It can be argued that sire selection is the single most important element of a successful breeding program. Of course, it goes without saying that you must first have established the breeding objectives for your herd. This is where the two national genetic selection indexes, LPI and Pro$, have a critical role to play. Canadian Dairy Network (CDN) and each breed association provides lists of top animals... proven sires, genomic young bulls, cows and heifers, ranked based on their LPI and Pro$. These indexes have been developed and implemented to guide Canadian producers in terms of setting their breeding goals and then realizing them.. Optimum Sire Selection Strategy. The ideal strategy for producers to achieve their breeding objectives is first to rank sires based on your preferred selection index. Once the highest sires for that index are identified, then the second step is to determine how to best incorporate them in your herd by avoiding matings that result in too much inbreeding and/or a ...
The Indonesia Cattle Breeding Program (ICB), which commenced in February 2016, is a program established under the auspices of the Indonesia-Australia Partnership on Food Security in the Red Meat and Cattle Sector (the Partnership), with the purpose of promoting sustainable commercial scale beef cattle breeding in Indonesia. The project aims to pilot a range of different breeding models with private sector partners to assess commercially sustainable approaches that can be up-scaled to facilitate investment, innovation and expansion of the beef cattle breeding industry in Indonesia.
The Indonesia Cattle Breeding Program (ICB), which commenced in February 2016, is a program established under the auspices of the Indonesia-Australia Partnership on Food Security in the Red Meat and Cattle Sector (the Partnership), with the purpose of promoting sustainable commercial scale beef cattle breeding in Indonesia. The project aims to pilot a range of different breeding models with private sector partners to assess commercially sustainable approaches that can be up-scaled to facilitate investment, innovation and expansion of the beef cattle breeding industry in Indonesia.
A model Indigenous Thai beef cattle breeding structure consisting of nucleus, multiplier and commercial units was used to evaluate the effect of changes in heritabilities of and genetic correlations between adaptation traits on genetic gain and profitability. A breeding objective that incorporated adaptation was considered. Two scenarios for improving both the production and the adaptation of animals where also compared in terms of their genetic and economic efficiency. A base scenario was modelled where selection is for production traits and adaptation is assumed to be under the forces of natural selection. The second scenario (+Adaptation) included all the information available for base scenario with the addition of indirect measures of adaptation. These measures included tick count (TICK), faecal egg count (FEC) and rectal temperature (RECT). Therefore, the main difference between these scenarios was seen in the records available for use as selection criteria and hence the level of ...
The majority of beef breed associations have made (or are currently making) substantial changes to their National Cattle Evaluation. These changes ultimately benefit commercial bull buyers by providing improved
Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46 Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46
The University of the Free State (UFS), in conjunction with the University of Stellenbosch (US) and the Institute for Animal Production, recently hosted Dr Arthur Gilmour, well-known biometrician from New South Wales, Australia. Dr Gilmour presented a two-day workshop at the UFS on the application of Arthurs Restricted Maximum Likelihood (ASREML) to common animal breeding problems. ASREML is a software programme suitable for among others the estimation of genetic and environmental variances and co-variances in animal breeding and is the preferred software package for animal breeding experimentation. The workshop was attended by post-graduate students and researchers in animal breeding from different universities. At the workshop were, from the left: Dr Gilmour, Ms Puleng Matebesi (M.Sc. student at the UFS), Prof. Japie van Wyk (Divisional Head of Animal Breeding at the UFS Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences and one of the organisers of the workshop), Prof. Herman van ...
The objective of this study is to apply the bioeconomic model described in a companion study for the calculation of the economic weights of traits of pig breeds involved in the three-way crossing system of The Czech National Program for Pig Breeding. Dam breeds, Czech Large White (CLW) in the dam position and Czech Landrace (CL) in the sire position, and sire breed, Pietrain (PN), were chosen for the calculation. The most common integrated production system was modeled with artificial insemination of gilts and sows, using boars only for estrus stimulation. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of age and were reared in a nursery until the age of 84 days. All replacement gilts and boars were reared within the breeding system. The greatest part of the surplus female and male pigs was finished to a fixed slaughter weight; a small percentage was sold as piglets after nursery or as breeding gilts and boars. Economic weights of 14 production and functional traits were calculated for all three breeds, taking ...
