internal spectral library and high-throughput lipid-identifying software. The method was applied to BALF from 38 asthmatic patients (18 patients with nonsteroid treated bronchial asthma [NSBA] and 20 patients with steroid treated bronchial asthma [SBA]) and 13 healthy subjects (NC). We identified 69 lipids, which were categorized into one of six lipid classes: lysophosphatidylcholine ...
Patrolling Monocytes Promote the Pathogenesis of Early Lupus-Like Glomerulonephritis Researchers found that glomerulonephritis was driven by TLRs but, remarkably, proceeded independently of immune complexes. Rather, disease in three different mouse models and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was characterized by glomerular accumulation of patrolling monocytes, a cell type with an emerging key function in vascular inflammation. [J Clin Invest] Full Article Lipopolysaccharide Inhalation Recruits Monocytes and Dendritic Cell Subsets to the Alveolar Airspace The authors used lipopolysaccharide inhalation to induce acute inflammation in healthy volunteers and examined the impact on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood mononuclear phagocyte repertoire. Classical monocytes and two dendritic cell subsets were expanded in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eight hours after lipopolysaccharide inhalation. [Nat Commun] Full Article FcγRIIb Differentially Regulates Pre-Immune and Germinal Center B ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased levels of glutathione in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with asthma. AU - Smith, L. J.. AU - Houston, M.. AU - Anderson, J.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Patients with asthma generate increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from peripheral blood cells and cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). ROS produce many of the pathophysiologic changes associated with asthma and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Although antioxidant defenses inhibit the changes produced by ROS, no data are available on local antioxidant defenses in asthma. The present study was designed to begin to explore these defenses by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and total glutathione (GSH) levels in BAL fluid from normal subjects and patients with mild asthma. Baseline pulmonary function and methacholine bronchoprovocation tests were performed on all subjects. BAL was achieved by instilling five 20-ml aliquots of phosphate-buffered saline in ...
Background: Cytologic examination of specimens obtained from the respiratory tract is a lung cancer diagnostic procedure with high specificity, but moderate sensitivity. The use of molecular biomarkers may enhance the sensitivity of cytologic examination in the detection of lung cancer. Methods: Complement factor H, a protein secreted by lung cancer cells, was quantified in a series of bronchoalveolar lavage supernatants from lung cancer patients and patients with non-malignant respiratory diseases. Albumin, total protein content, and hemoglobin were also analyzed. Results were validated in independent sets of bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum supernatants. Results: There was a significantly higher concentration of factor H in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from lung cancer patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the factor H test was 82% and 77%, respectively. These results were validated in an independent set of patients with nearly identical results. Furthermore, 70% and 45% of ...
The purpose of this study is to explore the correlations of interleukin 36 (IL-36) and Soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. A total of 35 children with M. pneumnoiae pneumonia (MPP) and 15 control subjects were enrolled. BALF concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and clinical profiles of children with MPP were obtained. Children with MPP had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to control subjects (both P < 0.05). Meanwhile, children with pleural effusion had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to children without pleural effusion (both P < 0.05). BALF concentration of sB7-H3 was strongly associated with concentration of IL-36 (r = 0.796, P < 0.0001) and sB7-H3 was correlated with duration of fever (r = 0.427, P = 0.11) and length of stay (r = 0.345, P = 0.043). Both concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were significantly
Vitamin E acetate was universally found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients with vaping lung injury, providing the first direct evidence of vitamin E acetate at the site of injury.
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Desk E1 in the online supplement). using ELISA (Invitrogen). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for total, differential cell counts, and IL-18 ELISA. Left lung cells was examined by eosin and hematoxylin, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence staining, and homogenates had been ready for IL-1, IL-18 (Invitrogen), and IL-33 (R&D Systems) quantitative ELISA. Best lungs were utilized to measure wet-to-dry lung pounds ratio (online health supplement). Mouse Microarray Evaluation Total RNA was extracted from lung cells of ventilated and control NOD/shi mice. Microarray manifestation profiles were produced using Ref-8 mouse arrays (Illumina) based on the producers process. The IGF2R microarray data can be found through the GEO accession quantity type:entrez-geo,attrs:text:GSE29920″,term_id:29920″GSE29920. Gene manifestation was verified using quantitative TaqMan REAL-TIME PCR (online health supplement). Mouse IL-18CNeutralizing Antibody Treatment C57Bl/6 mice (= ...
bronchoalveolar lavage,mechanical ventilation,platelet activating factor,surfactant,ventilator-associated lung injury,respiratory-distress syndrome,surfactant aggregate conversion,mechanical ventilation,pulmonary-surfactant,alveolar surfactant,dogs lungs,in-vitro,cytokines,clearance, ...
