TY - JOUR. T1 - Fos expression in brain stem nuclei of pregnant rats after hydralazine- induced hypotension. AU - Curtis, Kathleen. AU - Cunningham, J. Thomas. AU - Heesch, Cheryl M.. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. N2 - Fos and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity were evaluated in the brain stems of 21-day pregnant and virgin female rats injected with either hydralazine (HDZ; 10 mg/kg iv) or vehicle. HDZ produced significant hypotension in both groups, although baseline blood pressure was lower in pregnant rats (96 ± 2.5 mmHg) than in virgin female rats (121 ± 2.8 mmHg). There were no differences in Fos immunoreactivity in the brain stems of pregnant and virgin female rats after vehicle treatment. HDZ-induced hypotension significantly increased Fos expression in both groups; however, the magnitude of the increases differed in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), the area postrema (AP), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). Fos expression after HDZ in pregnant rats was augmented ...
Autor: Borst, J. Gerard G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999-11-15; Titel: Depletion of calcium in the synaptic cleft of a calyx-type synapse in the rat brainstem
List of causes of Bilateral brainstem dysfunction and Head symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Kiyama, H.; Shiosaka, S.; Kubota, Y.; Cho, H.J.; Takagi, H.; Tateishi, K.; Hashimura, E.; Hamaoka, T.; Tohyama, M., 1983: Ontogeny of cholecystokinin-8 containing neuron system of the rat: an immunohistochemical analysis--II. Lower brain stem
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem. AU - Kuo, Sidney P.. AU - Bradley, Laura A.. AU - Trussell, Laurence. PY - 2009/7/29. Y1 - 2009/7/29. N2 - Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found that this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, IPSCs in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABA A receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses twofold to threefold faster than those in NM. ...
Together with Istvan Törk, we have examined the morphology and distribution of noradrenergic (Baker et al., 1989) and serotonergic neurons in the human brain (Törk and Hornung, 1990; Baker et al,...
Subjects. Ten healthy, right-handed subjects (five female) participated in the study. The median age was 30 years of age (range, 21-33 years). None reported any abnormal gastrointestinal or somatic symptoms on a personal history and bowel symptom questionnaire (Talley et al., 1989). Clinical depression was excluded with the use of the Becks Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1961). None of the subjects took any medications likely to interfere with the blood oxygen level-dependent response. All subjects gave informed consent, and the Oxfordshire Clinical Research Ethics Committee approved the study.. Stimuli. Electrical stimuli were used to induce both somatic and visceral pain. Purpose-built electrical stimulating catheters were designed for safe use within the high field strength magnet (Standard Instruments, Karlsruhe, Germany). These contained no ferromagnetic material and had two bipolar ring electrodes 2 cm apart at the distal tip. The catheters were connected via a magnet-compatible ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Etienne Gaudrain.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Hearing Group Meetings series.. ...
... A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. The brain stem also controls less essential abilities such as articulate speech.. ...
This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
You may have heard of the brain stem, but do you know what its in charge of? What its basic function is? The purpose it serves for your body?. The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebellum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts.. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive - your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the ...
New research, published today in Nature, reveals how increasing brain stiffness as we age causes brain stem cell dysfunction, and demonstrates new ways to reverse older stem cells to a younger, healthier state. The results have far reaching implications for how we understand the ageing process, and how we might develop much-needed treatments for age-related brain diseases.. As our bodies age, muscles and joints can become stiff, making everyday movements more difficult. This study shows the same is true in our brains, and that age-related brain stiffening has a significant impact on the function of brain stem cells.. A multi-disciplinary research team, based at the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute (University of Cambridge), studied young and old rat brains to understand the impact of age-related brain stiffening on the function of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs).. These cells are a type of brain stem cell important for maintaining normal brain function, and for the regeneration ...
Read "Primary Vagal Projection to the Contralateral Non-NTS Region in the Embryonic Chick Brainstem Revealed by Optical Recording, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In the large group of genetically undetermined infantile-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies, multiple defects of mitochondrial DNA-related respiratory-chain complexes constitute a frequent biochemical signature. In order to identify responsible genes, we used exome-next-generation sequencing in a selected cohort of patients with this biochemical signature. In an isolated patient, we found two mutant alleles for EARS2, the gene encoding mitochondrial glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. The brain magnetic resonance imaging of this patient was hallmarked by extensive symmetrical cerebral white matter abnormalities sparing the periventricular rim and symmetrical signal abnormalities of the thalami, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and cerebellar white matter. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed increased lactate. We matched this magnetic resonance imaging pattern with that of a cohort of 11 previously selected unrelated cases. We found mutations in the EARS2 gene in all. Subsequent detailed ...
Electrical stimulation of the lower brain stem (ESLB) at sites presumed to be parts of the ascending noradrenergic system was carried out in unanaesthetized young guinea pigs. At neutral ambient...