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation (using best linear unbiased prediction and other methods) of the genetic value (estimated breeding value, EBV) of livestock. Selecting for breeding animals with superior EBV in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or with other desirable traits has revolutionized livestock production throughout the world. The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics, statistics, and recently molecular genomics and is based on the pioneering work of Sewall Wright, Jay Lush, and Charles Henderson. Breeding stock is a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred animals, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, when breeding swine the ...
The importance of region by sire, herd within region by sire and contemporary group within herd by sire interactions were evaluated for 68,271 birth weight, 247,943 weaning weight and 98,790 postweaning gain records supplied by the American Polled Hereford Association. Variance components for sire, region by sire, herd within region by sire, contemporary group within herd by sire and error were estimated using Henderson Method 3 estimation procedures. Sire by region, herd within region by sire and contemporary group within herd by sire variance estimates divided by the sire variance estimates were .57, .93 and 1.71, respectively, for weaning weight, -1.00, -.14 and 1.29, respectively, for birth weight, and -1.19, .14 and 1.22, respectively, for postweaning gain;The average genetic correlation estimates of weaning weight sire expected differences (EPDs) across regions was .64. This value expresses the correlation among progeny of the same sire after the sire evaluation model had accounted for the
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Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is ...
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Advances in Animal Breeding ISSN 9371-4726 Vol. 1 (3), pp. 024-028, July, 2017. © International Scholars Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines of milk yield and the breeding values of the cows. *Pervez Benazir, Nusrat Ali Zardari and Malala Afridi. Department Livestock Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.. E-mail: [email protected] Accepted 20 June, 2017. Abstract. A total of 937 pedigree, breeding and performance records of 567 Friesian cows at the Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey Dist. Kasur (Pakistan) spanning the years 1982-2001 were analyzed using Best Linear Unbiased Predictions procedure. Individual animal models were fitted to total milk yield from all lactations to estimate breeding values by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology. Milk yield and lactation length averaged 3391.66 ± 137.97 kg and 278.40 ± 90.17 days, respectively. The estimated breeding values for milk yield ranged from -354 to 503 ...
Application of New Genetic Technologies to Animal Breeding by Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics published September 2005. The ISBN is 9780643093003. The publisher is CSIRO Publishing. Buy Application of New Genetic Technologies to Animal Breeding from CSIRO PUBLISHING online.
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for weekly body weight of feed intake of individually fed beef bulls at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models (RRM). The model for cumulative feed intake included the fixed linear regression on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 day) for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials were included for the additive genetic effect of the animal and the additional random effect of weaning-herd-year (WHY) and on fourth order for the additional random permanent environmental effect of the animal. The model for body weights included the fixed linear regression on fourth order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth order orthogonal Legendre ...
Overview press publications with toplists of bulls. The file with breeding values of sire opens when clicking on download. The lists are sorted according to NVI with the exception of the beef merit index. Sire that are not included in the toplists can be found with the function Sire Search.. Information on the publication. For information about the publication, see News. The national toplists contains breeding values based on Dutch/Flemish daughter information. The Interbull toplists contains converted breeding values based on information from abroad. The genomic toplists contains breeding values based on pedigree information combined with genomic information. The combined toplists contains the top 500 bulls on NVI-base from the described list ...
Agreed strategy to influence prevalence of a defined phenotype in a defined population. Breeding programs for specific traits have been established in many countries. They are most commonly restricted to inherited disorders. Disease-specific breeding programs have been instituted for such disorders as hip dysplasia, hereditary eye defects, and a number of other conditions possible to reveal by phenotypic or genotypic screening methods. Their values are indisputable, but they do not account very well for breed variations in prevalence, population structure, and other traits. The goal for planned, organized, and agreed breeding plans is broader than just a few specified genetic disorders.. This presentation will review Swedish experiences to establish breed-specific breeding programs, taking into account not only disease-specific breeding programs but also how to handle other undesired as well as desired traits and how to adapt them to population structure and other differences between various ...