Cytokine Levels In Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (Balf) In Patients With Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). In comparison to other diseases, SSc patients present a spe...
C Ward, Kelly CA, Stenton SC, M Duddridge, Hendrick DJ, Walters EH; Macrophage (AM) and Neutrophil (PMNL) Chemiliuminescence (CL) in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) Fluid. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 December 1987; 73 (s17): 33P-34P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs073033Pc. Download citation file:. ...
Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. Refractory pneumonitis. A 69-year-old man status post trauma, slightly prolonged respiratory failure status post tracheostomy, requires another bronchoscopy for further evaluation of refractory pneumonitis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelin-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage during rejection of allotransplanted lungs. AU - Schersten, Henrik. AU - Aarnio, Pertti. AU - Burnett, John C.. AU - McGregor, Christopher G.A.. AU - Miller, Virginia M.. PY - 1994/1. Y1 - 1994/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028107330&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028107330&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/00007890-199401000-00027. DO - 10.1097/00007890-199401000-00027. M3 - Article. C2 - 8291104. AN - SCOPUS:0028107330. VL - 57. SP - 159. EP - 161. JO - Transplantation. JF - Transplantation. SN - 0041-1337. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bronchoalveolar lavage in the study of asthma. AU - Rennard, S. I.. AU - Thompson, A. B.. AU - Floreani, A. A.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026770648&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026770648&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1378/chest.102.1.1. DO - 10.1378/chest.102.1.1. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 1623734. AN - SCOPUS:0026770648. VL - 102. SP - 1. EP - 2. JO - Chest. JF - Chest. SN - 0012-3692. IS - 1. ER - ...
Cytology, Bronchoalveolar Lavage 2,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
In this study we have analysed the phenotype of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from PBL and BAL fluid, as well as peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from patients with sarcoidosis. Cells were studied with respect to expression of various surface activation markers, co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules. In addition, we investigated differences between cells from patients with active and inactive disease.. Our results highlight the role of T cells in sarcoidosis as there was an increased expression by BAL lymphocytes of several of the molecules studied-for example, CD26, CD95 (Fas), and the activation markers CD69 and gp240. This is in agreement with previous studies investigating other activation markers such as IL-2R (CD25), very late activation antigen-1 (VLA-1), CD49a, CD49d, and HLA-DR.11-14 A role for the receptor-ligand adhesion molecule pair CD11a/CD18-CD54 is indicated by our demonstration of increased expression of CD11a on alveolar macrophages as well as on peripheral ...
bronchoalveolar definition: Adjective (comparative more bronchoalveolar, superlative most bronchoalveolar) 1. Relating to both the bronchi and the alvioli of the lungs...
The pathophysiological role of inflammation in lung diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is well established. Quantifying lung inflammation is relevant for the management of inflammatory airway diseases as it may indicate that pharmacological intervention is required before symptom onset and reduction in lung function. Moreover, monitoring of airway inflammation might be useful in the follow-up of patients with asthma and COPD, and for guiding pharmacological therapy. Quantification of pulmonary inflammation is currently based more on invasive methods including the analysis of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, bronchoscopy, and bronchial biopsies, semi-invasive methods such as sputum induction, and the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers in plasma and urine, which are likely to reflect systemic rather than lung inflammation. Interest in the identification of non-invasive biomarkers for inflammatory airway diseases has been growing. Along these years less invasive ...
Pulmonary infection is normally a major reason behind mortality and morbidity as well as the magnitude from the lung inflammatory response correlates with affected person survival. and peptidoglycan (PGN) implemented intratracheally significantly elevated the amounts of neutrophils retrieved in the bronchoalveolar lavage liquid (BALF). F344 got approximately 10-flip even more neutrophils in the BALF weighed against DA (< 0.001) and higher BALF concentrations of total proteins tumor necrosis aspect-α and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2. LTA/PGN administration in DA×F344 congenic strains (with LTA/PGN created significantly higher degrees of keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory proteins 2 than alveolar macrophages from DA rats. The distinctions had been linked to differential mitogen-activated proteins kinase phosphorylation. We conclude the fact that factors adding to irritation could be site and problem dependent. A better knowledge of site-specific irritation can lead ...
Airborne Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) with the mean diameter of 14 4 nm produced at spark ablation from 99.99% pure iron rods were fed into a nose-only exposure tower for rats exposed for 4 h a day, 5 days a week during 3, 6 or 10 months at a mean concentration of 1.14 0.01 mg/m3. Nanoparticles filtered out of the air exhausted from the exposure tower proved insoluble in de-ionized water but gradually dissolved in the cell free fluid supernatant produced by broncho-alveolar lavage and in the sterile bovine blood serum. The Fe2O3 content in lungs was measured by the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. NP retention in lungs and in brain was visualized with the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). It was found a relatively low but significant pulmonary accumulation of Fe2O3, gradually increasing with time but tending to attain an equilibrium level. Besides, TEM-images showed nanoparticles retention within alveolocytes and the myelin sheaths of brain fibers associated with their ...