The clinical and pathological spectrum of brain-stem vascular malformations. Long-term course simulates multiple sclerosis. Three cases of brain-stem vascular malformation with progressive and fluctuating clinical courses of longer than one year were studied. One patient with a rare brain-stem arteriovenous ...
ps: Includes bibliographical references and index Physical and electrical properties of cells in the nervous system Synapses and synaptic transmission Neuroplasticity Development of the nervous system Somatosensory system Somatosensation : clinical application Neuropathic pain, pain matrix dysfunction, and pain syndromes Autonomic nervous system The motor system : motor neurons Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and movement Peripheral nervous system Spinal region Cranial nerves Brainstem region Vestibular and visual systems Cerebrum Cerebrum : clinical applications Support systems : blood supply and cerebrospinal fluid system ...
Inner ear neurons develop from the otic placode and connect hair cells with central neurons in auditory brain stem nuclei. Otic neurogenesis is a developmental process which can be separated into different cellular states that are characterized by a distinct combination of molecular markers. Neurogenesis is highly regulated by a network of extrinsic and intrinsic factors, whose participation in auditory neurogenesis is discussed. Trophic factors include the fibroblast growth factor, neurotrophins and insulin-like peptide families. The expression domains of transcription factor families and their roles in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways associated with neurogenesis are also discussed. Understanding and defining the key factors and gene networks in the development and function of the inner ear represents an important step towards defeating deafness.
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Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes
11-20-2010, 10:50 PM Photo: the Labs first development image of a multi processor robotic brain stem made from Parallax components (the prototype is seen resting on the green cutting board). This is a hybrid brain stem processor programmed in two languages. The module is currently a hand held unit. When connected to the Giant Brain, it will pass motion mobility commands to the robot and ensure compatibility with additional components. ...
Therefore, this system has been used as a mouse model of Parkinsons disease and, interestingly, these animals show a significant decrease in the survival and proliferation of neuroblast in the SVZ [ 8687 ]. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. Shetty AK, Hattiangady B. The astrocytes are the primary precursors for rapid cell amplification. FGFresponsive Brain stem cells in adults progenitors reside in proliferative and quiescent regions of the adult rodent brain.. #Brain stem cells ...
This medical exhibit reveals cut-away comparative views of the brainstem and cerebellar region. The first detail identifies elements of normal anatomy, the second shows the appearance of an invasive tumor in the brainstem region invading the brainstem, pons and cerebellum.
The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. According to Brain-Guide.org, the brain stem functions as an autopilot for the human body, as it regulates such...
Hes dead. He shot himself in the brain stem. Nothing can survive that. The human body can survive the loss of anything else but the brain stem. Hes dead. We brought him back in to be a dead body. And, in fact, it was cheaper to get Andrew Scott than a mannequin. But hes dead." - Steven Moffat. ...
Steenweg ME, Ghezzi D, Haack T, Abbink TEM, Martinelli D, van Berkel CGM, Bley A, Diogo L, Grillo E, Naudé JTe Water, Strom TM, Bertini E, Prokisch H, van der Knaap MS & Zeviani M (2012) Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate LTBL caused by EARS2 mutations. Brain 135, 1387-94 ...
This 3D medical animation highlights brain in a semitransparent figure. The brain is the center of the nervous system. The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord. Its neurological functions include those necessary for survival such as alertness, breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure regulation.
Our current work with SCA involves assessing the integrity of the cerebellar and brainstem pathways using non-invasive techniques from the pre-symptomatic stage and throughout disease progression. Our work intends to yield useful insights about disease pathogenesis, as well as provide critical assessments of CNS functional pathways that may serve as surrogate biomarkers of disease progression.. For more information about these studies, please feel free to contact us.. ...
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Natural cast, in SOMSO-Plast®. Brain Stem from the trans- parent brain model BS 25/T. Separates into 12 parts. The ventricular cavities of the brain is extremely well modelled. A perfect teaching aid for medical students. On a stand with green base. ...
My anatomical embroidery of the brain stem was stitched as a commission for a neuroscientist. It was a joy to stitch, not just because of the monocrhomatic nature of it but because the pops of colour were too gorgeous to resist.. Each anatomical embroidery I do is on an 8 or 9 inch embroidery hoop and each image is anatomically correct and done by hand as I work from a range of medical books and dissection manuals to get the details spot on. This means I can study the texture of the organs on which Im working to try to replicate them in the stitching. Each hoop is worked with a mix of satin stitches, couching and French knots on calico, depending on the organs I am interpreting, and the backs of the hoops are covered with a complimentary colour of felt. Each hoop takes up to three months to create and its a process that begins with basic colours upon which I build up the shading and other details.. I take commissions, of course, so am open and willing to all sorts of suggestions. So far my ...