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|b|Table of contents|/b| 1 Introduction 2 The black box of quantitative genetics for phenotype-based breeding programmes 3 The principle of using molecular information for genetic improvement 4 The use of molecular information in selection: genetic tests 5 Phenotyping and genotyping requirements for genomic selection (GS) or marker-assisted selection (MAS) 6 Other benefits of molecular information for swine breeding programmes 7 Summary 8 Future prospects and challenges 9 Where to look for further information 10 References
Introduction. In the scenario of dairy cattle genetic selection, the possibility to improve breeding value estimation is driving the research aimed at replacing the use of cumulative lactation records by test day (TD) measurements. Random regression (RR) models have been widely studied and evaluated for genetic evaluation at national level in many countries. RR models have the advantage of flexibility to account for the environmental and genetic components of the shape of the lactation curve. Currently, 11 countries are using TD records in their genetic evaluation systems for production in dairy cattle. Among them, eight countries use RR models (Interbull, 2008).. The random regression allows to fit sub-models for adjusting the lactation curve, assumes a structure for genetic and environmental variation specific to individual TD yields and variable correlation between TD yields (Schaeffer, 2004). The use of TD records greatly increases the amount of data to be analyzed, thus requiring the ...
Investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) using molecular and conventional breeding techniques for abiotic and biotic ...
Genome-wide dense markers have been used to detect genes and estimate relative genetic values. Among many methods, Bayesian techniques have been widely used and shown to be powerful in genome-wide breeding value estimation and association studies. However, computation is known to be intensive under the Bayesian framework, and specifying a prior distribution for each parameter is always required for Bayesian computation. We propose the use of hierarchical likelihood to solve such problems. Using double hierarchical generalized linear models, we analyzed the simulated dataset provided by the QTLMAS 2010 workshop. Marker-specific variances estimated by double hierarchical generalized linear models identified the QTL with large effects for both the quantitative and binary traits. The QTL positions were detected with very high accuracy. For young individuals without phenotypic records, the true and estimated breeding values had Pearson correlation of 0.60 for the quantitative trait and 0.72 for the binary
GENES STILL IN HIDING. Traditional dairy cattle breeding is founded on production information and other phenotype information collected from animals. The greater the volume of genealogical information available, the more accurate the evaluation that can be made of an animals breeding value. Evaluation based on offspring, the progeny test, is an efficient, if slow method of acquiring reliable information on the bull genome. Progeny test information for a young bull is only obtained five years after the onset of semination.. The breeders dream is to be able to study animal genes and decide from them directly which individuals are worth selecting as parents of the future generation. Variations in the genomic loci present in the DNA of chromosomes, known as markers, can be employed in the monitoring of gene inheritance. From the available material on 12 parent bulls and their 493 sons, Nina Schulmans research identified which QTL are connected with particular economically important traits. Twelve ...
Most producers are faced with difficult decisions when choosing bulls that address the contributions of both maternal and carcass traits. Not only is there variation in the attributes of multiple breeds, but variation within a breed is substantial. By combining ultrasound and AI (artificial insemination), a producer can develop a breeding program that optimizes both maternal and carcass traits. Prior to the start of a normal breeding season (or during the first 21-30 days of the breeding season) bulls possessing high maternal traits may be selected and used in an AI system. After this time, natural service bulls, selected for carcass merit, can be used for the remainder of the breeding season. Using ultrasound, the producer may now determine which females are pregnant with AI-sired heifer calves based on the age and sex of the fetus. These females can be managed separately with the knowledge that they are pregnant with heifer calves possessing quality maternal traits that have the potential to ...