Endoscopy may be recommended- this is when we place a camera down into the airway and we can visualise for any signs of infection. We are also then able to take samples (tracheal wash and broncho-alveolar lavage) from the airway to confirm if your horse is suffering from asthma and whether any secondary infections are present ...
Jan Springer, P. Lewis White, Johanna Kessel, Imke Wieters, Daniel Teschner, Daniel Korczynski, Tobias Liebregts, Oliver A. Cornely, Stefan Schwartz, Thomas Elgeti, Lisa Meintker, Stefan W. Krause, Raquel B. Posso, Werner J. Heinz, Sandra Fuhrmann, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Hermann Einsele, Volker Rickerts, Juergen Loeffler ...
The paper is concerned with the description of clinical, x-ray and morphological investigation of 123 bronchoalveolar cancer patients. Three types of this disease were defined: nodular (homogeneous and nonhomogeneous), pneumonia-like (infiltrative and infiltrative-nodular) and mixed (focal-disseminated, focal-nodular and focal-infiltrative). These types of bronchoalveolar cancer are most probably stages of the same tumor process. Clinical and x-ray signs of each type showed correlation with a morphological picture of a tumor. Shadow nonhomogeneity as one of the main x-ray signs of bronchoalveolar cancer was shown to be determined by the alveolar structure of a tumor, a tendency to the formation of small cavities, filled with viscous mucosa and air. Correct clinical and x-ray diagnosis in all types of bronchoalveolar cancer (before the use of the morphological methods) was established in 45.5% of the patients ...
The paper is concerned with the description of clinical, x-ray and morphological investigation of 123 bronchoalveolar cancer patients. Three types of this disease were defined: nodular (homogeneous and nonhomogeneous), pneumonia-like (infiltrative and infiltrative-nodular) and mixed (focal-disseminated, focal-nodular and focal-infiltrative). These types of bronchoalveolar cancer are most probably stages of the same tumor process. Clinical and x-ray signs of each type showed correlation with a morphological picture of a tumor. Shadow nonhomogeneity as one of the main x-ray signs of bronchoalveolar cancer was shown to be determined by the alveolar structure of a tumor, a tendency to the formation of small cavities, filled with viscous mucosa and air. Correct clinical and x-ray diagnosis in all types of bronchoalveolar cancer (before the use of the morphological methods) was established in 45.5% of the patients ...
To transport BAL samples from the field, pour samples into EDTA tubes or dilute 50:50 with grain alcohol or Vodka (100 Proof) and transport in clot tubes. Dont drink and drive! ...
This project will identify the characteristic immune cell profiles for two patient groups with allergic reactions with or without specific IgE in serum, also compared with healthy controls.
The figure above shows the overall detectability of the specified assay in a range of different mouse sample types. Detectability in each sample matrix is presented as the mean % of all samples included in the validation studies that could be measured above the limit of detection (LOD).. Dilution of samples may be necessary for some sample matrices other than plasma or serum to achieve optimal assay performance - the data shown above represents the values obtained at the optimal dilution identified in each case. Details regarding possible dilutions should be discussed with your Olink representative prior to commencing the study. The data is compiled from multiple studies comprising a range of healthy and disease samples, including samples from genetically modified mouse lines in some cases.. (Note: CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; BAL = bronchoalveolar lavage).. ...
Source: Adapted from the National Institutes of Health. What does the term lavage mean? The term lavage refers to washing out of an organ, especially the stomach. To find out more about this term, please search the news section of this website for related articles and information.. ...
Trimesulfin Balsámico is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Trimesulfin Balsámico is available on the Drugs.com website.
Confused on this one. Inpatient visist: When a Intensivist does a procedure of BAL Lavage and its done on both lungs. Is this report twice with CPT 3
differential cell counting in mixed cultures - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: hello, i will be culturing neurons and macrophages together in a mixed culture. does anyone know of any methods for counting one cell type alone?
Also known as: bal, Bal., Bal, BaL, Ba.L, Ba-L. An, Ba-L, BA¶l, BAl, BAL., BAL, BA-L, B=Al, B.A.L., B.A.L, B. A. L., B-aL, B-AL ...
Le laveur de microplaques 405LS est la cinquième génération de laveurs BioTek, reconnus pour leur niveau de performance et durabilité. Sur ces nouveaux modèles, les vannes de sélection de solution de lavage sont intégrées et un nouveau design de peigne de lavage facilite le remplacement du peigne.