For the first time scientists have shown that brain stem cells are immune privileged, which means that they are invisible to a transplant recipients
Hey friends, I just received this update below from my friends in Australia and told… Preston Million needs your support for Jennis Brain Stem Cancer Fund
Another day, another functional imaging modality of the brain. Developed by a team at Princeton, the new experimental technique tries to figure out the pro
If you read the Reflex Language or C++ API sections of the reference, you will quickly see that Entities form the backbone of communication with BrainStem modules. They are the basic control mechanism for interacting with the BrainStem and the hardware to which it is connected. he following subsections describe the core entities that are available on most BrainStem modules. Less common and application specific entities will be described in the modules datasheet.. Entities usually describe a class of interaction, and usually are formed by a group of individual instances. For example; the digital entity is made up of multiple digital I/Os, which can be manipulated individually. In general the following form applies to an Entity.. ...
Neuronal circuits in the brainstem control life-sustaining functions, in addition to driving and gating active sensation through taste, smell, and touch. We pro...
Scientists say they have developed a way to successfully transplant certain protective brain cells into mice - without the need for lifelong anti-rejection drugs.
We explain The Brainstem with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine the structure and function of the the brain stem.|/p|
Sselective blocking or passing sensory information to the cerebreal cortex, (e.g. the slight sound made bya sick child moving in bed may arouse his mother but the noise of regularly passing trains may be suppressed) ...
Learn Brainstem & basics neuro facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brainstem in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you can modify and make your own.
Brain stem lesion: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on brain stem lesion at PatientsLikeMe. 75 patients with brain stem lesion experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen to treat their brain stem lesion and its symptoms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aminophylline on brain stem auditory evoked potentials in preterm infants. AU - Chen, Y. J.. AU - Liou, C. S.. AU - Tsai, C. H.. AU - Yeh, T. F.. PY - 1994/8/2. Y1 - 1994/8/2. N2 - To determine the neurophysiological effects of aminophylline on apnoea of prematurity, the brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) of 30 apnoeic infants and 34 age matched controls were evaluated and compared. After six days of treatment with aminophylline, the brain stem conduction time (interpeak latency of I-V) in apnoeic infants decreased compared with controls of a similar post-conceptional age. The mean latencies of the peaks and interpeaks of all waves except wave I were significantly lower in the apnoeic infants after than before receiving aminophylline. No significant differences were found in the latencies of BAEPs between the apnoeic infants who responded and those who did not respond to aminophylline treatment, however. These results suggest that aminophylline may enhance ...
[The role of brain stem lesions in cerebral circulatory disorders accompanying severe cranio-cerebral injuries].: Clinical and anatomical comparisons were under
The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebrum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the brain stem could be devastating. More serious injuries can result in a prolonged coma or what is also known as a persistent vegetative state. You ...
BACKGROUND: The specificity of imaging alone in diagnosing posterior fossa lesions is insufficient, hence the importance of biopsy for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic purposes. Concerning the operative technique, many studies have demonstrated the superior safety of stereotactic biopsy over craniotomy and superior accuracy of frame-based systems over frameless ones as far as the posterior fossa is concerned; however versatile, frame-based instruments bear some intrinsic limitations in the positioning of frame in lower lesions mainly in short neck and kyphotic patients. For all these reasons, a more proficient technical bioptic approach to the posterior fossa and lower brainstem is sometimes required ...
Looking for online definition of brain stem in the Medical Dictionary? brain stem explanation free. What is brain stem? Meaning of brain stem medical term. What does brain stem mean?
Phase-coupling of the respiratory rhythm to locomotor activity has been reported in quadrupeds and humans [1]. Ventral respiratory group (VRG) neurons are involved in respiratory rhythm generation due, in part, to both intrinsic and synaptic interactions between pre-Botzinger and Botzinger complex neurons [2], as well as the influence of extrinsic synaptic drive to the VRG network. The aim of this study was to determine the role of neuro-genic input from somatosensory receptors on the bursting patterns of respiratory neurons in the VRG network. We hypothesized that neural input from contraction-sensitive somatosensory receptors entrained respiration by modulating the phasic activity of VRG neurons. Experiments were performed using the working heart-brainstem preparation [3]. Rats (70-100 g) were anesthetized, decerebrated pre-collicularly, paralyzed and perfused with a Ringers solution plus an oncotic agent. Somatosensory afferents were stimulated by intermittent contraction of the forelimb (3 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Three cases of hereditary deafness possibly due to brainstem lesions. AU - Mus, N.. AU - Ozdamar, Ozcan. AU - Ildiz, PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - In this report, 3 cases of deafness resulting from possibly autosomal recessive disorders affecting the brainstem with no other pathologies or health problems are presented. The common characteristics of these patients are the presence of an unknown functional lesion in the brainstem as documented by the auditory brainstem response testing. Radiological, behavioral and physiological test results are presented for the first time to support a hereditary deafness symptom that might arise from interfamily marriages.. AB - In this report, 3 cases of deafness resulting from possibly autosomal recessive disorders affecting the brainstem with no other pathologies or health problems are presented. The common characteristics of these patients are the presence of an unknown functional lesion in the brainstem as documented by the auditory ...