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of genomic information on the genetic evaluation of hip height in Brahman cattle using different matrices built from genomic and pedigree data. Hip height measurements from 1,695 animals, genotyped with high-density SNP chip or imputed from 50 K high-density SNP chip, were used. The numerator relationship matrix (NRM) was compared with the H matrix, which incorporated the NRM and genomic relationship (G) matrix simultaneously. The genotypes were used to estimate three versions of G: observed allele frequency (HGOF), average minor allele frequency (HGMF), and frequency of 0.5 for all markers (HG50). For matrix comparisons, animal data were either used in full or divided into calibration (80 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of Individual Sensitivities to Ethanol in Selective Breeding Experiments. T2 - Difference Scores Versus Regression Residuals. AU - Crabbe, John C.. AU - Weigel, Ronald M.. PY - 1987/12. Y1 - 1987/12. N2 - Nagoshi et al. (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 10:343-349, 1986) have argued recently that the use of postdrug minus predrug difference scores to assess individual variability in sensitivity or tolerance to ethanol is not to be recommended. Unreliability of variables can result in biased estimates of response to treatment. Instead of difference scores, they recommend using residual scores from the regression of posttreatment on pretreatment measures. We were interested in the consequences of employing difference scores versus regression residuals for a related, but different purpose: the choice of individual animals to be mated for a selective breeding study. The availability of data from such a selective breeding experiment ongoing in the laboratory of one of us (JCC) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic evaluation of the longevity of the Holstein population in Japan using a Weibull proportional hazard model. AU - Sasaki, Osamu. AU - Aihara, Mitsuo. AU - Hagiya, Koichi. AU - Nishiura, Akiko. AU - Ishii, Kazuo. AU - Satoh, Masahiro. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to confirm the stability of the genetic estimation of longevity of the Holstein population in Japan. Data on the first 10 lactation periods were obtained from the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan. Longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving until culling or censoring. DATA1 and DATA2 included the survival records for the periods 1991-2003 and 1991-2005, respectively. The proportional hazard model included the effects of the region-parity-lactation stage-milk yield class, age at first calving, the herd-year-season, and sire. The heritabilities on an original scale of DATA1 and DATA2 were 0.119 and 0.123, respectively. The estimated transmitting ...
A heated debate is currently taking place in the scientific community about the use of two distinct breeding approaches: the conventional breeding (based on crossing and selection assisted by molecular-selective technologies such as MAS and MAB) and the breeding that uses the new techniques made available by the modern biotechnologies (an alternative or complementary way to reach goals that are not achievable by conventional breeding). This second approach allows the transfer of resistance genes to pathogens or to abiotic stresses (such as drought, salinity and weather anomalies) as well as the improvement of the fruit nutritional value without affecting the quality standards of cultivars. Today, in addition to the classic transgenic approach (GMOs), the new plant breeding technologies (NPBT), such as genome editing and cisgenesis, are available. The genome sequence of the main fruit tree species and the support of specific molecular markers for the identification of gene responsible for ...
Red meat is an important dietary source that provides part of the nutritional requirements. Intramuscular fat, known as marbling, is located throughout skeletal muscle. Marbling is a trait of major economic relevance that positively influences sensory quality aspects. The aim of the present study was to identify and better understand biological pathways defining marbling in beef cattle. Pathway analysis was performed in PathVisio with publicly available transcriptomic data from semitendinosus muscle of well-marbled and lean-marbled beef. Moreover, for Bos taurus we created a gene identifier mapping database with bridgeDb and a pathway collection in WikiPathways. The regulation of marbling is possibly the result of the interplay between signaling pathways in muscle, fat, and intramuscular connective tissue. Pathway analysis revealed 17 pathways that were significantly different between well-marbled and lean-marbled beef. The MAPK signaling pathway was enriched, and the signaling pathways that play a role
Beef Cattle Management - With Information on Selection, Care, Breeding and Fattening of Beef Cows and Bulls by Skelley, William C. and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com.
Abstract: Connectedness between herds plays a very important role in cross-herd genetic evaluation in pig breeding. The connectedness between herds in Beijing region was evaluated to assess the efficiency of regional joint breeding system in China. In current study, data on age at 100 kg in Large White and Landrace were collected and Connectedness Rating (CR) method was employed to measure the connectedness between herds. Results showed that most herds have genetic connection with other herds. There were 17 and 10 herds, out of totally 19 and 13 herds of Large White and Landrace, respectively were connected with at least one other herd within breed. However, the average CR in Beijing was relatively low (0-4.80%), the strong connectedness only existed among few herds; therefore, regional cross-herd genetic evaluation by far is not practicable. More intense efforts are needed to establish and enhance the connectedness between herds by means of extensive use of Artificial Insemination (AI), ...