It was initially thought the use of chemical-grade silicone was limited to implants made during the past decade, but the TGA today said there were indications from European regulators the problem extended back to the late 1990s.
Data & statistics on Acute Lung Injury: MRNA expression of Interleukin-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells before injury and after injury. NG, acute lung injury with normoglycemia group; HG, acute lung injury with hyperglycemia group; HG-VI, acute lung injury with hyperglycemia treated with intravenous insulin group; HG-AI, acute lung injury with hyperglycemia treated with aerosolized insulin group; IL-8, interleukin-8. Boxes extend ..., Particle-induced acute lung injury. Results obtained from analysis performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples recovered from animals at 24 h post-exposure. Animals were exposed by intratracheal instillation to: saline ( E); OFA100 ( C); OFA400 (P); ROFA#6 ( 1); or ARD ([). Various biomarkers of acute lung injury were assessed such as: A) edema/secretory activity (protein/mL); B) edema (albumin/mL); ..., Inhaltsverzeichnis Einleitung Hypothesen Theoretische Grundlagen der Hypothesen Patienten und Methodik Patienten Pneumonie Acute lung injury / Acute
TY - JOUR. T1 - Removal of bronchoalveolar cells augments the late eosinophilic response to segmental allergen challenge. AU - Hunt, L. W.. AU - Gleich, G. J.. AU - Kita, H.. AU - Weiler, D. A.. AU - Schroeder, D. R.. AU - Vuk Pavlovic, Z.. AU - Sur, Sanjiv. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: In patients with quiescent asthma, macrophages are the most prevalent cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Through activation via their FcεRII receptors or by acting as antigen-presenting cells, macrophages could, in theory, promote the late airway response to allergen. Objective: In order to investigate the importance of macrophages and other airway luminal cells in inducing the late airway response, a novel washout experiment was designed. Methods: Five patients with ragweed-allergic asthma underwent bronchoscopy and segmental bronchial challenge with either normal saline or short ragweed extract in two segments of one lung. In a third segment of the opposite lung, 12 successive BALs ...
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains a major cause for morbidity and mortality in patients (pts) with hematologic malignancies. As culture-based methods only yield results in a minority of patients, using non-culture-based methods for detection of aspergillosis in clinical specimens becomes increasingly important. Analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is promising, however, the influence of current antifungal drugs on the performance of this diagnostic tool remains controversial.. The aim of the trial is to elucidate on the performance of BAL PCR under antifungal treatment.. Patients with high risk of invasive aspergillosis and lung infiltrates are sampled via BAL, the sample is analyzed for fungal DNA by Apsergillus specific PCR. Clinical data including treatment data is assessed and evaluated. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Noninvasive quantification of airway inflammation following segmental allergen challenge with functional MR imaging. T2 - A proof of concept study. AU - Renne, Julius. AU - Hinrichs, Jan. AU - Schönfeld, Christian. AU - Gutberlet, Marcel. AU - Winkler, Carla. AU - Faulenbach, Cornelia. AU - Jakob, Peter. AU - Schaumann, Frank. AU - Krug, Norbert. AU - Wacker, Frank. AU - Hohlfeld, Jens M.. AU - Vogel-Claussen, Jens. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate oxygen-enhanced T1-mapping magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a noninvasive method for visualization and quantification of regional inflammation after segmental allergen challenge in asthmatic patients compared with control subjects.Materials and After institutional review board approval, nine asthmatic Methods: and four healthy individuals gave written informed consent. MR imaging (1.5 T) was performed by using an inversion-recovery snapshot fast low-angle shot sequence before (0 hours) and 6 hours and 24 hours ...
CoV 2019, whose genetic material is single-strand RNA and a member of the corona family, was identified in November 2019, it is a pathogen with a strong pandemic effect. CoV 2019 (Genbank acc. MN908947), whose genome has been sequenced, has high similarity to the SARS virus. Test-it COVID-19 Real Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Kit detects SARS-CoV-2. (2019-nCoV) from respiratory tract samples (nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples). COVID-19 Real Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Kit scans the N1, N2 gene regions on the N gene determined by WHO and USA-CDC.. COVID-19 Real Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Kit detects SARS-CoV-2. (2019nCoV) RNA from respiratory tract samples (nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples). In the diagnostic kit, RNAse P (RP) mRNA at the human mRNA level was chosen as the internal control. The kit, which receives radiation from FAM and HEX wavelengths, works in multiplex with a single tube.. ...
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are increased in the airway wall of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and postulated to play a crucial role in COPD. However, DC phenotypes in COPD are poorly understood. Function-associated surface molecules on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) DCs were analyzed using flow cytometry in current smokers with COPD, in former smokers with COPD and in never-smoking controls. Myeloid DCs of current smokers with COPD displayed a significantly increased expression of receptors for antigen recognition such as BDCA-1 or Langerin, as compared with never-smoking controls. In contrast, former smokers with COPD displayed a significantly decreased expression of these receptors, as compared with never-smoking controls. A significantly reduced expression of the maturation marker CD83 on myeloid DCs was found in current smokers with COPD, but not in former smokers with COPD. The chemokine receptor CCR5 on myeloid DCs, which is also important for the uptake and
Background. In acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia, a procoagulant shift is observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The effect of a primarily extrapulmonary infection on coagulation and fibrinolysis in the pulmonary compartment is unclear. Methods. In 35 patients, 87 bronchoalveolar lavages were performed on the day of operation for secondary peritonitis (day 0) and on days 2 and 3 after surgery. Two noninfectious control groups were included: subjects undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage after elective surgery (n = 8) and those undergoing long-term mechanical ventilation (n = 10). Results. In BALF from patients with peritonitis, a tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIaâ€mediated activation of coagulation was shown (high levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes). Levels of fibrinolysis activators decreased rapidly after day 0, whereas levels of inhibitors increased. The net effect was reduced fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator activity). The sequential comparison of plasma ...
BackgroundPneumonia carries significant morbidity and mortality in leukemic and bone marrow transplant patient. The development of pulmonary infiltrates in the setting of such immunocompromise raises concern for both infectious and non-infectious etiologies, some of which are potentially treatabl. Performing bronchoscopy provides several different options for sampling the lower respiratory tract. Among these, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is especially effective at collecting samples from the alveoli and has been shown to be associated with less risk than transbonchial biops. We sought to examine the effect of antimicrobial treatment on BAL results in a large study population of leukemic and bone marrow transplant patients.Subjects and MethodsThis retrospective chart review was performed at a single academic cancer center. A power analysis was performed to determine the appropriate sample size. The patients were selected from those who had undergone an inpatient bronchoscopy in reverse chronological
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman, former smoker since September 2012 (18 pack-years), with a history of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. No infiltrates were observed in a chest X-ray performed in 2012. Skin prick tests showed sensitization to cat dander and grass and olive pollen.. She was admitted in 2014 for an acute episode of dyspnea, breath sounds, and non-productive cough without fever. Chest X-ray revealed an alveolointersticial pattern predominantly in the lung bases. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral patchy ground glass infiltrates. Bronchoscopy was performed with transbronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage: neutrophils: 11%; eosinophils: 85.9%; lymphocytes: 0.6%. Biopsy showed a histological pattern of pulmonary eosinophilia suggestive of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), with a focal pattern typical of organizing pneumonia. Lung function tests highlighted a restrictive pattern with carbon monoxide diffusion changes: FVC 1830 - 59%; FEV1 ...
A P Greening, N C Dobson, P Nunn, A D M Rees; Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Fibrosing Alveolitis Assessment of Lymphocyte Proportions, Subtypes and Function. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1984; 66 (2): 55P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs066055P_pt2. Download citation file:. ...
Lu et al prospectively studied 165 patients with culture-confirmed (bronchoalveolar lavage samples), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii.
Table II shows differential count for the three patients. There is increased neutrophil count after CPB with predominance of macrophages in both samples.. DISCUSSION. Inflammation may be understood as a protective response against the consequences of tissue aggression, organ dysfunction and cell necrosis 10, being a systemic process present even in the absence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) 11. However, if SIRS evolves to organ dysfunction, the inflammatory response may be noxious 10 with pulmonary function changes, renal failure, multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS) and shock 11.. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is frequent and contributes to morbidity, mortality and hospitalization-related costs 12. The understanding of postoperative pulmonary dysfunction pathophysiology is critical for postoperative clinical pulmonary complication evaluation and the definition of therapeutic regimens.. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction pathogenesis is associated to changes in gas ...
Case Report Our case is a 4 month old, Sudanese boy, residing in Qatar, who presented to our hospital with fever for two weeks. He remained febrile in the hospital for two weeks, despite receiving Intravenous antibiotics for presumed partially treated meningitis. He also received IVIG for the suspicion of atypical Kawasaki. Computerised tomography of the head and abdomen and bone marrow studies were also inconclusive. The mother subsequently revealed that a previous child had died during infancy with prolonged fever and no specific diagnosis. This alerted the treating physicians to the possibility of immunodeficiency. Our patient had received BCG vaccine at birth without any complications, and three gastric aspirate samples were negative for tuberculosis. A broncho-alveolar lavage was performed, despite the absence of any respiratory symptoms, to exclude any unusual organisms causing prolonged fever. The broncho-alveolar lavage revealed mycobacterium tuberculosis which was resistant to Isoniazid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenic identification of chemotactic factor inactivator in normal human serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. AU - Robbins, Richard A.. AU - Rasmussen, Julie K.. AU - Clayton, Marcia E.. AU - Gossman, Gail L.. AU - Kendall, Todd J.. AU - Rennard, Stephen I.. PY - 1987/9. Y1 - 1987/9. N2 - Several proteins have been described that can modulate the activity of the complement component C5a, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. One of these inhibitors has been termed chemotactic factor inactivator (CFI). We hypothesized that CFI was antigenically present in normal human serum and that antigenic levels would correlate with the ability of serum to inhibit C5a. To test this hypothesis, CFI was purified from normal human serum, antibodies to CFI were developed in rabbits, and these reagents were used to develop an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay to measure CFI. Sera from 32 normal volunteers were assayed for CFI and found to contain 77 ± 29 μg/ml (range 17 to 137 μg/ml). ...