The breeding programs widely used to supplement fisheries and conserve... Circumventing mate choice is likely to have negative consequences for...Wedekind and two co-authors had previously shown that mate choice can ...Currently most breeding programs for small populations focus on prese...Ways to incorporate mate choice into breeding programs include allowin...,Breeding,programs,should,incorporate,mate,choice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
To help address industry problems, Panthee takes a multifaceted approach - part conventional breeding, part molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS isnt genetic engineering; its simply a breeding short-cut thats especially helpful when it comes to developing disease-resistant varieties using DNA-based markers.. In conventional breeding methods, scientists would inoculate plants with a disease to see which ones are resistant, but that runs the risk of spreading the disease, Panthee explains. However, with MAS, scientists can look for what are called markers - sequences of nucleotides that make up a segment of DNA - that are near the genes of interest in the genome.. To develop a tomato resistant to tomato mosaic virus, for example, Panthee has identified the molecular marker that is tightly linked with the TMV resistance gene, so as he breeds successive generations of plants, he selects only plants that contain that marker.. I keep on selecting plants that contain the TMV resistance ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/More_than_half_a_century_of_pedigree_cat.html?id=gcpJAAAAYAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareMore than half a century of pedigree cattle breeding in the Netherlands ...
In genomic selection, prediction accuracy is highly driven by the size of animals in the reference population (RP). Combining related populations from different countries and regions or using a related population with large size of RP has been considered to be viable strategies in cattle breeding. The genetic relationship between related populations is important for improving the genomic predictive ability. In this study, we used 122 French bulls as test individuals. The genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) evaluated using French RP, America RP and Chinese RP were compared. The results showed that the GEBVs were in higher concordance using French RP and American RP compared with using Chinese population. The persistence analysis, kinship analysis and the principal component analysis (PCA) were performed for 270 French bulls, 270 American bulls and 270 Chinese bulls to interpret the results. All the analyses illustrated that the genetic relationship between French bulls and American bulls ...
In the past, EU legislation in the area was organised according to species, while the new regulation will provide a single body of provisions for bovine, porcine, ovine, caprine and equine species.. Some aspects of breeding covered in the rules include: the recognition of breeding organisations and private undertakings, the approval of their programmes, the entering of animals in specific breeding books and registers, performance testing and genetic evaluation, and the content of zootechnical certificates.. The new rules aim to avoid obstacles to trade resulting from national implementation of EU laws and overcome existing problems related to cross border activities of approved breed societies.. The Council says the news regulations will help preserve animal genetic resources and protect biodiversity, as well as maintaining traditional regional products. Breed societies and breeding operations will have to meet specific and strict criteria to obtain recognition and approval of their breeding ...
We are working on several breeding goals to achieve a higher agricultural yield, The aim of our breeding activities is to provide farmers with precisely those varieties that meet their needs.
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It can take 5 or more generations of careful hybridization breeding to stabilize a new species. Those breeding methods that are rarely or less commonly used for crop improvement are known as special breeding methods. Since 1900 the Mendels Laws have provided for scientific genetic breeding of plants. The modified pedigree breeding method involves the evaluation and selection of parents and hybridization to provide useful gene recombinations. Ans. The pollen is what initiates the production of seeds on the plant, which will later grow into a new generation of the species. The method is generally used for handling segregation generation may be grouped into three categories. Biotechnology is the discipline which deals with the use of living organisms or their products. In short, plant breeding is the intentional manipulation of a plant species to produce offspring with desirable characteristics. This manipulation involves either controlled pollination, genetic engineering, or both. A cultivated ...
Author: Written by Davis, K. C., M. W. Tess, D. D. Kress, D. E. Doornbos, and D. C. Anderson Journal: Journal of Animal Science, Oct 1994; 72: 2585 - 2590.. Abstract: Data collected during a 10-yr study at the Northern Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Havre, MT were used in construction of a simulation model to evaluate production systems using different breed groups. Five dam breed groups, straightbred Hereford (HH), 50% Angus-50% Hereford (AH), 25% Simmental-75% Hereford (1S3H), 50% Simmental-50% Hereford (1S1H), and 75% Simmental-25% Hereford (3S1H), were studied. The simulated system was a northern range cow-calf production system with spring calving and fall weaning. Replacement heifers were purchased and all calves were marketed at weaning. All nonpregnant females were sold in the fall. Statistical analyses of the data yielded input values (least squares means for breed group x age x sex subclasses) for cow and calf weights, pregnancy rate, dystocia, and calf survival. Pregnancy, ...