Hometown: Salt Lake City, Utah. Meg impressed immediately with her poise, intelligence, and initiative. Of the approximately 35 veterinary students and 15 undergraduate students that have worked in my lab over the past eight years, Meg is THE MOST responsible, organized, intellectually curious and astute student I have encountered.. Our lab is somewhat unique as it requires many basic science benchtop skills, but also animal handling and sample collection from horses. Meg has participated in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage sample collection and physical examinations on horses and foals in various projects, and immediately impressed me with her horse sense and handling skills as well as her ability to quickly grasp technical procedures. She also excels with benchtop skills, enthusiastically learning ELISAs, cell culture, neutrophil isolation, and free radical analytics assays. Meg works very well with or without direct supervision, and never fails to accomplish what is asked of her and more as a ...
Metagenomic technologies enable the study of microbial genetic material in human biomedical sample types such as stool, nasal, oral, urogenital, skin and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. In addition, environmental samples such as soil, water, air and biofilms can be also be analyzed. Metagenomic data can not only be used to examine healthy microbiomes and shed light on causes, effects, and future therapies for a variety of diseases, but it can also be useful to help understand the environments microbial biodiversity. QIAGEN provides next-generation sequencing technologies for metagenomics, as well as qPCR assays and arrays for verification of sequencing results and screening for specific bacterial species, virulence factor genes, and antibiotic resistance genes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intratracheal administration of endotoxin and cytokines. T2 - VIII. LPS induces E-selectin expression; anti-E-selectin and soluble E-selectin inhibit acute inflammation. AU - Ulich, T. R.. AU - Howard, S. C.. AU - Remick, D. G.. AU - Yi, E. S.. AU - Collins, T.. AU - Guo, K.. AU - Yin, S.. AU - Keene, J. L.. AU - Schmuke, J. J.. AU - Steininger, C. N.. AU - Welply, J. K.. AU - Williams, J. H.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - E-selectin is an inducible endothelial adhesion molecule that binds neutrophils. E-selectin mRNA is not constitutively detectable in the lungs of rats. Intratracheal injection of LPS induces pulmonary E-selectin mRNA expression at 2-4 h. Intratracheal injection of LPS followed at 2 and 4 h by intravenous injection of mouse F(ab) 2 or F(ab) anti-E-selectin monoclonal antibody inhibits the emigration of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space at 6 h by 50-70% . TNF and IL-6 bioactivity are not decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after treatment with ...
BioAssay record AID 423142 submitted by ChEMBL: Effect on pulmonary inflammation in BALB/c mouse lung assessed as change in peribronchiolar inflammation after 5 days by histopathological analysis.
COPD is an inflammatory disease of the airways characterised by increased levels of proinflammatory markers in lung tissue, and associated bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and sputum. Increased sputum neutrophil levels have been correlated with disease progression and established as a primary biomarker of disease activity. Other biomarkers identified in sputum, such as CXCL8 (IL-8), club cell secretory protein (CC-16) and others, have been associated with disease activity, and in some studies correlate with disease progression.18 ,19. Previous studies have shown that both neutrophil and macrophage cell populations are increased in sputum and BAL samples taken from patients with COPD compared with those from disease-free patients,20 and that this increase is correlated with disease severity.21 ,22 Macrophages, in particular alveolar macrophages, are the most abundant type of immune cell found in the small airways, and they seem to accumulate in areas of tissue damage in the lungs.23 ,24 This ...
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Recent studies have revealed that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contains previously unappreciated communities of bacteria. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that host inflammatory signals prompt bacteria to disperse from cell-associated biofilms and adopt a virulent free-living phenotype. The proportion of the lung microbiota that is cell-associated is unknown. Forty-six BAL specimens were obtained from lung transplant recipients and divided into two aliquots: whole BAL and acellular BAL, the latter processed with a low-speed, short-duration centrifugation step. Both aliquots were analyzed via bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The BAL specimens represented a wide spectrum of lung health, ranging from healthy and asymptomatic to acutely infected. Bacterial signal was detected in 52% of acellular BAL aliquots, fewer than were detected in whole BAL (96%, p ≤ 0.0001). Detection of bacteria in acellular BAL was associated with indices of acute infection [BAL neutrophilia, high total
Principal Investigator:HAYASHI Seiji, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytotoxic drug-induced lung injury. AU - Snyder, Linda S.. AU - Hertz, Marshall I.. PY - 1988/9/1. Y1 - 1988/9/1. N2 - Cytotoxic drug-induced pulmonary disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. It is estimated that 20% of all patients receiving cytotoxic drugs will develop a symptomatic pulmonary reaction. Therefore, the possibility of a toxic drug reaction must be considered in all patients developing pulmonary disease during or following treatment with these agents. Clinical manifestations of lung toxicity are nonspecific and parallel the signs and symptoms of diffuse lung infection and malignant disease in the chest. For this reason, the diagnosis of cytotoxic drug-induced lung damage is one of exclusion of the various opportunistic infections that afflict this patient population. This typically requires careful microbiologic studies of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and lung tissue. The diagnosis of cytotoxic drug-induced lung ...
An alteration in the balance between a T-helper type 2 cell (Th2) response and a Th1 response may predispose to the development of bronchial asthma. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has an ability to promote both Th1 and Th2 responses, depending on the surrounding cytokine environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of asthma. In this study, we used a C57BL/6 mouse model of allergic asthma to examine the effects of antioxidants on the regulation of IL-18 expression. Our present study with ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma revealed that ROS production in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids was increased and that administration of l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid or α-lipoic acid reduced the increased levels of ROS, the increased expression of IL-18 protein and mRNA, airway ...
... u. ... .... _n of lung parenchyma by CD8+ cells ~hl!eOI~cut immunohistological observations f!CU:ii~J CD8+ infiltrate in the group of continued to ~ regularly exposed, and of CD4+ cells after 6 months in the lungs of were not. indicate that alveolitis in RP patients is a and its intensity might be modulated by to relevant antigens, amount of antigen of sensitization, thus explaining the BAL lymphocytosis observed in patients exposed to the specific antigens compared are noL Increased cells with supprcssor/cyin the lung of these patients is related to a local immunological response . These mechanisms may be relevant in the pathogenesis of HP.
Cytokines produced by activated TH2-type CD4+ T cells in the airway may contribute to late asthmatic responses by mechanisms that include eosinophil accumulation.
This is because co-receptor CD4 amplifies the signal produced for the T-cell receptor by recruiting lymphocyte protein kinase Lck, which consequently triggers a cascade of gatherings leading to T-cell activation. Curiously, DHLA didnt downregulate CD4 from the surface area of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [a hundred forty five]. Instead or Along with CD4 downregulation, the immunomodulatory Houses of LA may perhaps include the upregulation of cAMP in T-cells and organic killer cells [146]. Mobile migration and neovascularization were being also inhibited by LA (86 μg/day in consuming h2o) in c57/black mice injected with Kaposis sarcoma inside of a matrigel sponge, in addition to in nude mice injected with KS cells [147]. In the mouse product of bronchial asthma, dietary LA considerably attenuated airway hyper-responsiveness, reduced the eosinophil depend among the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and considerably improved pathologic lesion scores with the lungs [148]. LA inhibits ...
Results C57 mice demonstrated a higher total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL lymphocyte count at 3 and 7 days after intraperitoneal infection compared with BALB mice. There were no differences in BAL cytokine production; however, we were able to demonstrate differences in CMV DNA load in the lungs of BALB mice compared with that of C57 mice. In addition, there appeared to be increased whole-lung production of the TH2 cytokine IL-10 in the BALB mice versus the C57 mice. ...
The purpose of the study is two-fold: (1) to further evaluate the safety and potential immunogenicity of GLASSIA following IV administration via in-line filtration; and, (2) to assess the effects of GLASSIA augmentation therapy on the levels of A1PI and various biomarkers in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous (IV) administration at a dosage of 60 mg/kg Body weight (BW)/week active A1PI protein for 25 weeks in subjects with emphysema due to congenital A1PI deficiency ...
The differential cytology reflected mainly that described for healthy infants with lymphocyte counts at the upper range level. A positive association between BAL CD8+ lymphocytes and neutrophils and endobronchial reticular basement membrane was found. Detectable levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-23, and IL-33 were found, whereas levels of Th2-type cytokine proteins were low. Frequent wheeze was the only clinical characteristic significantly related to detectable combined pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. Lung function did not correlate with any cytokine ...