Family Three Membership is suitable for families or kennel partners who own, breed or who are just interested in the Basenji. This membership category is available to family members resident at the same address or any person who are partners in a kennel having a prefix in their joint names with a state canine controlling association; candidates may reside in any state of Australia or Worldwide. Members must be over 18 years old in order to vote and/or be nominated as an office holder.. This membership category is three yearly and memberships expire 30 June on the third year of membership. A 31 day grace period, until the 31 July, is allowed in order for members to pay subscriptions. Although membership is for a three year period members who select this category must complete a membership renewal form annually.. ...
An intermediate approach between the two extremes discussed above can be obtained by using multivariate models where marker effects are allowed to be different but correlated across subpopulations. This approach has been considered in animal breeding applications involving multibreed analysis where it did not lead to a consistent improvement of prediction performance (Karoui et al. 2012; Olson et al. 2012; Makgahlela et al. 2013). However, less effort has been made to investigate the impact of population structure on estimation of marker effects in the context of genome-based prediction in plant breeding. While in animal breeding large clearly separated breeds exist, in plant breeding population structure can have very different forms and origins, including combined analysis of data from multiple, connected, breeding programs, diversity panels, and differently structured mating designs that lead to various forms of multiparental populations.. For genome-based prediction in multiple biparental ...
An intermediate approach between the two extremes discussed above can be obtained by using multivariate models where marker effects are allowed to be different but correlated across subpopulations. This approach has been considered in animal breeding applications involving multibreed analysis where it did not lead to a consistent improvement of prediction performance (Karoui et al. 2012; Olson et al. 2012; Makgahlela et al. 2013). However, less effort has been made to investigate the impact of population structure on estimation of marker effects in the context of genome-based prediction in plant breeding. While in animal breeding large clearly separated breeds exist, in plant breeding population structure can have very different forms and origins, including combined analysis of data from multiple, connected, breeding programs, diversity panels, and differently structured mating designs that lead to various forms of multiparental populations.. For genome-based prediction in multiple biparental ...
CLAY CENTER, Neb.--With newly installed, high-speed, mass-spectrometry-based, genotyping technology from the San Diego-based company Sequenom, the US Department of Agriculture s Meat Animal Research Center here will be able to expand upon what already may be the most extensive public livestock genomics database available.
Genomic prediction of breeding values when modeling genotype × environment interaction using pedigree and dense molecular markers. 2012. Burgueño, J.; Campos, G. de los; Weigel, K.; Crossa, J.. Crop Science 52 (2): 707-719. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2011.06. ...
Artificial selection is a process of selective breeding that has been used by humans for thousands of years. It is the earliest form of biotechnology, where plants or animals with specific traits were selected to breed so that their desired traits could be duplicated. Over the years, selective breeding has done everything from create larger fruits to horse breeds that have specific gaits.. The advantage of selective breeding is that it uses the processes of natural selection, but under direct supervision from carefully selected animals or plants with the desired traits. There are no genetic modifications or other forms of tampering that could potentially harm people and the risk to the plant or animal is often very minimal at the same time.. The disadvantage of selective breeding is that it can take a long time for the process to work. In horse breeding, for example, the given standard to establish a new breed is to have offspring with the desired traits to be produced over the course of 7 ...
The estimation of (co)variance components for multiple traits with maternal genetic effects was found to be influenced by population structure. Two traits in a closed breeding herd with random mating were simulated over nine generations. Population structures were simulated on the basis of different proportions of dams not having performance records (0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.9): three genetic correlations (−0.5, 0.0 and +0.5) between direct and maternal effects and three genetic correlations (0, 0.3 and 0.8) between two traits. Three ratios of direct to maternal genetic variances, (1:3, 1:1, 3:1), were also considered. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. The proportion of dams without records had an effect on the SE of direct-maternal covariance estimates when the proportion was 0.8 or 0.9 and the true correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative. The ratio of direct to maternal genetic variances influenced the SE of the (co)variance estimates ...