Hung, Hung-Chang et al. Effectiveness of the BDProbeTec ET system for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Braz J Infect Dis, June 2012, vol.16, no.3, p.242-249. ISSN 1413- ...
In our sample, male patients without a visible cause prevailed, as found in other studies (6). In respect to age, 68.2% were up to 3 years old, compatible with the period in which children are more susceptible to respiratory infections. Furthermore, infants and young children are more likely to develop chronic respiratory problems after infections because of the physiological characteristics of their airways (1). More than two thirds of the cases were of asthma and neuropathy since these diseases are usually associated to a more affected respiratory tract than that of the general population (1,2). In our study only one patient had oxygen desaturation this complication (4.5%), in a similar frequency reported in the literature (6-10 ...
Sample Processing is to collect target protein. The processing shall be done as gently as possible as protein denatures or degrades easily. It is also very important to store processed sample, especially avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles. Processed sample can be sub-packed and sealed. Expiry Time: a week at 4 degree; a month at -20 degree; two months at -80 degree. Just put sample in room until its temperature reaches room temperature before using the sample. It is forbidden to heat the sample to melt the sample.. Collect sample and then centrifuge it at 10000rpm for 10 minutes at 4 degree. Then collect supernatant and store it at -80 degree, avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles.. ...
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cell analysis for the diagnosis and management of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been a subject of debate and controversy. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) sponsored a committee of international experts to examine all relevant literature on BAL in ILD and provide recommendations concerning the use of BAL in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected ILD. PURPOSE: To provide recommendations for (1) the performance and processing of BAL and (2) the interpretation of BAL nucleated immune cell patterns and other BAL characteristics in patients with suspected ILD ...
meningitidis was developed and evaluated on BAL samples from adults with LRTI and a control group, and on CSF samples 3-MA datasheet from patients with meningitis. To establish the detection capacity of the Spn9802, the P6 and the ctrA assays, serial selleck inhibitor dilutions of target DNA with known concentration were repeatedly tested and the analytical sensitivity was 10-60 copies per PCR reaction for the Spn9802 assay, 3-30 copies per PCR reaction for the P6 assay and 5-50 copies per PCR reaction for the ctrA assay. As shown in Table 2 the analytical sensitivity. and quantification was not affected by using a combined mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and N. meningitidis) in single tubes. Table 2 Detection capacity of multiplex quantitative PCR. Oligos for a single target Oligos for three targets Δ Ct Δ copy number (log 10) DNA standard copy number of target DNA (number of reactions) Mean Ct value Mean measured copy number (log10) DNA standard ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article EVALUATION OF DNA-CONTENT OF PERITONEAL LAVAGE CELLS BY FLOW CYTOMETRY IN PATIENTS WITH GASTERIC CANCER
Alveolar resident memory T cells (T(RM)) comprise a currently uncharacterized mixture of cell subpopulations. The CD3(+)CD161(+) T cell subpopulation resides in the liver, intestine and skin, but it has the capacity for tissue migration; however, the presence of resident CD3(+)CD161(+) T cells in th …
Adults with CF given a bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as alternative to a sputum sample had no serious side effects in study.
This study examines the influence of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (Hochuekkito; TJ-41) on the inflammatory response in alveolar macrophage in hyperglycemic mice. BALB/c mice (males, six to eight weeks old) were divided into three groups: A, B, and C. From the outset, group A and B were fed an ordinary diet, whereas TJ-41 was given to group C. After the initiation of these diets, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ), 250mg/g in mice of groups B and C. Four weeks after the start of these diets, blood-glucose levels were measured, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Alveolar macrophages were sampled, and those demonstrating blood-glucose levels of more than 200 mg/dL were selected for use. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (TLR2: peptidoglycan [PGN], TLR4: LPS, TLR5: flagellin [FLG]) were employed to stimulate pulmonary-alveolar macrophages, and ELISA was used to measure TNF-a production. TLR expression on pulmonary-alveoli surface was evaluated on the basis of the emergence of each ...
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Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
HIA has previously discussed the coding of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The coding of procedures performed via bronchoscopy has become complicated in ICD-10-PCS. The coder must now think about the objective of the procedure to assign the correct root operation, the correct body part being addressed, and the correct approach and whether or not the intent of any removal of tissue or fluid was diagnostic.. Read More ...
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid; Nasopharyngeal swab. Please see Virology Specimen Collection Instructions at stanfordlab.com/esoteric/Virology.html ...
The integrity of the epithelial lining in intestines of cKO mice is maintained.(A) Tamoxifen-treated F/F;Cre (cKO, n = 11) and littermate F/F controls (Ctrl
entrations in their BAL fluids (Fig 1B). By contrast, subjects with asthma and healthy controls had similar mean concentrations of such other cytokines as